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/-con vjic ,/,i 



HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




JLJ^-^^^^^ 








V 



\\ 



At 



I •- 



COMMUNICATION 



raaii the 



SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, 



TftAirilllTTDfO, 

IN COMPUANCB WITH A KESOLUTION OF THE SENATE OF MARCH 8, 1851, 

I THB 

I 

REPORT OF ISRAEL D. ANDREWS, 

OOnCL Of TBI nflTSD STATD FOR CANADA AND NEW BRUNSWICK, 

ON TUK 

TRADE AND COMMERCE 



or THK 



BRITISH NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES, 



AVD rrON THE 



TRADE OF THE GRL\T LAKES AND RIVERS; 



ALIO, 



or THB OnmiAL niPROtlMBITB W BAOH 8TATB, Of TBI OULf Of mXIOO AND 

nrnAin of fumiDA, and a fafbi on thi corroN crop or thi unitid vrAm 



WASHINGTON : 



18S4. 







\pTll 

Gift '>f 
Mrs. James T. FieldB, 

of Boslxm 



COMMUNICATION 



raoM TUB 



SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. 



IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

AcGvtT 96, 1858 — Ordered to He on the table, and be printed. 

^reriT 30, 18S8. — Ordered, that 5,000 oopioe additional for the Senate, 1,000 ■dditional for 
the Sooelafy of the Treemiry, and 500 additional for Israel D. Andrewe, be printed. 

Aeaevr 4, ISSC^AcMlved, That there be printed, for the me of the Senate, Br9 thowtnd 
eopioe of the Report of Iirael D. Andrews, Senate Ex. Doc.*No. 112, First 
TTmty ee c eod Con^reei. 



Treasury Department, Avgtut 25, 1852. 

Sir: The resolution of the Senate of the 8th March, 1851, requests 
tiic Secretary of the Treasury to "communicate to the Senate, as early 
as prjAsible at die next session, full and complete statements of the 
trade and ci>mmerce of the British North American colonies with the 
roiled States and other parts of the world, inland and by sea, for the 
Tears 1850 and 1851, with such information as he can procure of the 
tnde of' the great lakes*'' In compliance therewith, I have the honor 
to transmit a report, by Israel D. Andrews, accompanied by numerous 
ftaiistKral tables, carefully compiled from official sources, with m^>s 
prrpttred fi^-, and illustrative of, said report. 

I am, respegtfuUy, 

THO. CORWIN, 
Secretary of the Treaswy* 
Hmu Wm. R. Kino, 

Pre$ident pro tempore U» S* Senate. 




NOTE. 



la tka pny of the prep&ntion of tbe report, it was fbund neceaiarj to chan^ Part III 
L, which ronUini noticea of the trade and commerce of Cincimuti, Louisrille, 
ritteborf • New Orieam, the ateam-marine of the interior, of the inland water- 
aad Talne of the foreign and domeatic trade, navigation, &c., kc. ; as 
the exports and imports of the principal Atlantic States for a series of 
of the increase in the tonnage of the several States fVom 1836, with 
of the total tonnage, and that of the several States. 
very desirable to publish a particular account of the inland, coasting, and 
of the principal Atlantic cities, and a portion of the materials were collected 
; but, for the want of correct statistical data, it was foand to be impossible 
of a character suited to this report. 
It m peepBf to state in this place mj thanks to Mr. N. Davidson, late of the Buffalo Ad- 
'•"tasr, fer hie very valuable and intelligent services in the preparation of the report, parti- 
•Arly M tboae portioos relating to the trade of the lakes and tbe importance and value of 





TW iBpostaaee of the MiasisMppi trade, through the Gulf of Mexico, to every portion of 

u« I' «MB, It m presoned, will be regarded by all as a full justification for the copious notices, 

a tJb* ■lyaBiiif, of the Gulf of Mexico and the StraiU of Florida ; and the value of the cot- 

to the whole eountry called for the extended and complete exposition in regard to it 

Sumkr reasons anH to exonerate the report firom the imputation of being 

the notioea of the commerce, railroads, lie., of the southern States ahd 

It is believed no one will object that they were not within the strict literal 

ef the teseliition under which the report was prepared. The annexed attp of the Gulf 

aad 0trajts of Florida, and Isthmus of Tehuantepee, fhniished, as before stated, 

flurvey, is the fiiet one of the kind ever published from authentic sources. It 

interarting in iOostrstion of the views taken in the paper contained in this 

this American sea, and generally with relerence to other ooosiderations. 

at the Coast Survey are progreasing in that quarter, and ere long their results will 

Hiie map is but an index of what they will be. Thorough and exact as the 

aad the highest order of scientific skill can render them, their useAilneos to our 

will be uaappreeiable, and their benefits will extend through ages. 

I. D. A. 
^Te», tStt. 





CCHXOUI.R OF OOCUMBKTS. VU 



SCHEDULE OF DOCUMENTS. 



Uw^flj hXTt^uftvry ; comprinng a rsTiew of the trade of the great lakes, internal com- 
, and aJw of the trade and commerce of the North American Colonies. 



I 7W >fm-Jk»iUTi€t of Briiiak Jfcrik •fmmea on the Bay of Fondy, along the coasto of 
Kova Scotia, on the Grand Bank of Nemrfoondland, and wUhin the Gulf of St. 
Lavrrncip. 

•1 Tkt Trmle tf tke Grref Ldui ; accompanied by retoma exhibiting the rise and pro- 
gmi of tlat trade, and its present condition and value, with a particular descrip- 
Ihmi of rmch of the lakes, in relation to its extent, resources, tributaries, outlets, and 
pn wp t-'tive commerce. 

r> <#n#« •/ tkft CmnuU mnd Jtciirosdj of the United Statti, showing their influence upon, 
and rooocxion with, the trade of the Great West ; accompanied by a general map 
id railruads and canals, American and Colonial. 

^ 7W ^rt-rtmce of Conada, with a general description of it« physical features and re- 
■MU^'cv, intercolonial trade, foreign commerce, transit trade, internal traffic, and 
p<iSiar works : accompanied and illustrated by a map of the Basin of the St. Law- 
mnr. prepared spccuilly for this report. 

* \ TV ^r^rtaee of .VnT Urunswiek, with descriptions of its physical characteristics, riv- 

en, era ports, and harbors, its (brcsts and its flshories, with statistical returns an<^ 
o f i n ations on the free navigation of the river of St. John. 

^ 1 7^ ^rvTxmet «/ Aora Scotis, with a description of its geographical position, its most 
mr k rjf ftatures and various resources ; as sIri returns in relation to its trade, com- 
■i^r-e, f;«.Srnes and coal mines ; as aluo special notices of Cape Breton and Sable 
1*U'>J 

( I rW h*miU C\lvnf of Stwfoumdland, with a dc^mrription of its position between the At- 
Ust*..r 'tfT^n and Gulf of St. Lawrence, its physical features and abundant fisheries, 
s."i •^yrxiM-l by returns of its trade and commerce; as alM descriptions of the Lab- 
raA>.« r<*«at, and of tlie harbor of St. John, in connexion with the proposed eatab- 
.^."0^t of a Imr of steamships from that port to Ireland, and connected by electric 
Ir 'fraph fr^im thrnre to the Unitisl Statos. 

I rW f U-nj tf Pr%ntt Edyeord hlond ; its agrirultunil rapaltlities, trade, commerce, 
and ptJt.t.on, in rrlation to the fi«iirrios of the Gulf of St. I^wrenco. 

t 7W ilrrrtnrtt ittyttu Crtot Britain and her Sorth •Imeriean Cot**niet ; accompiniod 
^ tabular •Utrm'>nt4 and retunis. 

1 TW Trod4 m^tvm* f/tk* Atlamiif port* oftkt Vnittd StateM vith thi Xortk American CoJe- 
%^t ^ tm , .lIustratiMi by tables and returns, accompanied by a map of the Ix>wcr 
i * '- r..r« ; prepared eiprcwuy for this report. 

• 1 Btrww tf ikt prttent Hmte of Ike DttjhMtm f\xhm€$ a/ Anr £n<(cfid ,- prepared specially 

due t!.Mi rrp«^rt by Wra. A. Welbnan, aanuitant collector of the port of Boston, under 
Ube d rerlMin of P. Oreely, mq , eoUector of that port, with valuable etatastieal 
;ts and tabular rataraa. 




VIU SCHBDULB OF BOCUMBHTS. 



XIII. The Preneh fUkeries ^ MwfmmdUmdf truuUted from oflicial French docomenU, ob- 
tained in Paxil porpoiely for this report. 

APPENDIX : 

Containing notices of the internal and domestic commerce — ^Tendency of Ohio commerce, 
Cincinnati, Pittsburg, Looisrille, St. Louis — Steam-marine of the interior. New Orleans, 
Mobile, Gulf of Mexico, and Straits of Florida — Cotton crop of the United States — Com- 
merce of the Atlantic States and cities, and tables of the tonnage of each State during a 
series of yean. 



IXTRODUCTORY. 



Washington, Avgust 19, 1852. 

Si* : The undorsigncd was personally honored with your instruc- 

05 fiQ Urn 2Sih July, 1851, to report on the following resolution of the 
> rxate of the United States : 

•* Ttvil the Secretary of the Treasury be requested to communicate 
t'» the S^'nate, as early as possible, at the next session, full and com- 
I" tc statc'inents of the trade and comq[ierce of the British North Amer- 
. on ctilf»nies with the United States, and other parts of the world, on 
.^'.J aiul by sea, in the years 1850 and 1851, with such information as 
r.t can procure of the trade of tiie great lakes." 

Yfiu directed bis attention to the general importance of all the sub- 
k-cXM embraced in the resolution, their intimate relation to many 
t/r^och^s f>f national interest, and the necessity of having such report 
h'^bmUtt-d to you in the most correct form, and as full and detailed, as 
::4«- slxMtness of time would permit. 

You W(Te pleased, also, at a subsequent period, to direct the atten- 
*.. in iff the undersigned to that part of the resolution relating to the 
< > •tntnt rcial interests of the great lakes, and to desire that it should 
r'trn\r prompt and careful attention; and that al>the information ob- 
: i;m il ^riimld be presented in tabular statements. 

Ttit* undersigned was likewise informed by you, that if any subjects 
r. 4 frpr ( ific'd in his instructions, of national or great local interest, ger- 
:: .i.v'^ to th(* spirit of the resolution of the Senate, should fall under his 
:. :<< • , it would not be inappropriate to submit the same for the con- 
•• i* r:ttiirn of the government. 

Tfi« w- instructions, and tlie great interest now generally manifested 
i<^ to iLt- cf)lonial and hJce trade of the. United Slates, have induced 
• .'• ujj'irr^igned to give careful attention to each distinctive feature of 
' • \ irious important subjects involved in your instructions and the 
r- -il^U'-n of the Senate. 

Th.- undersigned is fully awiye that it is his duty (as it most cer- 
: «:Jy i> his Vk'iah) to notice the questions under consideration in the 
*•!•:. ••t manmr ctmsistent with duir proper elucidation. In justifica- 
'. fj uf .my notice that may be considered IcX) much extended, it must 
'• ff :uvtul)*'rvil that the weighty matters involved are not confined to 
:*\ partunjlar locality ; that they affect not only llie British colonies, 
i .t % jtikuj and important dom<*stic interests of the United States ; that 
'.• y art- interwoven with all the elements of our national strength; 
:..^t ility bear, in an especial manner, upon the navigation and the 
- rttgn and coasting trade of this country, up<>n its various manufuc- 
: jrvA^ ami apoo it^ commerce with distant nations. 

1 



2 ANDBSWS' BBPOBT ON 

In directing your attention to the first part of this reportf the most 
important, so far as home interests are concerned, it is proper to re- 
mark, that although the statements as to the internal trade of the 
United States are fuller than any before presented to the government 
in this form, and such as could only be obtained by great labor 
and expense, they may be relied upon as being generally correct. 
They have been collected from various sources, official and unofficial ; 
and it is due to the public to state, that it is principally owing to the 
different modes of conducting the inland trade of the counOy, that sta- 
tistical returns of eta official character are not made as to mtich of that 
trade. 

The returns from several of the custom-house districts on the lake§ 
are very creditable to the collectors by wh#m they were prepared ; 
while the returns from others were in many respects incorrect and 
incomplete, causing loss of time and great trouble in rectifying and 
perfecting them. 

The necessity for a well organized system, in order to obtain " a cor- 
rect account" of the lake trade, must be obvious. The want of a law 
to enforce even the present imperfect system, the great increase of 
business, and its diversified character in nearly all the districts, and 
the limited clerical force allowed" in some of them, arc all causes of 
difficulty in obtaining and arranging in a creditable and satisfactory 
manner, lull, accurate, «nd entirely intelligible statistics of the lake 
trade, and of the general internal commerce of the counto'y- 

It is proper also to state that the embarrassments now existing, will 
increase in a corresponding degree with the certain and? almost incal- 
culable annual increase of this trade and commerce. 

This ill- arranged and imperfect system of managing the lake trade 
and internal commerce of the country is presented to the notice of the 
government, and offered as an apology why the report on this trade 
and commerce is not more worthy the high importance of the interests 
involved. If national considerations should induce a desire on the 
part of the government to possess other reports on the internal trade 
of the country, it will be necessary to proviae for a more perfect sys- 
tem of statistical returns and to carry it out by legal requirements. 

It is not intended to suggest that any novel coercive laws should be 
adopted, interfering with the free and unrestricted exchange of goods 
and productions of all kinds between different sections of the country. 
Free commerce, especially internal commerce, unfettered by restraints 
originating in sectional or local partialities, or prompted by like selfish 
interests, is no boon fi^om any government to tne people ; it is unques- 
tionably their natural right. There can be no doubt that a system 
might be easily devised> under the authority of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, which would meet every requirement and promote the interests 
of this trade. 

In the style, character, and completeness of our statistical reports, 
we are far behind other countries, and no authority but that of Con- 
gress can supply this deficiency. 

The public eye has ever been steadily fixed on the foreign com- 
merce of the country as the right arm of national strength. This com- 
merce has increased so rapidly, and the trade as well as the tarifis 



OOVaSUJU AHD LAKB TRAOB* 3 

hare hem so greatly changed, that new arrangements of the old re* 
urns art* «lcrnanded to enable the departmental condensations to be 
\p rfect ami readily intelligible. The reports on commerce and navi- 
iritiMi DOW eive tlie total tonnage of the United States, but do not state 
Ui^' cfaarvcter or class of vessels composing the mercantile marine of a 
< aocrr scarcely sctcond to any in the world. It is also necessary that 
':^<r cocDplete statements of the trade and commerce of the great cities 
• : idc Atlantic seaboard and on the Gulf should be laid before Congress 
ATiboally, and these improvements in their arrangement could be made, 
i:A tbev might be fuller in detail ^tban those hitherto submitted, with 
rnprefirn^ive statistical accounts of the coasting trade and naviga* 

* • *n, and distinguishing bc'tween steamers and other vessels. 

It L4 proper to remark that the present arrangement of returns of the 
i..:t mal and cf>ai!iting trade is mostly governed by the law of 1799f 
V bf*Q the trade wos in its infancy, and commerce received rather than 
-rtraled law. 

In tbe (lifk:u45ions which have taken place in Congress of late years, 
.*! rvbukm U» ureal public questions, such as the public lands, or the 
-nprovcMnrm of rivers and harbors, the most meagre statistical state* 
' !« ms have liren adduced in many cases, and loose hypotheses assumed 
.:. <ichcT^ This is attributable to the absence of autnentic official re- 
'uraiK* and is conceived to be a justification for presuming to bring this 

♦ *t je*t lf> the attention of Congress in this report- 

fn tbe absence of statistical statements,' published by national au- 
tli-inty, the value of works containing statistical returns upon which re- 
. ixy-r can ba placed is greatly enhanced ; and this opportunity is em- 
I'T icr^l of commeu<ling, ns one source of valuable information in 
making this report, the publications called ** Hunt's Merchants' Maga- 
£.ri»/' ** De Bow's Review," the ** Bankers' Magazine," and the 
** AiDCTican Ilailroad Journal," as the most valuable in this country. 

Tbe undersigned is fully aware of its having been asserted by those 
vtfo have limited means of forming a correct opinion, that the value of 
:^H* lake trade has been evervwhere overstated. It is true that in some 
^ u^* appniximations, from tlie want of official data, are, of necessity, 
r> ^nrira to ; but that is not tlie fault of those who have the matter in 

Thr bttsin of the great lakes, and of tlie river St. Lawrence, is ftiUy 
. Imitated on the rnap attached to the rep<)rt on Canada. Its physical 
'•matures, and the influence it must exercise on future moral develop- 
aie withoat parallel and historical precedent. It is an American 
; its value to be estimated less by what it has already accom- 
«lwd, than by what it must achieve in its progress. 
The ani*ntian of the civilized world has been directed with great 
TBit U> th<* constant and progressive emigration irom the Old World 
thr New. In fiinner limes, hordes of men chanced their country by 
of kmff and toilsome journeys by land ; but never until the pre- 
•«'?«t a^r have multitudes, and, in some instances, communities, been 
•"a a i fc rred fri»ai continent to continent, and Irom one hemisphere to the 
<ivY, by SQch means as are now aflbrded in Uie New York packets, 
.pper siiip9« an<l ocean steamers. These vehicles but represent the 






ANDREWS* REPORT ON 



genius of an era destined in future times to be designatcdas the " age 
of enterprise and progress." 

That portion of the "Great West" at the western extreme of the 
basin of the St. Lawrence has received a larger share thtai any other 
portion of our country of the valuable addition to our national riches 
arising from the industry,' intelligence, and wealth, of the hundreds of 
thousands of foreigners who, 'si^ithin a comparatively brief period, have 
landed upon our shores. It is, therefore, impossible to estimate the 
enormous and continuous accumulation of wealth, having its basis on the 
ample resources and natural riches-of that great western legion, over 
which the star of American empire seems now to rest. 

In connexion with an uaequalled increase of population in the Great 
West, the growth of the lake trade has been so extraordinary and so 
rapid, that but few persons are cognizant of its present exteftt and 
value. 

In 1841 the gross amount of the lq,ke trade was sixty-five millions 
^ of dollars. In 1846 it had increased to one hundred and t\^nty-five 
millions. In 1848, according to the estimate of Colonel Abert, of the 
topographical engineers, the value of the commerce of the lakes was 
one hundred and eighty-six millions. Owing to various causes, but 
particulai?ly to the great influx of foreigners, and the opening of new and 
extensive lines of intercommunication, it has recently increased still 
more largely, until, in 1851, it amounted to more than three hundred 
millions. And these eslimjftes do not include the value of the property 
constantly changing hands, nor has any notice been taken of the cost of 
vessels, or the profits of the passengertrade. 

It is not within the scope of this. report, nor is it practicable therein, 
to attempt oryW/ exposition of the trade and commerce of* the Mississippii 
the Missouri, or the Ohio, flowing through that great valley, unsurpassed 
in all the elements of wealth by any region in this or the Old World. 
This trade and commerce is worthy of the particular and earnest 
attention of American statesmen. And it is here proper to state, that 
one great cause of the growth of the lake trade is the fact that a cheap 
and expeditious route from the Atlantic to the Great West is afforded 
by the internal communications, by railroads and canals, opening the * 
way ijirough the great lakes and through the Alleghanies, instead of 
being restricted to the rivers flowing southward. 

The following facts in relation to the trade of the Erie canal ai'e pre- 
sented as confirming the above, and justifying farther and full official 
investigation' as to the entire internal trade of the West :• 

In 1836 there left the lakes by the Erie canal for tide-water, 30,823 
tons of wheat and flour. In 1851 there left the same points, on the 
same canal, 401,187 tons of similar articles. 

In 1861 the total amount of wheat and flour which reached tide- 



* The facts hereinafter stated with respect to the trade and commerce of the MUiflBippi 
and its tributaries, and of the States and cities on their shores, and on the Gulf of Mexico, 
and connected with them, are important not only in regard to that specific trade and com- 
merce, but for their relation to that of the lakes, and, inland, by canal and railroad to the 
Atlantic seaboard. It has been found in some degree necessary to refer to the former in full 
elucidation of the latter. The great interests of the southwestern and southern States de- 
mand, however, a fuller and more perfect notice than the resolution calling for this report, 
and limiting it to other secUonB, will allow to be now made. 



OOUnnAL AND LAKE TRADB. 6 

« ^trr by the New York canals, was 457,624 tons ; showing that while 
•- twi-v-n ihc lakes and lide-waier the State of New York furnished 
V7,729 tuns, or over 75 per cent, of the whole quantity dehvered, in 
l>.''l It <inly furnished 56,437 tons, or about 11 per cent, of the whole 
•r.intxty, the remaining 89 per cent, havinof been received from the West, 
ar^l finnn ibe territory of Canada on the lakes. 

The ir»tal tonnage ascending and descending on all the New York 
*- .r\ils in 1K)6 wad 1,310,807 tons, valued at $67,634,343, and Paying 
' .U aiiy>unting to $1,614,342 ; while in 1851 it amounted to 3,582,733 
: :i*. %-iftlu<Kl, ascending and dcfjcending, at $159,981,801, paying tolls 
.:.f untinir to 83,329,727. 

The tniffic on Uic Erie canal, and the principal routes fronj the interior 
!•* tbr Atlantic*, has such an important relation with the whole trade of 
'*" liittioa, that iL was conceived that this part of the report would be 
■•i<nplete without a proper reference to the trade ot such routes; 
uMch wiU b<' iound attached to part IV, with* a reference to the com- 
:. -ret «»f some of the principal Atlantic and interior ports and compara- 
\\» stiitemc^ntji. 

The gn*at lakes are not a straight line of water, but present a zigzag 

• 'JTSC. Tlieir stirplus waters all find their way to the ocean by one 
/---at t/utk*!, the noble St. Lawrence. Notwithstanding the opinions 
:Mt xnay be entertained adverse to that mighty river as a channel of 

amwnucation between ihe West and the Atlantic, it is nevertheless 
- • flam ti» be more used, and to increase in' importance, in pioportion to 
^ N^-rr DMierial stride in the prosperity and advancement of the country 
*- -rdkrine oQ the lakes. 

SirpfiXing ckiwn into New York, as if for the especial accommoda- 
:. #a c-f a t^nmparatively southern region, is Lake Erie ; while extend- 
" • Lix into tlie regions of the northwest, to meet the requirements of 
!Mt regirjo. Lake Superior spreads his ample waters. An examination 
' the map prepared by Mr. Kecfer, and attached to this report, under 
'jy- btmd of Canada, will prove that nature has provided the great lakes 
.--7 all tilt* diflerent and distant portions of this continent, and that the 
*^. Lavrvffice is their natund outlet to the sea« 

There are those whf> maintain that the improvement of the naviga- 
•. <i of the St. Lawrence, and the widening and deepening ^of the 
WtllaDd and St. Lawrence canals, so as to allow vessels of a larger 
'3M than at present ingress and egress, with their cargoes to the ocean, 
xtmI the rxtensioo by the British government, to the United States, of 
'ijf frrr use of both, would cause a commercial city to grow up on 

* > banks of that river which would successfully rival New York in 
Kunjpran trade ; but important as tlie results doubtless would be to 

- inten^ts of the Canadas, and es{K'ciaUy of Low^er Canada, and 
rri'ailT as thoisc interests would be promoted by such measures, there 
.t hule cause lor believing that such anticipations of injury to New 
\'nk or to any of our Atlantic cities would be realized. Their trade 
voold noc be decreased, whilst that flowing down the new outlet 
V'add be increaaed« New resources would be created by the new 
•unabnu thus given. 

Akbooffh the subject of harbors has been referred to in the report 
aiiidi faiSamu the hutc trade, yet its great importance demands some 



6 anbbbwb' bsfort on 

farther notice. While the commercial comiexion between thr ^* 
the West by canals, steamboats, and railroads, is increasing ' 
rapidity under the combined influence of enterprise and nece- 
quite evident that provision must soon be made for adecjur* 
accommodation on the lakes, to meet the necessities of their cr»" 
already rivalling that on the Atlantic. 

It is a remarkable fact that there are but few natural barlxir. 
lakes, the shores differing in that respect from the seacrwsr 
United States, and of the northern colonies; which are amply \ > 
with the finest harbors. 

While the commerce of Chicago, Buffalo, Oswego, and oit • 
ports, is of jiiore value th^n the commerce of any of the pori 
Atlantic, except New Orleans, Boston, and New York, the li •. 
the lake ports, erten whilst their commerce is yet iu its inki. 
wholly inadequate to the number of vessels already on the lakt 
numerous disaaters in consequence of the insecurity of these 
call loudly for the improvement of such havens as can be mati. 
and convenient by artificial means. 

The commercial and navigating interests in that sectton Ij.. 
the outset bewi sensible of the drawbacks arising from the u. 
secority to life and property, and have unceasingly presen 
claims for the artificial improvement of their harboES to the i 
tion of the State and Federal governments. 

At a public meeting held at Milwaukie, in 1837, with rei* 
the improvement of harbors, it was.*' Resolved j That we will i 
from memorializing and petitioning Cotigreps, and presenting- 
rights and claims, until we have finally accomplished our objcr* ' 
spirit of this resolution, it cannot be doubted, is the prevaili?- ■ 
ment throughout the entire West, connected by its trade witht^" 

It is not presumed, in any part of this report, to argue the qn* 
the constitutionality of such improvements by the federal ffovrn 
but it is unquestionably due to that great interest, and to me pri 
lion of life and property, to state that a great and pressing nc 
exists for the construction of harbors on the lakes by some au. 
State or Federal and by some means ; and whether these shu 

Eublic or private, enlightened statesmen must decide. The work 
B done. If the government of the United States, sustained * 
patriotic afiection of the people, is restrained by the constitution, 
pact firom doing things undeniably needed for the promotion oi 
tant national interests and the security of its citizens and their pi 
some other means of relief should be devised. If it does poss« 
quate constitutional power, it should be exercised. 

The past action on this subject has paralyzed, rather than 
many improvements. Harbors and havens, the construction of 
was commenced by government, have not been completed, and 
a state of dilapidation ; and while the public have waited for » 
aid, many valuable lives and great amounts of property ha vi- 
lest. It is extremely doubtful (even if there were sufficient local '^ 
and if we could allow the expectation of that unity of action » 
vicinity of the lake coast necessary to secure the construction «-. 
one of the many harbors and havens their lake oomtnerce b<. 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TBADB. 7 

.1. — »Iut#ly rtijuires) whether tliey could be complcled without Federal 

Til*' uridtT>igned l)eg3 leave to call the attention of the honorable 
>• ••'•t.iry ot* the Treasury to the necessity of having marine hospitals 
k. i>- i:ujr commercial ports upon the lakes. The casualties oi' that 
: -• jvii^'Ci uw Uule difibrent from those of the sea; and while the " fresh- 
V. .> r ^ail^»r" contributes, from Ids monthly wages, to the same "hospital 
1. V \/* as he who **g(H's down upon the great deep," equid justice 
..■ •:. iziii* (-<{ualexiH*nditure lor the benefit of both. 

1: 19 u.»t € nou/jli to say that these hospitals would be beneficial; 

; ' y are imfieratively demanded by the mariners and the ship-owners 

• i.^-» >*• ^Miilaiid s<'as." There is every year much suffering, espe- 

■ . 1 y at inr large towns of Buffalo, Oswego, Cleveland, Sandusky, 

1 .•tl'u D^'iroitt Chicago, and Milwaukie, all of which have a large 

•.'.im iitj«i sailing martm*, aiid are rapidly taking rank among our 

.• i'X.uc ti»ninif*rcial cities. At these ports a large number of sail- 

.: ^ \t-.^tl^ ;iu<i steamers pass the winter; the number of sailors need- 

^ J rt ii#»f from suffering is thus increased. Some of these sailors are 

r- * i\uu l«*i out ou hire, by the collectors of customs, to those wanting 

..• «T. >'o ci^nsurc is intended of those officers; such course is forced 

:> -i T*:if ni by the necessities of the case, but such a state of things 

• ^jui Tjut to a>ntinue. That these seamen could be comfortably pro- 
\i ;>d tor at a tritling cost to the government, by the expenditure ol no 
r. -r*- tl. jn the monthly contributions received from those engaged in the 
» K*' u.uh: if prr>per hospitals were erected, cannot be doubted. 

i >rif ij.k in the chain of communication through the great lakes is 
\* : r.> Im- >upplied. This will be effected by the construction of a ship 
t .fiai aii»und the Falls of St. Mary, which will open to the lower lakes 
31 '. »%:LMt.Mn of fully a thousand miles. Our shipping will have an im- 
•.'♦Truptttl swi-ep over waters, which drain more than three hundred 
•.'..*•*• i:i.J lajurtre miles of a region alx)unding in mineral and agricultural 
•♦ -Mirt-t*. They may be water-l)orne nearly halfway across the con- 
! -.♦ 'it. Thr inexhaustible elements of wealth on the shores of Lake 
> :• r\*< wiil ihrn become available. These, as yet, have hardly been 
■ . \^*i^ rnu'h less appreciated. Its fisheries are exhaustless. Na- 

• .-• f 1 IS d»*vrlop<*d its minend treasures upon a scale as grand as its 
v.r-T*. Its ciipjKT mines, the most extensive and productive in 
".-• ut/rUl, furni>hinir single masses of the unparalleled weight of 
^.\ty !«f.^, supply half of our consumption, from locahties where, ten 
^ ir«» *.fice, ifje existence of a siii<(le vein was unknown. The iron 
c .;;• « D* ;ir the a^hores ot* tliis lake surpass those of Swedc»n or Russia 

-. • \t» rit, and e4|ual them in the excellence of their materiel. It is pre- 
. 'i 4i bv a^ute metallurgists that its silver mines, thouarh as vet undo- 
I -i-^d, ^dl one day vie with those of Mexico. 

U *i.> wr Ix'hold with wondtT the munificence of the gifts which Provi- 
- r.-*r hi* -ihowert'd u}^>n this extensive region, thousands of miles in 
" '- i;itrTi«ir trt>m the CK-ean, we may also l(K)k fiirward with hojH^ful 
;■'. it- ti> fti iji»'v«»mrnLs in art, anil to commercial enterprise, commeii- 

• -• »tr m «rr.m<lt'ur to il»i>se gifts, tl)r their distribution throuizhoul our 
"^ j'ltr^ and tin* wr»rld. Uetlection upon tliese bounteous gilts leads us 

• ' -ijc cuoctrpliuci uf the means nt^essiuy to be adopted tor tlieir ude- 



8 ANDEBWS* BBPORT Olf 

quate use and enjoy menu When the Cangfanawaga canal shall have been 
finished by the Canadian government, uniting the St. Lawrence and 
Lake Champlain by a ship canal, thus completing the judicious and 
successful improvements on the St. Lawrence, so creditable to the en- 
terprise and national views of that government ; and when a ship canal 
shall be constructed from Champlain, by way of Whitehall, to the Hud- 
son river — ^and commercial necessities will not be s^nisQisd with less — 
when the waters of Superior thus flow' into the Hudson, and the ship- 
ping of New York can touch upon the plain in which, with their branches 
uitcrlocking', the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence botli have their 
origin, it wiU be a stride equivalent to centuries for the nation. A 
boundless field of commerce, and a vast expansion of transportation, 
will thereby be opened, and a development of wealth,' such as the 
world has never witnessed, aflbrded. 

The commercial results anticipated 'will 'not alone belong to those 
whosa labor and enterprise may primarily effect them. . Commerce, ex- 
ternal and internal, by steamships on the oceans or on the lakes, by r^- 
roads over, or canals through,, the iand, is the advance guard of 
civilisation. Whenever true commerce receives any new impulse, its 
beneficial effects accrue not only to the country icom which it springs, 
but to' the world.' Its advancement is therefore one of the highest 
duties not only of enlightened statesmanship, but of philanthropy*. 

Although this report may have been elaborated more than ^ might 
seem to' have been designed by the resoluti6ns or instructions udder 
which it has been prepared, it is believed that no apology is necessary 
for thus devoting a few pages to the evidences of the rising wealth of 
this broad empire. So complete is the* dependence of one section of 
the country upon another — so varied ar^ the pro<luctions furnished in 
the different aegrees of latitude embraced within the present bounds 
of the confederacy, and yet so admirably are the channels lor trans- 
portation supplied by nature and art, that the prosperity of each sec- 
tion overflows into the other. This diffusion of prqsperity, produced 
by community of interests and sympathies, freedom of trade and 
mutual dependence, is a sure pledge that our political union oan never 
be broken. 

The undersigned is not without hope that the facts presented in this 
report may tend to promote the struggling railroad interests of the 
West. That section needs capital, and greater facilities for transport- 
ation ; the former creating the latter. The magnificent systems of rail- 
roads in course of construction, or projected, for the transportation of 
various productions from the country bordering on the Mississippi, so 
far south as St. Louis, must become important channels of trade. The 
political and moral benefit of railroads as bands of union and harmony 
between the different sections of this broad empire, can only hie 
measured by our posterity. 

The securities issued the United States and on account of many of 
the railroads projected and in process of construction in the West, are 
seeking a market among the capitalists throughout the world. Ignor- 
ance of the resources of the country which will support the roads, and 
of the progress of the regions through which they pass, causes the de- 
pression of these stocks far below their value. The large amount of 



COUnOAh AND LAKB TBAOB. 9 

rr.^mey required to complete the works already contemplated, makes it 
a matter o( high importance, which has not been lost sight of in this 
r* ;■►«, that such information should be given to the financial world as 
n* i^ rfni<»ve some of the obstacles encountered by the great interests 

• •!" i»»' We^it, owing to icrnorance of their true condition and resources 
u.jt h prevails in the money marl^ets of Europe. 

Tfj^ ignorance is not confined to foreigners, but exists among a 
f«»rti<in of our countrymen. The. former cannot understand how rail- 
:**a*l» r:in l)c btiilt, and made to pay, in comparatively new countries; 
If.*- Inttir. living near the banks of great rivers, and on the Atlantic 

* i-i.^t^ ul)»Te alone surplus capital, as yet, abounds, cannot appreciate 
trif ritirv^iiy existing for the constant creation of these iron lines. 
ComtncftTe depends for its existence and extension upon channels af- 
i'-TiUil as its outlets. Primarily it follows what may be termed the 
ti.itunil routes, which are often not convenient ones. 

M<Hlem commerce has sought, and is constantly creating, nl great 
OEpr.'D«<*, artificial channels; and this is so true of the United plates, 
iii.ii such channels have, in a great degree, superseded the natural 
r« 'uii's ; lor the reason that the direction oi* the American internal com- 
ti.«erc<r is between the agricultural and the commercial and manufacturing 
<iK^trii-t*, which arc not connected by the two great outlets, the Missis- 
?Jippi and the St. Lawrence rivers. Produce leaving Burlingtofi, Iowa, 
!< i.ouiiie its natural outlet, is landed at New Orleans ; or, leaving De- 
iroii, az<d following its natural course, at Quebec. By the changing 
irifl'jf! ni^ of artificial channels, it is now easily borne to New York, 
Pbibdrlphia, Boston, or Baltimore.* 

Tlie*<' are the facts which give so great consequence to the leading 
'trtifiiiai lines of communication, such as the Erie canal, Erie railroad, 
W« «trm railroad, the Pennsylvania railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio 
nulniad, Ae Mol)ile and Ohio railroad, the Virginia works in progress 
t'-T r»«nnfcting the sejiboard of that State with the western States; the 
South Carolina railroad ; the several works in Georgia, and other roads 
ami ranals alluded to in the report. 

Many portions of the country are without even natural outlets, by 
which to iorward their products to the great leading or national routes 
of ccirom^Tce. Their products are comparatively valueless, on account 
of the c»>*t of transportation to market. The wheat and corn grown 
in tbe orntral portions of Kentucky, lUinois, and Missouri, will not, on 
ilw .«pr»u command one quarter their value in New York or the other 
markets on the Atlantic coast* 

Thii« difJiTence in value, Iwtween the points of production and am- 
<umfjcifm, is owing to the cost of transportation. Hence the necessity 
f>f kM-al as well as national channels to the development of our re- 

• Vnmk S^m OrtrAiM to New York 4/29<) mile*. 

to Philadelphia 4.054 •• 

•• toBahimore 3.648 ** 

•• *• toBoitoo 4,KW " 

•* Qoebfc toBo«lon. ...^...«^ 9,S«6 *' 

•• toN«w York 3,304 " 

•• loPhiUdelphiA 3,540 •« 

'• Co Baltimore 3,976 •• 

- toNMr OriMM 7,594 " 



10 ANDRBW6' SBFOBT ON 

sources, and to the further creation aud wider exteosion of inland com* 
merce. Efforts to construct channels of commerce suited to its wants 
are now engrossing the energies and Capital of the whole country* 
We have already constructed thirteen thousand miles of railroads, and 
have at least thirteen thousand more in progress. Our roads completed 
have cost four hundreddniillions ; th9se in progress will cost at least 
two hundred and sixty milUons more— making an aggregate of six 
hundred and sixty millions. These roads are indispensable to keep 
alive and develop the industry of the country. 

The cost of these roads will not be less than twenty thousaud doUars 
per mile, requiring an anaual outlay of about eighty millions for works 
m progress. 

The capital of the country is not equal to this demand, without 
creating embarrassment in the ordinary channels of business ; and 
unless we*can avail ourselves of foreign capital, a portion of oui^ works 
will' be retarded, or we shall be involved in financial trouble. 

We Could borrow fit)m England, Holland, and France, at compara- 
tively low rates, the money needed for our works; and it is believed 
by statesmen that hy a judicious extension of our commerce with 
other parts of Europe US which hitherto less attention has been p^d 
than it deserves, inducements could be created for the investment of a 
portion *of their large surplus capital in profitable works of internal 
improvement in this country, yielding high rates of interest, provided 
the fbreign capitalists could be made to fully understand our condition, 
the necessity that exists fbr these works, ana the prospect of their yield- 
ing a remunerating traffic. As it is, our works are mainly carried on 
by aid of fbreign capital; bur we have to pay, at times, exorbitant rates 
fbr the use of money, simply because so little is known of the objects, 
value, and productiveness oifour works. 

One course adopted by many of those who are construction the roads 
in progress is to raise money upon what are called road bonds. These 
bonds are based upon the whole cost of the road, and are consequently 
perfectly safe investments. They are, notwithstanding, sold, on an 
average, as low as 86 or 87 cents on the dollar, and the capitalist is 
alone benefited by the advance. 

One object which the undersigned has had in view in the prepara- 
tion of this report, is to diffuse information that will secure an active 
demand fbr our sound securities at the best rates, so that the public- 
spirited companies who are struggling under heavy burdens may receive 
what their securities are actually worth, and may not be compelled to 
heavy sacrifices. Our companies during the present year will be bor- 
rowers in the market for fifty millions, to be raised, in a great decree, 
on these railroad bonds. This amount will be borrowed mostly m>m 
European capitalists, at a discount of 12 to 15 per cent., making an 
aggregate loss of six to seven millions. 

These bonds bear 7 per cent, interest. The above discount brings 
the rate of interest on a bond having ten years to run to about 8J per 
cent, per annum. 

These bonds are sold at the above rates, because so little is known 
of the projects, or of the real strength of the country. The purchasers 
demand a premium in the nature of insurance, and as soon as it is 



OOLOiflAXf AND LAKB TRABB* 11 

• .::i-i iIhtc is DO ridk« they demand and receive a premium equal to a 
J- :u I »t curity. 

It i-* no part of this rejjort to advocate, in any way whatever, any 
r..in. jl.tf railroad, or any particular route of commerce; but in 
\ .• i ■; ih«' iini|uestionabIe necessity tliat exists for more knowledge 
• '. !..- -*• {M lints, both at home and abroad — ^in view of tlie somewhat 
- .-; r.-i;j2 Uurt iliat wc have no published documents which contain any 
. .' 'ra^.tii^^o in reference to our public works, calculated to throw light 
..'^ :. tht» st.bject, the undersigned has felt it his duty to meet, as far as 
;• --.k.U*, the wanlsoftliat great interest, although the shortness of time 
-.. -ys* Ht and ihc difficulty of obtaining materials, has rendered the work 
r. ^ i> I* <*. jUTtrct than he could have wished. The accompanying re- 
:• '^ tHi itie railroads and canals of the United States, prepared with the 
•. •-•>: ince iff Mr. Henry V. Poor, the editor of the American Railroad 
J .wmaJ, Xfw York, with his map annexed, to which reference has been 

• .•!» , may, it is hopedi prove to be of value not only to the railroad 
J • f» -I, hut lo the country generally, and important at this period to 
A :.- ritaii aiid European capitalists. 

*n»* uiidrrbtgned conceives that the position of our internal commerce, 
■.* uia-L*^aiid in tiiis report, may well be a subject of national pride. 
1 '-r tijt- lajit iew centuries, the attention of the world has been given to 
:.. inuni*' c<»mnj«Tce, created by tlie discovery of America and the ocean 
f»'i:fj itj tli*' KiiM Indies. The world entered upon a new epoch when 
:■.•. *r* it maritime p^Avers struggled for dominion on the high seas. As 
r- • . -|urni Auiirican writer* has said : "Ancient navigation kept near 
■ • < .tiM^, «»r Wt'is l)ut a passage from isle to isle; commerce now sc- 
4' ?•• «•: 4 hoice, the boundless deep. • ' 

•• TiK- time ancient continents were divided by no wide seas, and their 

•r rc«>ar><' was chieHy by land. Their voyages were like ours on Lake 
hr.' — u oiniir.uame of internal trade. The vastness of their transac- 
:. '(.- u as measured not by tonnage, but by counting caravans and camels, 
li A u -w, for the wilderness, commerce substitutes the sea; for camels, 
:. • r* : .tntnien; for caravans, fleets and convoys." 

i >ur lime pre.^>nts another epoch in commercial history. Internal 
•r »ii»- n aumes in this country its ancient dominion. Commerce now 
i*. ..1* iiM It of lakes and rivers, as well as of the sea, and often substi- 
ij'.t'* the t< inner for the latter. For merchantmen, it now substitutes 
-•♦ a^-.tJ«ML^; li»r Heets and convovs, canal boiJts and freight trains on 
r t .r«».».:4. Ujkui tliis commerce thalof the sea depends. Its prosjx^rity 
.• \i»4' »ijr« ^t foundation of national power. As has been said by a 
;• :<»^>pni4al hi2»toriau,i **Au extensive and hvely commerce would 
:-^*-t f4i.*iiy, and there lore the S(x>uest, be found on the banks of large 
r'»»r> riuiniijg through countries rich in natural productions. Such 
-*"♦ i.-ifcii taciliiate the uiurcourse of the inhabitants; and a lively trade 
■: > fiws w liich promotes natif >n!U industry, is always the surest foun- 

• . :.r u o: national wealili, and ct^nsctjuently of foreign trade. The course 
"? ::^' latter de^iend:* in a great measure upon exterior <:i re u instanced 
-. : f ..iiiofi^, wiiich cannot always be controlled; but internal com- 
''^- ri.», Uing llii- soh' work of tlit* nation, onlv declines with the nation 

* Baarroft . t llMrcn. 



12 ANBRBWS' REPORT ON 



THE TRADE, COMMERCE, AND NAVIGATIQN OF THE BRITISH NORTH 

AMERICAN COLONIES. 

In conforniity with your personal directions, and pursuant to your 
written instructions, the undersigned has diligently prosecuted certain 
inquiries with reference to the Briysh North American colonies, more 
especially as regards their foreign, internal, and interpoloniaF- trade, 
their commerce and navigation, and tbeir fisheries. Having procured 
some new and special information on these 'several points, of nfuch in- 
terest to citizens of the United » States, he submits the same without 
delay, in the briefest possible form, to the consideration of the gov- 
ernment. • 

Since bis appointment as consul at St John^ New Brunswick,4n 1843» 
the undersigoed has had the honor, on several occasipns, of'calling the 
attention of government to the extent, value, and importance of the trade 
and navigation of the British North American colonies, and of poipting 
out the necessity of action on the part of the general government, to 
meet the important commercial changes which nave Daken place within 
the last few years. He has also had the honor of sug^estingvihe neces- 
sity of wise ^and liberal legislation in relation to this important and 
valuable 4rade, with the view of securing its profits and advantages to 
citizens of the United States, in whose immediate neighborhood it 
exists, and to whom, under a fair and equal system of commercial in- 
tercourse, it may be said to appertain. 

In the beginnmg of this feport, the undersigned has replied to one 
part of the resolution of the Senate in relation to the trade and com- 
merce of the great lakesj and in the latter portion he has the honor to 
submit a number of documents and statistical letums in relation to the 
British North American colonies, made up to the latest possible mo- 
ment. He most respectfully, but earnestly, solicits the attention of the 
government, and of the whole comipercial community, to the docu- 
ments and returns herewith submitted, and requests a particular exam- 
ination of the separate reports on each colony, respectively, and of the 
special reports on the Bntish colonial and Frencn fisheries of North 
America ; which, at this time, will be found to possess much interest* 

The undersigned also invites particular attention to the sketch of the 
early history, and present state of our knowledge of the geology, miner- 
alogy, and topography, of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, prepared 
expressly for this report, by one of our most distinguished geologists. 
Dr. Charles T. Jackson, who, in conjunction with Mr. Alger, of Bos- 
ton, first brought to public notice the important mineral resources oC 
these provinces. 

That full confidence may be placed in the statements relating to 
trade and commerce of the colonies embraced in this report, il may be 
proper to state that each colony has been visited — the three following : 
Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick — several times in person by 
the undersigned, and that the returns have been carefully compiled not 
only from official documents, but from trustworthy private resources ; 
and in this connexion the undersigned gratefully expresses his obligations 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TEAOB. 13 

to Tbomas C* Keefer, esq., Montreal, tor his contribations respecting the 
n'*oarcr«, trade, and commerce of Canada. 

Thr pi«5e^ion^ of Great Britain in North America, exclusive of the 
\V«'< Indin Islands, arc, tne united provinces of Canada East and 
C.Laa<l:i West, the province of New Brunswick, the province of Nova 
St-iitin. which includes the island of Cape Breton, the islaud colonies 
of Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, Labrador, and the 
i»id#'-»prrad region (including Vancouver's Island, the most important 
pf-«;ti«io on tlie Pacilic ocean) under tlie control of the Hudson's Bay 
i^mnpany, extending from Labrador to the Pacific, and from the north- 
^ru lioundj of Canada to the Arcdc ocean, except the districts claimed 
hr Ru>^ia. 

TtK-«» prHsessionj>, viewed merely with reference to their vast super- 
U 1-^, which' exceeds four millions of geographical square miles, 

• 'icnprw* a territory of great importance, more especially when the 
maoiiold advantages of their geographical position are taken into con- 
<^idenitkNL But their importance snould be estimated less by their 
trrriti>rial extent than by the numerous resources they contaia; their 
cr«'»t capabilities for improvement ; the increase of which their com- 
rntrcr in «uMrepiible ; and the extensive field they present for coloniza- 
liio and settlement. 

The British North American provinces, to which the^e reports 
.tnd docuoieuts are more especially confined, occupy comparatively 
\v^A a small portion of the aggregate superfices of the whole of 
th' Briii<»b possessions on this continent ; yet they cover a wide extent 
«>: i^Kmtr\-, as will be perceived by the fbllowmg statement of their 
.ir»*a: 

Canadi East, (acres) 128,659,680 

raoada West 31,745,539 

160/105,219 

Vw Brunswick 22,000,000 

V»va Scotia (proper) 9,584,196 

I'ape Breton 2,000,000 

11,534,196 

Vuii-undland 23,040,000 

Prince Edward Island 1,360,000 

T«>tai area British North American provinces — . 218,339,415 

In 1H30 th«* fiopulation of all these provinces was stated at 1,375,000 
■• jU. Tlie census returns at the close of the year 1851, give tlie 

• !l#»uiri^ as their presi*nl population: 

i'anada, E:i>t and West 1,842,205 

Vw Brunswick 193.000 

>.*va Srofia and Capi- Breton 277,005 

V wftKindhnd 101,600 

Priarf Edward Islwid 62,678 

Total 2,476,548 



14 



ANDBBWS' REPORT ON 



The following table is an abstract from the late Canadian census : 



Origin. 



Natiyes of England and Wales 

Scotland. • • • • • . 

Ireland 

Canada, French origin « 

*' not of French origin 

United SUtes 

Nova Scotia and Prince Edward . . . • 

New Brunswick. 

Newfoundhud 

West Indies « . 

East Indies 

Germany and Holland 

France and Belgiom 

Italj and Greece 

Spain and Portagal 

'Sweden and Norway ....••...•« • . 

Russia, Poland, ana Prussia 

Switzerland 

Austria and Hungary » 

Guernsey « • 

Jersey and other British Islands 

Other places........ 

Bom at sea ••••.. 

Birth-plaee «ot known 

Total population 



Lower 
Canada. 



11,230 

14,565 

51,499 

669,528 

125,580 

13,482 

474 

480 

51 

47 

4 

159 

359 

28 

18 

13 

8 

38 

3 

118 

293 

830 

10 

2,446 



890,261 



Upper 
Canada. 



82,699 

75,811 

176,267 

26,417 

526,D93 

43,732 

3,785 

3,634 

79 

345 

106 

9,957 

1,007 

29 

188 

209 

11 

24 

131 

1,351 

168 

889 



952,004 



Total. 



93,929 

90,376 

227,766 

795,945 

651,673 

56«214 

4,259 

3,114 

130 

393 

110 

10,116 

1,366 

43 

75 

41 

196 

247 

13 

• 142 

424 

2,181 

178 

3,335 



1,843,365 



Taking the average ratio of increase of these colonies collectively, it 
has been found that they double their population every sixteen or 
eighteen years; yet, various causes have contributed to render the 
increase smaller in the last twenty-one years, than at former periods. 

But the commercial freedom which Great Britain has recently con- 
ceded to her dominions, both at home and abroad, has caused these 
North American colonies to take a new start in the race of nations, and 
in all probability their population will increase more rapidly hereafter 
than at any previous period. 

The swelling tide of population in these valuable possessions of the 
crown of England, great as has been its constant and wonderful in- 
crease, will scarcely excite so much surprise as a consideration of the 
astonishing growth of their trade, commerce, and navigation within a 
comparatively brief and recent period. 

In 1806, the value, of all the exports from the whole of the British 
North American colonies was but $7,287,940. 

During the next quarter of a century, after 1806, these exports were 
more than double in value, for in 1831 they amounted to $16,523,510. 

In the twenty years which have elapsed since 1831, the exports 
have not merely doubled, but have reached an increase of 116 per 
cent. During the year 1851 the exports of the British North American 
colonies amounted to no less than $55,720,000. 

Equal with this constant increase in the value of exports has been 
the increase of shipping and navigation. 

The tonnage outward, by sea, from all the ports of these colonies, in- 
1806, was but 124,247 tons. 



OOUaOkh AND LAKB TRADE. 15 

In 183] • tbe tonnage outwardt by sea, amounted to 836,668 tons, ex- 
Lil'itinfir an increase of 67 per cent, in the quarter of a century which 
li 111 Ui* II elapsed. 

ry> li'^e*^ an increase as this could not be expected to be maintained ; 
yn U)«' increase i;vhich has taken place during the twenty years since 

• .ip<* d has been nearly as remarkable. In 1851, the tonnage outward, 
! V 5* a, from tlie North American colonies amounted to 1,583,104 tons, 
•r marly <lnuble what it was in the year 1831. 

At an early period after their first settlement the inhabitants of the 
N »nh American colonies directed their attention to ship building. The 
» .uniri'^5 they occupy furnish timber of great excellence for this purpose, 
.li 1 art? {M)>s<'5sed of unrivalled facilities for the construction and launch- 
.: 2 of stiips. This branch of business has steadily increased, until it 
t. IS aiuinii'd a prominent position as principally employing colonial 
z >it riali* wrought up by colonial industry. At first tne colonists only 
•^ .i^trucieil such vessels as they required for their own coasting and 
:■ -ni iirn trade, and for the prosecution of their unequalled fisheries ; but 
• latf yt*ar5 they have been somewhat extensively engaged in the con- 

• :r li xiifu nf ships of large size, for sale in the United Kingdoms. New 
-:.:p5 may ilierelbre be classed among the exports of the British North 
A i>"riran colonies to the parent State. 

Tl*.' new ships built in these colonies in 1832 amounted, in the ag- 
j'* ff-it**. to 33,778 tons. In 1841, the new vessels were more than three 
M^r* as many as in 1832, and numbered 104,087 tons. In 1849, 
i:.«- V :.::3;:r of new ships increased to 108,038 tons. In 1850, there 
ua.s a *tui funlier increase, the new ships built in that year numbering 
ll:J,7j?7 iiiTiii, 

Til -it iiif* oilonies have great capacity for the profitable employment 

• »: ?hipp.:i:; is demonstrated by the steady increase of their mercantile 
r...irin*-. From those periods in their early history, when each colony 
uuiu-d but one coaster, tlieir vessels, year by year, without a decrease 
;ii any j>eiiixl, and witliout a single pause or check, have regularly 
*'A« lk*i ia numbers and in tonnage, up to the present moment, when 
l:.' ir aezri.'^atc excreds half a million of tons, now owned and regis- 
:• ft d in ih«' o^lonics, and fully employed in their trade and business. 

Til'? rau' of this steady and continujJ increase of the tonnage of the 

• ■•;«i«u- « may Im* gathered from the following statement of the tonnage 
-M,«d by ilie colonies at various periods since the commencement of 

:.-•■ prt*« III cenlurj'. 

AifijPkMte tonnage of tlie provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, 
N '\A S«^'iiia« Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island, at various 
•• funis .*ui<e IbiK): 

Ton». 

i-»r» 71,943 

l-,n 17(5,040 

>;i; 274,738 

IMi; 399,204 

i<yi 446,935 

TIj*" inieninercr of the colonics may be said to have had its beginning 
«» 'tAU th<* pa*t century* Without entering upon details of its rise and 
'iiriordinary progress, which can be clearly traced in Uic documents 



14 - » 



rr* 



{ ; . . j.^'j I had the honor of sub- 

— . uiu'resl to notice its present 

.. K -ne several ports of the North 

.J juj^gregate Of 1,570,663 tons. 

jv-j, :• it year from the same ports 

•>uiit of tonnage, employed in a 
..- had its beginning since 1783, 
*.t j.uring the year just past. 
. \. oi^eil in the condensed statements 

.. k VI* li>ol, made up from United States 
- t jvrt, give a different but a more cor- 
« 1.C tollowing statements : 

. ^..i \>r 1851, as per returns. . $13,262,376 

$5,622,388 

2,503,916 

6,136,072 

13,262,376 

.:...a $6,435,844 

>....s 4,939,300 

., V ^- 1 American colonies. . 1,060,544 
N v»ut to$ 826,688 

13,262,376 

'. • 'k^ HlH>ve, and the comparative value of the chief 
, ..X »i Uk^ aUony, may be seen by the following table: 

$86,752 

249,296 

6,063,512 

817,496 

.ssl 3,766,396 

, ...Uiutl nnnlucts 38,028 

... ,,, 55,124 

....vi 2,115,772 

13,262,376 



00tX>mAL AKD LAKB TRAOB* 



17 



ImfOfU into Canada hy river St. Laurence^ givirtir onhj the principal artir 

cl0 find valuetyfor the year 1851. 



"^ 



ArticlM. 




.>. 



of iMtber 



Tmm 



oTnlk 

€f liMlU rubber 



c 



u 



Valaet. 



$168,084 

18,924 

3,018,333 

1»»301,816 

1,627,208 

11,619 

6,852 

5S,156 
i,164 

46,440 
135,708 

65,228 

12,396 
712J0& 

^fio^mr 

25,980 

78,260 

101,176 

90,033 

407,499 

233,334 

38,916 

13,633 

54,304 

7IJ60 

5,855,776 



15,217,316 



includes tbe iinpons in transit for the United States, and those 
b(>Dd ior Upper Canada. 



ExfBfUjrtm Canada to other countries^ (principally Chreat Britain^) giving 
the principal articles and talue$^/or the year 1851. 



Articlci. 



Valaet. 




9 
I 

Ur4 



•md ftr»-«9od 



12,404 

b6,900 

37,373 

14,900 

408 

1,960 

5,268 

18,468 

4,376 

26,596 

937,480 

196,124 

570,876 

900 

2,256 

32,080 

67,100 

9,976 



18 



Am>RBW8 RBPOBT ON 



Exports from Canada^ S(t> — Continued. 



Articles. 



'Oak. limber 

Oan.... ; 

Oats .• 

Peas and beans .,. ,.^ 

Pine tioUier, red and whit«* 

Pork • 



Shingles, '. , 

Spars , 

Stares • , 

Tamarac wood and sleepers. 
Furs and skins 



Total from Quebec ^. 

Value of similar articles from Montrei^I f. 

Unenumerated from other ports 



.Tn^ly. 



orts by the St. Lawrence. 



Valuet. 



<m 

• 8.960 

1,971,760 

30J424 

2«0 

382, lie 

13,208 



4,671,048 
2,060,156 
l,401,ai2 



8,132,416 



As nearly as can be ascertained, the following statements exhibit the 
natural products, domestic manufactures, and foreign goods imported 
into the colonies from the United Stales for 1851. 



Oinada 

New Brunswick 

Newfoundland 

Nova Scotia 

Prince Edward Island 



Natural products. 



$2,024,188 
869,683 
803,946 
817,361 

77,858 



Domestic manu- 
factures. 



$3,471,685 
335,515 
115,397 
415,943 



Foreign goods, 



>iffn( 
fcc. 



12,713,675 

325,702 

34,923 

157,160 



Aggi'cgate of colonial imports from Great Britain, United States, and other 

countries, for the year 1851. 



Great Britain. 



Canada 

Nova Scotia 

New Bhinswick* 

Newfoundland , 

Prince Edward Island. 



$12,876,828 

2,133,035 

2,292,390 

1,600,750 

279,898 



Total 



18,878,706 



United States. 



$8,936,236 

1,390, •965 

1,654,175 

998,735 

41,603 



12,678,279 



Other coantries. 



$1,447,376 

2,003,640 

954,935 

1,655,695 

305,974 



6,191,405 



* New Brunswick returns for 1851 show an increase in exports of about 15 per cent., and 
<af 19 per cent, in the imports, greater than in any other colonj. 



COUanAL AMD LAKB TRADB. 



^ 



% • 



<)f ccUnual txporU to Great Britain^ Oniied States^ and other 
antntries^foT (h^ year 1851. 






Totei ^ 



Great Britain. Tni ted States. 



'Other oounlrioi. 



^,731, 1204 

142,245 

2,909,790 

2,162,755 

84,966 

11,568,925 



$4,939,280 

736,425 

415,140 

99,970 

55,385 



6,218,060 



11,035,538 
2,663,610 

535,190 
2,538,680 

184,638 



6,877,831 



COLONIAL TRAt)E IN 1851. 



CANADA. 



Iropc 



inland 



^$15,324,348 
8,681,680 



8,081,840 

inland t3,259,888 



Add for value of new ships built at Quebec, and 
sent to England ibr sale, 9if000,000 ; and a farther 
lar|?(- SQcn lor under-valuation of exports — ^making 



in tbe whole 



NEW BaUNSWICK. 



Imporu $4,852,440 

Exports 3,780,105 

8,632,545 



New shipst 45,000 tons in all 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



Impriru $5,527,640 

Exp*»rt5i 3,542,310 



9,069,950 in aU 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Imporu $4,609,291 

rirtj 4,276,876 



K.SS6,167 in all 



$24,006,028 



35,347,766 



$40,000,000 



10,000,000 



10,000,000 



9,000,000 



Ml iinMifflli« 



t By United 8utM ralvnw, ^JK»JS»^ 



20 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

PRINCE nSwARD ISLAND. 

• 9 

Imports $630,475 

Expprts . . . -^ . . , /. 360,465 

-.4^0,940 . . . . ; in all 81.200,000 
New 8h^)ping, 15,000 Cons. 

Grand total 70,200*000 



Although if appears by this statement, that, as in most new Countries, 
the amount of imports greatly exceeds the estimated value of the ex- 
ports, yet it must be taken into tccount that the apparent balance of 
trade against the colonies is fully overcome by the low price at \jjhich 
their exports are valued at the places of shipment, as compared with 
the prices obtained abroad; the value of new ships sold in England; 
tbfl* freights earned by these ships while on their way to a market ; 
and the large freights earned by colonial ships in transporting the bulky 
products of the colonies to foreign countries ; all of which profits, sales, 
and earnings, accrue to the colonial merchant, and render the trade of 
the colonies, at the present time, healthy and prosperous. 

After presenting the preceding statements the undersigned does not 
deem it necessary to discuss in an elaborate manner the many interest- 
ing questions which they will, on examination, unquestionably present 
to the statesmen of England and America ; more especially as the 
qpMion ot reciprocal free trade between the United States and the 
British North American Colonies is now before Congress, and received 
especial attention in a previous report of the undersigned submitted to 
yourself, and priuted as Executive Document No. 23, 31st Congress, 2d 
session. 

From 1794 to 1830 the trade of the colonies was a subject of much 
negotiation between the two governments, and was always considered 
by John Quincy Adams as one of great consequence to the United 
States. This protracted and almost useless negotiation produced no 
other results than a coutraction of the trade of the colonies, and an 
estrangement between the people of both countries. 

It is well known to the Department of the Treasury that Mr. 
McLane's arrangements with England, in 1830, in relation to this 
trade, were most unsatisfactory to the commercial community, and 
called forth, from that interest, urgent remonstrances against their par- 
tial character. Time hsis, however, proved their beneficial operation 
upon the general interests of the American and colonial trade, thus fur- 
nishing another proof that profitable commerce can only exist iu perfect 
(freedom. 

Although the convention of 1830, upon the whole, had a beneficial 
influence, yet it still left the trade of the United States with the colonies 
subject to many onerous and unnecessary restrictions, which have had 
a very injurious effect upon it. Until near the year 1840, that trade 
did not rapidly increase ; but then it suddenly expanded. From that 
oeriod to the present time there has been a constant increase, but by no 



COU>SULh AND LAKB TEADB. 21 

m^.ins to the extent wfiich would have unquestionably taken place If 
tl:" iralc had been wholly untcttcredi and allowed to flow freely in its 
nM 1' ♦! ((Mjrse. 

1: ;* j'/'aM'whal singular, lhaI,not\vithslandIng the geographical posi- 
u '\ "t :lit»s<' colonics with reference to the Uniud States, and the national 
ra <M\ mrf* of the various relations with tliem, no change has taken 
j» J.'- m ilie pilicy of this country toward them lor nearly a (|uurter of 
a i •r.lu'-y, (while so much that is wise and great has been accomplished 
J.rlog the &ame period lor the benciit of commerce in this and other 
c ►untM-^,) except the drawback law of 184C, which has increased the 
♦■\r^-rto} ti;rt'ign goods from 81,303,7(57, in 1846, to §2,954,536, in 
jK.3rl. Fi»r many years after the Revolution, under a wise aod saga- 
f ; »aH jii.licy, the colonial trade received a very considerable share of 
;ti!'nii ti), and < tT()rt5 were made to place it on an equitable, if not a 
Li ^r.il b.i»i>; but it unfortunately In^came involved with questions em- 
l'-L-r.:j iht* whole foHMgn p<jlicy of the country, which prevented tlie 
ad'ijMM'H of p^TmariL-nt meiusures of a liberal character. 

S » n afi< r the imperial act of 1846, which had such a disastrous effect 
t;;.«»o ci>lonial trade, delegates were sent I'rom Canada to this country to 
•i-T'ani:e the terms of a reciprocal free trade in certain specified articles. 
Tt;e |>rl>p>^ition was favorably received by Mr. Polk's administration! 
:!r..l was ably supported in Congress by leading g(»ntlemen of both 
I irti-s. A bill was introduced in 1848 for reciprocal free trade with 
C in ida in certain articles, which passed the House of Representatives, 
j-.'l wuiihl probably have passed the Senate, but tor the great pressure 
oi ttVt^r in)|>ortant matters. 

Tf'i-i bill of 1848 was considered by a portion of the pt*oplc oC the 
I'li'.i' d rfi.'iies as slricllv a colonial measure, for the benefit ot the colo* 
ft -^u (niiy ; e<[)ecially, it was supposed that it might prove prejudicial 
to the a;rriculiural inten\sts of this country, as Canaihi for a few years 
1 If b » :i an expirler of wheat to a small extent; but the subject having 
*.'.,f» [>' m discussed, it has c»xhibited itself in a new light, and is now 
r ri*i 1 -red by many as one of ecjual interest to the United States and 
ti- !*••' ci>l»:ii' ?♦. 

TL»' a^rienltnre of a country is well considered as its most valuahlo 
r.'.f Ti •*. It was nitural therefore, that the first que^lion raised as to 
fi ♦ p Ki'V of reciprocal trade, should have related to the effects of free 
i' .u i h in c').M>ijinj>lioii upon our aurieulinral interests. The accom- 
\ f.iyutj, I i!)Ii-, >h<)uint» the total pnxluetion of wheal, rye, and com, 
.r. ;?.'• I e.i* d St lies, for the year ISoO, with the cpianlity of agricultu- 
t A p 'Mlurc* id Canada, show that nothing is to be Icarcd from Canadian 
u. I- '.':ijKiun. 



22 



ANDREWS' REPORT ON 



Agricultural Abstract — Zipper and Lower CanOdtti, 1851. 



ft 



Lands, produce, live stock, and domestic mana- 

facturm. . * 



Number of persons occupy ingf lands 

Of whom those held 10 acres and under 

.. 10 to 20 

20 to 50 

50 to 100 

100 to 200 

Over 200 

Number of iicreB held by the above 

'* V under cultivation • 

'* " •« crops in 1851 

•• " " pasture 

** • ** •* gardens and orchards 

'* % *' wild or under wood 

'* *' under wheat 

" " " barley 

•< " " rye 

" " " peas 

" «* «• oats 

" " " buckwheat 

•< •* " maize 

*< " »• poUtoes 

" " •• turnips 

•* «• €1 other crops, fallow and idle. 

Produce in bushels — ^Wheat 

" ' «* Barley 

•• «' Rye 

" *• Peas 

*« ** Oate 

" " Buckwheat 

. *\ " Maize 

* «• ** PoUtoes 

•« ** Turnips 

" *' • Clover and grass seeds 

" " Carrots 

" *• Mangel wurtzel 

" " Beans 

" lbs. Hops 

•* tons. Hay 

•* lbs. Flax or hemp 

" " Tobacco 

" " Wool 

" ** Maple sugar 

" galls. Cider 

" yards. Fulled cloth 

" Linen 

» " *• Flannel 

Livo Stock — ^Bulls, oxen, and steers 

Milch cows 

Calves and heifers 

Horses 

Sheep , 

Pigs 

Pounds of butter 

" cheese 

Barrels of beef. 

" pork 

fish 



Wwet 

Canada. 



94 

13 

ft 

17 

37 

18 

4 

8,113 

3,605 

2,072 

1,502 

30 

4,508 

427 

42 

46 

165 

590 

51 

22 

73 

3 

649 

3,075 

668 

341 

1,182 

8,967 

530 

400 

4,456 

369 

18 

82 

103 

23 

HI 

965 

1,867 

488 

1,430 

6,190 

53 

780 

889 

860 

HI 

294 

180 

236 

629 

256 

9,637 

511 

68 

223 

48 



,449 
,261 
,701 
,409 
,885 
,608 
,685 
,915 
,517 
,953 
,355 
,209 
,398 
,111 
,927 
,007 
,192 
,422 
,781 
,669 
,244 
,897 
,703 
,868 
,626 
,443 
,190 
,594 
,417 
,287 
,111 
,909 
,921 
,344 
,999 
,602 
,158 
,653 
,016 
,652 
,976 
,694 
,327 
,891 
,523 
,850 
,819 
,514 
,317 

,or7 

,827 
,219 
,152 
,014 
,747 
,870 
,363 



Upper 



99 
9 
1 

18 

48 

18 

3 

9,823 

3,697 

2,274 

1,367 

55 

6,125 

782 

29 

38 

192 

421 

44 

70 

77 

17 

600 

12.692 

625 

479 

2,873 

11,193 

639 

1,606 

4,987 

3,644 

42 

174 

54 

18 

113 

681 



7b4 

2,699 

3,581 

701 

527 

14 

1,169 

193 

296 

254 

203 

968 

569 

15,976 

2,226 

817 

528 

47 



860 
976 
889 
467 
027 
421 
080 
233 
724 
586 
649 
489 
509 
115 
916 
968 
109 
684 
265 
571 
672 
135 
151 
852 
875 
651 
394 
844 
384 
513 
475 
942 
460 
895 
226 
109 
064 
682 



50^50 



476 
764 
505 
612 
466 
955 
301 
982 
924 
988 
300 
022 
237 
315 
776 
746 
129 
589 



Totflil. 



194 

23 

4 

37 

7 

17,937 

7,303 

4,34T 

2,870 

85 

10,633 

1,209 

72 

84 

357 

1,012 

96 

93 

150 

21 

1,249 

15,768 

1,294 

821 

4,055 

20,161 

1,169 

2,096 

9,443 

4,014 

61 

257 

168 

41 



1,647 

1,917 

1,253 

4,130 

9,772 

754 

' 1,308 

904 

2,030 

305 

591 

435 

439 

1,597 

825 

25,613 

2,737 

886 

751 

95 



309 
237 
590 
876 
912 
029 
765 
148 
241 
539 
004 
698 
907 
226 
843 
975 
301 
106 
046 
240 
9IG 
032 
854 
720 
501 
094 
584 
438 
801 
80O 
586 
,S51 
381 
239 
225 
711 



224^222 



335 
666 
128 
740 
199 
939 
357 
478 
151 
801 
438 
305 
377 
849 
456 
467 
790 
493 
999 
952 



The grain crops in Lower Canada are all taken in the minot and not in the bushel, exceptinir 
the townships. » r — » 

Beef and pork are very incorrectly given in both parts of the province. 
The fish in Lower Canada is exclusive of the Gaspd and Bonaventura fisheries* of which 
there is a separate report. W. C. CROFTON, 

StcreUary Board of Registration. 



i 



oaiomAL Ajm lake trade. 



23 



Atmtraet ^ the cereal produce of the Uruted States in 1851. 



Suu. 



;W)ieat,buBhcl8 of. 



I 



R je, bushels of. 



lia^pchtre 



^mnont 

Mi—rfcoKtu 

KhaA^ t«UiMl. 

< '..noprtimt 

N*-w York ^.w 

N-»w Jert^w,,, 

|*r9n«T(va.n»i 

UrUw« 

MftfyUnd • . 

[hrt/Kt of ColuMbia. 

North CkruIinA •••••. 

S ■ulh C^kfoJina 

Cpei ifg ia , , ..••. 

r.orMim 

A'.&k«in«. •.•••«.•••. 

M.MNMIppi 

I ' -^AlM^UA 



^i • • * 




TEKfttTOKIEf. 



%fir 

♦ >r{'.iO 

t Uh 

N«v Mexico. 



■ 296,2.S9 
iy5,65S 
535, 955 

49 

41,762 

13,121,498 

i:(;oi,i9o 

15,367,091 

4b2,5Il 

4,494,680 

17,370 

11,232,616 

2J.30.1()2 

1.066,277 

l,Uo8,534 

1,027 

294.044 

137,990 

417 

41,6H9 

199,639 

1,619, 3-^1 

2,140,H22 

14,4H7,.35| 

4,925,S*?9 

6,214,458 

9,414,575 

2,981,(^2 

l,5:in,5Hi 

4,2h>,I.31 

17,328 



1,401 
211,943 
107,702 
196,516 



102,916 

183,117 

176,233 

481,021 

26,409 

. 600,H«)3 

4,148,182 

1,255,578 

4,805,160 

8,066 

226,014 

5,509 

458,9.30 

229,563 

43,790 

53,750 

1,152 

17,261 

9,606 

475 

3,108 

8,047 

89,163 

415,073 

4'i5,718 

105,871 

78,792 

83,364 

44,268 

19,916 

61,253 



125 

106 
210 



Indnn cdnit 
biuhcls i)i\ 



1 
1 
2 

2 

1 
17 

8 
19 

3 
11 

35 

27 

16 

30 

1 

2H 
-Ml 

10 

5 

8 

52 

58 

59 

5 

52 

57 

36 

8 

1 



750,056 
573,670 
032,396 
345,490 
539,201 
935,043 
K58,400 
759,704 
835,214 
145,542 
104,631 

65,230 
254,319 
941,051 
271,454 
080,099 
996,fc09 
754,048 
446,552 
266,373 
926,611 
893,939 
276,223 
675,591 
078,695 
641,420 
964,363 
646,984 
214,537 
056,799 
9h8,979 

12,236 



16,725 

2,918 

9.899 

365,411 



100,5U3,t>99 I 14,lt«8,639 I 592.3^6,613 

I I 



Wh<»al, average price per bushel. 

Rye <k) do , 

Corn do do , 



80 cenld. 
50 •• 
45 •' 



TOTAL. 



Wheat 100,503,899 bushels value 

Rye 14, IHH.C^'W.. .do do.. 

592.326,012... do do.. 



880,403,119 

7,094,319 

2(;(),54(>,975 



3r>4,044,413 



24 AlfBRBWS' REPORT ON 

■ 

The total quantity and value of the above, exported to all countriy, 
U seen by tlie following table : 

Wheat \ 1,026,725 bushels vSfue. . «1.025,733 

Fliiur 2,202,335 barrels do. . . 10,524,331 

Corn .3,426,811 bushels do. . . 1,762,549 

Indian meal 203,622 barrels do. . . 622,866 

Other grain, brqad, &c ^ 620,758 

r. 

Total :. - 14^456,236 



It is gratifying to notice that the agricultural interests of the United 
Stales are increasing in a ratio proportionate to its other material in- 
terests, and that we are now exporters and not importers of agricultural 
produae. It is affirmed that the prices of grain in Mark Lane control 
the prices of grain in our exporting markets. The following table is 
therefore subjoined to show the quantity of grain imported into Eng- 
land, our principal market in Europe, from the United States and other 
foreign countries. 



1 



OOLONIAI* ASJ> LAKE TR^BB. 



25 



An arcottnt far t/te ycarw 1849 and 1850, respcctivrly^ of the number ofquar* 
t'Ti <y' Mchta/j UirUt/f and oatn^ and of the number of sacks find barrels of 
fi-iMT^ tmjyntid into England^ Ireland^ and Scotland^ severally^ from the 
Vhi'td Siatrt of America^ from Canada, from France, and from all other 
J*^r:i tfEuropr^disti/tguishuig the quant i/y of those articles snitfrom each 
cJm»*rtf, retpectircly ; also stating the number of quarters of wheat to tthick 
*'€ €m:trf numbtr of sacks and barrels of flour from each country are all 
' uitaUnt. 



Artic'c*. 



TftAft 1849. 



Quantitlcv Iniportod from— 



Th«r. 5l«tc»: CaoaUa. 
of America. 






«.•'#: 



Ib» Ta.W'S K^|^lofB. 



l£l« K.-«'*-l 

tm p4 

L r »^A 



•r : -- 9uM«"» of whc«l» un- 
•»»• r-r.»l 

* E'.l 



U* r .!«-) K>:r ( Ida 



Praoc«. 



Qii'irt^rt. 
862, « 91 
H»,7(i5 
7b, 6M 



liN, Ul I ]().^98 



I 
Ctrt. ) rv/. 

1.5*6.7:rj 2.V.82fl 

l(V4.v>9 , 192.M2 

97.546 I &,755 



451.331 



759,455 
113,49i 



1.769. Iti7 456, .'99 1,0<I^,25>4 



4.1 ». 49% 
47. •»4 
«7. ^7.> 



7:». H <8 

£5. IN 3 

1,644 



2Ifi,9'>7 
J«2,4i« 



. _ _ .— ^ 


■^^" ■ ~ 




AlIparUofRu- 
Krancr.lnrlu- 


All other 
parU. 


Anrejfateor 

th« importa- 
tion from •& 


(ling the Aoid- 
Itc p.irU cf 
Turkey. 




parts. ' 



Qu'irtfrt. 1 Q'-nr*frt. 

2,'j:.l,ini ».-.,« M 

44:».«5» t 21. M2 

419.9v'6 ; 42.i^t9 



8,116,057 ' 159.551 



QuaHtm. 
8,818. Ill 
4^8.710 



a«645,tlt 



91.4^^8 
6,^-46 

1,5M 



16,C:ia 

1,449 

6 



Cttf. 
9,6)»,9M 
498, 947 

«i8,r 



99,7sS I IS, (93 8,849.869 



Qurri^rf. Quar**T$, 
2<J,117 4,7.^4 

1,!^:'6 I 414 

4^<t ! 8 



^5.459 I 1H'>,455 | 8>>7,5 9 



2S,.MI • 0,170 



Art 

n 






m\ ^\l Htmr 












c 


' l\ ci K r 


.fJuO 


ft^« 


. r 


.- 1 


1 

• • • 




1 


■ A«Mt 


.. . 1 




r 


. t • • K ' 


ri »^ 


■ 


.*• 1 

i. 

1- 


. • - 

e ' * 
1 
• -- i 


1 

■ * * ■ 

• • • ■ 1 


4 


la 


• V- tr-l K : 


r«»« .... 



5'W. r^7 
2y. vi»7 



5«*.5>l 
1.644 



579. 07^ 

4^71)4 

11«».9vl 



8.277. 21 H 99.'»«'4 
447 ( > 21.916 
4i4Mt44 , 42,y71 



Qmnrfen, 
759.161 
142, 5't 
88,880 



•57,0t7 



ft,S7«,tl8 
88o,88S 
6C9.W7 



6W.6«> ; 14 ,7W I 7:w.s«:l | 8.1 4 1,. 'A* i 164.721 [ 4,60t.47g 



82,51.1 

I '"4,'um" 



991. COT 3,C9« 
2-*i.:5r.«» 

CI,;**") ■ 



1.142 

'"{9V 



1, 


290, 


^15 


1, 


^^^, 


4 




74. 


T* 




9. 


791 



],%U 



l.-^G5,5:d 



3. :/H 

193 

" '7* 
199 



1.077. 806 
V84.M§ 

68,iW4 

1.881.«« 



1.182.74* 

74.^78 

9.9« 

1.267,101 



26 ANDREWS* REPORT ON * 

Account tfwheatf harUy^ and oats imported into Et^Umdj^tft. — ^Continaed. 





* - 




Turl800. 

■ 








(feoantitiee imported f^om— 


▲rUelw, Ac. 


The U. States 
of America. 


Canada. 


fraoce. 


All parts of So- 
rope, exc-pt 
Pn^ce, inclu- 
ding the Asia- 
tic parts of 
Turkey. 


All other 
parts. 


Aggregate of 
the In porta* 
tioB from all 
parts. 


Whfltt lmport«d~ 

Into Rkielinid 


Quarters. 

93, 7M 
1.948 


Quarttrs. 
6,045 
8,789 


QunrttTT*. 

465,608 

81,6i8 

108,110 


Quartan. 

1,743,661 
440,591 
565,766 


Quarters. 

178,795 
88,888 
78,188 


Quarters. 
8,491,865 


Scotland 

Irfiljuul 


495,148 
751,993 










tho United Kingdom 


1CM),69{ 


8,774 


595,855 


8,706,018 


879,148 


8,788,995 


Wlieat floor («ctiul weight) im- 
ported— 
in4<> Fpgf And 


Cwt. 
1,897,797 
116,993 
18,869 


Cwt. 
181,018 
181,841 

8,989 


Oivt. 
1,684,518 
801,889 
198,774 


CM. 

97,960 

10,061 

4,608 


Cwt. 
8,879 
784 
88 


CM. 
8,149,660 


ficotland 

Ireland 


461, 06T 
918,718 






the United Kingdom 


1,687,158 


845,892 


1,985,175 


118,639 


9,186 


8,819,440 


WbMt floor (redooed to Ita eqolra- 
I«nt in qoarten of wheat) im- 
ported— 
Into Kngland .. .^. ..^.^..^ ^ ^ 


Qumrterf. 

899,871 

88,426 

8,684 


Quarters. 
84,574 
84,663 
840 


Quarttrs. 

485,675 
67,6S8 
56,798 


Quarters. 
87,939 
8,876 
1,816 


Quarlert. 
8,894 
884 
6 


OuarCcrr. 
899,908 


Scotland 


188,876 


Ireland 


08,489 






the United Kingdom 


486,881 


70,088 


650,060 


88,180 


8,684 


1,091,868 


Iggregate of wheat and wheat floor 
imported— 
Into Kngland 


498,188 

85,874 

8,634 


40,619 

87,898 

840 


901,178 

79,884 

164,908 


1,776,660 
448,466 
667,088 


175,189 
88,456 
78,188 


8,891,758 


Scotland 


094,018 


Tr^lAPil 


81t,4S7 






1 
the United Kingdom 

Bttley imported— 

IntB ^i>gTan<1 


687,080 


78,857 


1,146,406 


9,767,198 


881,778 


4,880,808 






81,899 

68 

1,TU 


746,849 

191,064 

68,885 


10,616 


783,088 
191.107 


Scotland 












1,667 


06, 208 








the United Kingdom 






82,998 


990,788 


18,173 


1,086,»U8 








Otii imported— 

Into Kngtaod 






8,980 
6 

1 


1,044,987 


9 

66 


1,047,918 
91,680 
14,074 


Scodand 






Ireland 


• 














the United Kincdom 






8,936 


1,151,481 


66 


1« lot, 478 











COUmiAl* AND LAKE TRADB. 



27 



€tnuMmption of foreign grain for four years j from 1847 to 1850. 



Qaantitj in qaaiten. 

MTbeat 14,238,313 at bis. (W. sterling. . 

Oilirrgnuna 25,031,823 at 31 6 ..do 



Vmlaa. 

. 6184,208,170 
. 197,123,110 



To«al« 39,276,136 381,331,280 



Yearly average .. 9,817,534. . , 96,332,820 



Almtract of grain imported for five yean, from 1846 to 1850. 

Quantity in qnarten. Value. 

Vihe at 16,452,555 at 52*. i J. sterling $210,769,750 

Oibrr grains 27,485,078 at 33 ..do 225,251,885 



Totals 44,067,533 



Yearly average. . 8,813,526 



436,021,035 
87,204,375 



TMe ftdkibiting the flour and wheat exported from Canada in 1850 and 

1851 — year ending January 1. 



bf«rta4 toand 


throofh — 


1& 
Flour. 




Bvrrtls 
19.244 


f^JMPftfO 


260. H72 


^hii fc|ff* 


32,9y9 

90.9o8 


l^k* ChftBDlaifi.. 









Wheat. 



Buahtl9. 
66,001 



192,918 j 



Tqte] eiported inland to the Uni- 
ted 8UieB 

and Quebec 



Teilil exported. 



404,103 I 1,353,363 
280,618 : bH,465 



G^4,721 



in Inland eiport to the United States. 
in aaa eiport Canada 



I 



IKil. 



Flour. 


Wheat. 


BarrtU, 

10,860 

259,875 

30,609 

11,940 


BusluU. 

101,655 

670,203 

18,195 

GC6 


313,284 
371,610 


790,678 
161,313 



1,441,828 I 6'?4,WU 



90,819 
90,993 



951,990 

562,695 
72,847 



Toco/ quantity imported into the UnitcA States from Canada ^^ for the year 

ending June 30, 1852. 

Wbeau ba»heU 870.889 value, «()f)9.681 

Fkw. cwu 496,201 1,(K)8.928 

Rye, mu, kc, kc 203,670 

1,802,179 



ei 




aan vie Montreal and Quebec. 
«scep4 168,706. 



28 ANDaB,W8' BBFOBT ON 

Of the above, there was exported to England, viz : 

Wheat, bushels 427,615 value, «455,204 

Flour, cwt 343,633 924;079 

1,379,283 

To the British North American colonies other than Can- 
ada, viz: 

Wheat, bushels 24,259 value, $23,132 

Flour, cwt 139,661 346,895 

370,027 

Total 1,749,310 



Total domestic fiour^ tft^ exported from the United States to the British 

North American colonies. 



TO CANADA. 

• 



Wheat 208,130 bushels value, $150,288 

Flour 5], 176 barrels. 191,750 

Corn 88,306 bushels 39,158 

Other grain 6,911 

388,107 



TO OTHER BRITISH N. A. COLONIES OTHER THAN CANADA. 

Wheat 261,971 bushels value, $220,319 

Flour 200,664 barrels 945,387 

Corn 101,169 bushels 66,199 ' 

Meal.Indian. 67,273 barrels 173,637 ■ 

Meal (rye) and other grains 172,187 

1,577,629 



It will be easily seen by these tables that the whole of the Canadian 
wheat, &c., imported in bond, is re-exported to England and the colo- 
nies; and also, in addition, that the export to Canada and the colonies, 
for their consumption, is nearly two millions of breadsluffs the produce 
of the United States 

The upper province, generally known as Canada West, has a greater 
interest in a free intercourse with the United States than Lower Canada 
or Canada East. The origin, language, and other distinctive features 
of the inhabitants of Lower Canada, make their affinities with the 
United States much less than those of the Upper Canadians* More- 
over, the geographical position of Upper Canada makes New York a 
more convenient, while it is at the same time a larger and more secure 
market for her produce, than Montreal or Quebec. The various lines 



OOUmiAZ. AHD LAKB THADB. 



29 



of raOway, leading Trom the Atlantic to the lakes, give to the inhabi* 
tanUoTtiiP upp?r province faciliiies of communication with New York» 
during a part oftlie year when access to Quebec is extremely difficult. 
The canal toUs^ levied by the State of New York on Canadian pro- 
door passing through her canals toward tide-water, amounted, in two 
Tcan, 1850 and 1851, as near as could be ascertained, to over six hun* 
dred tbnusand dollars ; and property passing through the same channels 
6ocn tide* water, for the same period, probably paid half as much more; 
making about tour hundred and fifty thousand dollars annually con* 
tnbated by the Canadian trade to New York canals. 

n/a Catuida from the Untied Statet^ gi^^ 'Ae principal artida 

and values^ for the year 1851. 



AiliclM. 





r«* 




ofiUk 

vi ladm rabbar 



Vmlnes. 



1893,316 

403,860 

565,124 

439,260 

318,844 

53,724 

85,768 

42,59d 

47,388 

89,204 

126,23a 

47,804 

32,996 

19,920 

278,468 

19,296 

79,816 

18,828 

38,668 

44,264 

80,768 

53,960 

12,680 

116,988 

81,144 

17,544 

4,780,372 

8,788,712 



80 



▲NPBBWS' BBPO&T ON 



ExpoTUfrom Canada to the United States^ g^vt^^ the principal ariidei and 

values^ far the year 1851* 



Articles. 



Ashes. • . 
Lumber. 



Shingles 

Cattle of all kinds and sizes. 

Horses 

Wool 

Wheat 

Flour 



Barley and rye. . 
Beans and peas. 
Oats 



Butter 

Unenvinerated 



Values. 



465,9d3 
766,638 

20,732 
140,176 
165,848 

41,896 

491,760 

1,181.484 

7£s9e 

«;588 

135,708 

38,004 

38,008 

1,705,664 



4,929,084 



As can be seen by referring to table No. 9, in Canadian returns, the 
dutiable and free goods are thus stated for the year 1861 : 

Dutiables imports into Canada from the United States $7,971,380 

Free imports into Canada from the United States 1,147,388 

•9,118,768 



Amount of duties collected on $7,971,380 is $1,166,144, or about 
14| per cent. 

The active character of the inland trade between Canada and the 
United States may be seen by the following statement of the tonnage 
inward and outward : 





INWARD. 


OUTWARD. 


TOTALS. 




American. 


British. 


American. 


British. 


Inward. 


Outward. 


Steam 

Sail 


1,224,523 
139,867 


845,589 
202,039 


753,318 
153,670 


564,089 
206,361 


2,070,112 
341,906 


1,317,407 
360,031 




Total 


1,364,390 


1,047,628 


906,988 


770,450 


2,412,028 


1,677,438 



Inward and outward* 

Steam — ^American $1,977,841 

British 1,409,678 



Sail — American 
British 



293,637 

408,400 



$3,387,519 



701,937 



Grand total, inward and outward 4,089,456 



* The discrepancj between this axul other amooBts is explained in a note in table No. 9. 



COLOirUUi AKO JsAXM TBADS. 



31 



Tii<* total amooDt imported from Canada into the United States for 
she ilurv years ending June, 1851, is, by commerce and navigation 



rcnict» $ll,156f342^-on which tlje following amount of duty has been 
ciAi* »trd, as will horewith appear : 

Siai/mrnt of nrcnw collected in the different districts of the United StaUi 
bordering on Can^ida^ from 1849 to 1851, inclusive^ (three years,) 



IhtHncU, 



GroM revenue. EzpenBOs of 
: collection. 




|ldl,915 02 

133,326 SS 

42,842 41 

22,410 78 

16,603 54 

273, 173 92 

46,324 66 

44,076 44 

148,740 03 

1,IS5 26 

126.677 24 

34,018 44 

244 54 

47,935 42 

1,797 42 

10,670 41 



$27,472 47 

22,965 22 

16,002 22 

14,222 58 

I 27,000 95 

, 38,210 43 

I 13,368 47 

! 21,277 69 

< 49,601 19 

I 31,924 35 

; 13,228 71 

; 5,927 49 

• 2,470 40 

32,868 22 

I 4,535 02 

i 10,360 73 



Net revenue. 



fizcoaaof 
expense*. 



Mem. 



6 



$154,442 55 

•109,751 44 

26,840 19 

8,188 20 



• ••■•••• 



1234,947 50 

131,722 66 

22,798 75 

|j98,bf5 78 



113,448 53 
28,090 95 



110,397 41 



30,769 09 



15,067 20 I 



2,225 86 



§154 75 I 



I 9,737 60 



1,130,912 21 ; 331,436 14 | 844,338 50 



46,129 96 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

I • • I 

II 

la 



a 



3 



TL#' firM proposition for reciprocal free trade was confined to Canada 
.ilofwN and limited to certain natural products of either country; but 
irv <ju« *tion hiis since taken a wider ranpc. It is now believed that 
•ri arraniremeni can be eflecled and carried out for the free inlorchange 
r.-twi'i-o the United yiatc*5 and the colonies, of all the products of either 
vf^'-th* r <if acricullure, of mines, of llie i(ir<\'?t, or of the sea, in con- 
:i« \. »n uUli an airreement i'or the fri'e navfcation of the rivers St. 
Liwr. iicr nnd St. Jolin, the concession of a concurrent right with 
li'iti*h '*ul»irct.'» to il»» st*a fisheries near the sliores of the colonies, and 
vr r« mi>-iou of th<* export duty leviiul in New Brunswick on timber 

• Kiirr fj' li»ri; lu ^610 tW — nioirty of Mlm mcrrhandi^n cli«tri!)Utc<i per act April 2, *44, ■. 3. 

• •• *• 15 *>*>— il'ittr* on in»*frfiandno rrfumlrd. 
' *' ** inil Xi — cip^'ii^ot* nttriuinnj proworuluiiw. 

I *' '* 2.'»3 (>t>^itioirty of <aIr-4 iikt(')i.iii(1i<u' diMtnbutfd por act Apnl 2, *44,e. 3. 

• *' ** 154 93— -d lit ton oil iiii«ri iiaiidise r<* funded. 



T«-tAl l.'JbT a3— d«Ntuctcd frt>iu net revenue. 



RKrAMTl'l 4T10N. 






•••TcU ,*» . • 



...$1,130,912 21 i\rt n»vonuo $844,338 50 

... 331.436 14 KxccMufcipenMM 46,129 96 



799,476 07 . 



793,208 54 
Add anioimt drducted 1,267 53 

799,476 07 



32 ANDREWS' REPORT ON 

and lumber cut within the limits of ihe United States, and floated down 
the river St. John, for shipment to American ports* 

The free navigation of the St. Lawrence was a prominent subject of 
discussion during the administration of John Quincy Adams. At thU 
time it is greatly desired by all those western States bordering on the 
great lakes, as their natural outlet to the sea. 

The free navigation of the St. John has been rendered absolutely 
necessary by the provisions of the treaty of Washington, and it would 
be a great advantage to the extensive lumber interest in ihe northeast- 
ern portion of the Union. The repeal of the export duty on American 
lumber floated down the St. John to the sea M'ould be but an act of 
justice to the lumbermen of that quarter, upon whom it now pre^es 
severely, and who have strong claims to the consideration of the gov- 
ernment. 

At present there are no products of the colonial mines exported to 
the United States, except a small quantity of coals from New Bruns- 
wick, and a larger quantity from the coal fields of Nova Scotia and 
tJ^pe Breton. A notice of these coal fields, and a statement of the 
quantity of coals exported from them to the United States, will be found 
under the head of Novia Scotia. 

A free participation in the sea fisheries near the shores of the colo- 
nies is regarded as the just prescriptive privilege of our fishermen. 
Without such participation, our deep-sea fisheries in that region will 
become valueless. 

With reference to this important subject, the undersigned feels thai 
he would be wanting in his duty to the government if he did not ear- 
nestly call its attention to the critical state of the colonial fishery ques- 
tion, which, owing to a recent demonstration of imperial and colonial 
policy, has assumed a very threatening aspect. 

Since the Fishery Convention of 1818, by which this government, on 
behalf of American citizens, renounced forever their right to fish within 
three marine miles of the seacoasl of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
and Prince Edward Island, many of the hardy and industrious fisher* 
men of our country have been compelled to pursue their adventurous 
calling (the importance of which cannot be over-estimated) near the 
shores of these colonies, in a manner by no means creditable to the 
standing or character of the people of the United States. 

The files of the State Department furnish abundant evidence of the 
losses sustained by our citizens in consequence of their vessels having* 
been seized and confiscated for alleged violations of the fishery conven- 
tion, to which the necessities arising^ from the nature of their pursuit 
compelled them. 

For several years past, the colonists have constantly urged the im- 
perial government to station an armed force on their shores, ** to pro- 
tect the fisheries from the unjustifiable and illegal encroachments of 
American fishermen." The force hitherto provided has not been such 
as the colonists desired, having usually been limited to three or four 
vessels, under the command heretofore of discreet officers of ih^ Royal 
Navy, who have generally exercised the powers with which they were 
invested with liberal discretion. 

With the view of bringing matters to a crisis, the colonial legisla- 



ooLonuL aub lakb tram. 33 

ln'f« have lately ff^nowed ihcir appeals to the imperial government for 
a *\ to rjrive American fishermen from their shores, and compel ihem to 
f II»w their cnllin^ in places where fish are not so plentiful or so easily 
rnijhr. An! in order to show their own determination, the provinces 
o* Cinida, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia have entered into an 
J s^-4'xiir nl in {>rovid«i a certain number of small cruisers, at their own 
fM'^n**', to be stationed at various places agreed upf)n, to assist in 
vi}' iXMZ the object they desire. 

Tlie la.st aj>[K»al of the colonial authorities has been viewed favor- 
i\ :y by th#' new adminij:traiir)n of Earl Derby- A change has taken 
;•■ ••*e in the Briti:«h policy with relerence to this fishery question ; and 
X 'nrrular hfter h;L<? l>ern sent to tlie governors of the several colonies, 
a'*.rr'un»*in!» ihul her Majesty's government has resolved to send a small 
:..'.^- of arm«'d vessels and steamers to North America, to protect the 
i.-:,erii-* nffninsl toreiim aggression. The colonial governments have 
:!'!•«! out six cruisers, fully manned and armed, which have sailed for 
i:*'^ bc**i fi>hini; grounds, and there is imminent danger of a colHsion. 
Tr<^ coluninl cruisers threaten to make prize of every vessel " fishing 
'IT prrparidir to fi*h,*' within certain limits, which the; colonial authori- 
t • f r<mte«tl are within three marine miles beyond a line drawn from 
!*• :i<ilind i«> Ip-adiand, and not three miles from the shores of the coast, 
•Ai'i-h cnir citizens contend is the true reading of the convention. 

iha fL>herin'n fffnerally entertain the conviction that the threatened 
* i»-lu*i<in by thf British and colonial governments is a violation of rights, 
••.rrum^ in tli**m under the laws of nations applicable to this subject 
uTiil lo ihit rfirit>n, fortified by former use, till it has well nigh created 
1 r.viht by pn-s^Tiption ; and many regard such threatened exclusion aa 
sn ilhU-ral and uncalled for measure at this period, doing the British or 
:•*■ ct>l<Kiies no fftynlj while it injures them seriously. In such a state 
*'* ft«eluig it L< next to impos:*ible to prevent difficulties and collisions 
!• twrf n llj<*m and the British authorities, and wrongs may be done on 
l» <h •t/k*4. Evt^ry dictate of prudence and of wise policy, and just 
;»^ic»'ctji>n to our citizens against an uncalled for interference by impru- 
> m tabordi nates, therefore, imperiously demands that the Federal gov- 
-TTirnr nt jthfiuld, as soon as practicable, dispatch lo those waters, and 
rr uf fuin there, a rcspt^ctable naval force, under command of discreet 

:. ers. It may be here not inappropriately observed, thai ships-of-war 
i» mnng th^* American flag is a rare spet^taclc in the waters of Maine, 
*Mle Bnti<h arnu'd vessels often visit our coast and harbors* 

lo criQcIusion, the undersigned would resj>ectfully stale, tliat, although 
•v mums and statements h<»rewilh submitted furnish gratifying evi- 
:■ 'jr^-§ iff ih«» commercial intercourse between the United States and 
: ^ British North American colonics, and although thos<^ returns may 
"• cWmefi perfectly correct, having be<n derived from official sources, 
} t rt i* pn>p*T for liiin to remark, that they do not represent the whole 
f -'-vof iIh* trnile. 

It i« Wfjl known that in many instances colonial produce is entered 
it pnct n inu'h Im low its real value ; and on the norlheastt*rn and north 
**«i»'m fpHiiiers of the rniteti States there is ever an active barter 
•'. >• cam/ J on with the mitihboring colonies, of which no account can 
>• taken b? the public officers on eilh»*r side. It is therefore pcrtecily 
'3 



34 AHDRBWS' SBFOET OM 

within bounds to estimate the entire exports of the United States to the 
British North American colonies as now amounting to eighteen millions 
of dollars annually. 

It is universally admitted that it would be much better to place this 
border trade on a different basis, and under the influence of a higher 
principle. This would enable us to mature and perfect a complete 
system of mutual exchanges between the different sections of this vast 
continent ; an achievement not only wise and advantageous, but worthy 
of our hiffh civilization. 

It has been remarked bv a learned writer, (Lord Lauderdale, on 
Public Wealth,) that ^' Those trades may be esteemed good which 
consume our products and manufactures, upon which the value of our 
land and the employment of our poor depend; that increase our sea- 
men and navigation, upon which our strength depends; that supply us 
with such commodities as we absolutely want for carrying on our trade, 
or for our safety, or carry out more than they bring in, upon which our 
riches depend." 

The trade with the colonies fulfils all these considerations. It takes 
from us largely of those products and manufactures which enhance the 
value of our soil, and give profitable employment to the labor of our 
people. It greatly increases our ships and the numbers of our seamen, 
giving us the means of maintaining our navy, and adding materially to 
our strength as a nation. It supplies us cheaply with those commodi- 
ties we absolutely require for conducting our foreign trade, and sup- 
plying the necessities of home consumption. And lastly, it carries out 
mfinitely more than it brings in, and so adds vastly to our individual 
and national riches. 

The undersigned has the honor to be your obedient servant, 

L D. ANDREWS, 

United Statet Omni. 

Hon. Thomas Cobwin, 

Secretary of the Treasury ^ fVashingtan. 



COUmiAL JJa> IiAKB TEAPB. S5 



PART L 



THE DEEP-SEA FISHERIES 



Tim Bag 9f Fw»djff alamg the coast of Nova Scotia^ om the Grand Bank 
of Naefimndland, and within the Gulf of St* Lawrence. 

In oonnexion with the pending question of commercial reciprocity 
b e t weg n oar country and the British North American provincesi and 
as coooeniing the interests of a large and valuable class of citizens in 
the fiiUng towns of New England, the fisheries on the Atlantic coast 
of Nova dcoiia, as also those within the Gulf of St. Lawrence, neai 
the shores of Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, 
and that part of Cfanada known as Gasp^, occupy a prominent position. 

It is sufficient at this moment to state that, except near certain poiy 
tioos of the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, and around the 
Magdalen islands, our citizens are not permitted to fish, save at the 
tiistance of three marine miles from the land. 

It has been contended by the provincial authorities, acting under the 
('pinkm of the law-officers of the Crown in England, that these three 
miM are to be measured from headland to headland, and not from the 
L»ivs or iodeots of the coast. Under this construction of the convention 
''f 1818, our vessels have been sometimes seized and confiscated ; but 
'•V iiDpenal government has inclined to the opinion that this construe- 
t><i at the convention was too strict, and that our vessels might enter 
l«iTSv straits, or estuaries, tlie entrances to which were more than six 
ziiles wide. 

But even this modified construction of the convention bears hardly 
'H^m our industrious fishermen in a variety of ways, as I now proceed 
t«i thow. 

Tbe fishing grounds to which our vessels principally resort arc in 

*'i^ hay of Fundy ; along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia ; around 

>«ble island; on the Grand Bank of Newfoundland; and everywhere 

«itfaio the Gulf of St. LaiftTcncc, as far north as the entrance to Davis's 

^ Straits, beyond the straiu of Beilcisle. 

Oqr veaseb principally fish for cod and mackerel, ahhough they also 
uke heniogs at the Magdalen islands, or on tbe coast of Labrador. It 
'« true that they have a concurrent right of fishing on the west coast of 
VewioQiidland with the fishermen of England and France, and a 
fjitn right of fishing, with British subjects, on tbe coast of Labrador 
«ttl at tbe Magdalen islands ; as also the right of landing at such places 
-« those ooasts as arc uninhabited, fur the purpose of curing and oiying 



36 ASttnt^tB* KB90Kt Ml 

their fish ; but this privilege is seldom, if ever, exercised, because it is 
of no practical value to our fishermen. 

Those portions of the coasts of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince 
Edward Island, and New Brunswick, on which it would be advan- 
tageous for our fishermen to land for purposes connected with the 
fishery, are prohibited by reason of their settlement and actual occu- 
pation, while they are shut out from the best fishing grounds by reason 
of the convention of 1818, which excludes them from taking fisn within 
three marine miles of the coast, within which distance the best fish are 
often found in greatest abundance. 

The limits claimed by the British authorities under that convention, 
if strictly enforced, would exclude our fishing vessels fi'om the bay of 
Chaleur, the bay of Miramichi, the straits of Northumberland, and 
George's bay, within which the greatest quantities of the best mack- 
erel are now taken annually. 

If an arrangement could be made by which our fishermen would 
have the right to fish within three miles of the land, wheresoever they 
pleased, on the shores of the provinces, and also tlic right to land on 
those shores anywhere — first agreeing with the owner or occupant of 
the soil for the use of the necessary ground for fishing stations — it would 
tend greatly to increase the quantity of fish taken, would fiirnish the 
market with a well-cured article, enhance the profits of fishing voyages, 
and lead to a considerable extension of the number of vessels and men 
now employed. 

The codfish caught in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, by our fishermen, 
are pickle-salted in bulk, on board the vessels, as they are eaughf, and 
are thus brought home to be afterwards dried and cured. A liberal 
supply of salt is used, in which the fish first caught lie four months, 
and the last caught, one month. The vUalUyh so to speak, of the meat — 
its strength and flavor — ^is quite destroyedf. When unladen from the 
vessel, the fish are found to be pf a dead, ashy color, instead of the 
bright, wholesome hue which good fish should have ; and so brittle, as 
scarcely to bear handling — ^with hardly any smell or taste, except that 
imparted by salt. The home consumption of such an unpalatable 
article is gradually diminishing, while the inferiority of the cure deprives 
us of the advantages of foreign markets, for which these fish are wholly 
unsuited. 

The mackerel taken in the gulf by our fishermen are split, salted, 
and dressed while the vessel is under way ; and it often happens that 
a full fare is made in four or five days, when these fish are plentiful. 
In such case the vessel, being fiiU, must leave the fishing when at its 
best, and make a long voyage to her port of return, in the northern 
States, in order to discharge ; and before she can again reach the ground 
the chances are that the fish have disappeared, or that the season is 
over. 

If our mackerel fishers could remain upon the fishing ground during 
the whole season — ^touching at some convenient station occasionally, to 
land the fish on board, and thus keep their vessels in good sailing trim — 
five or six fares could be made in each season, instead of the two 
fares, which they rarely exceed at present. The right of fishing within 
three marine miles of the land is very important, as regards the mack- 



OOMIPJU* AMD UkMM TB4DB* t7 

«fcl Ubery ; hecBote the best and fattest fiah are genarally found in the 
UriQest adliiflft in close proximity to the shore. 

To the ood-Gsber the right to dry and cure his fish on shore would 
alao be important* The vessel could be kept in better trim, and fresh 
bait oottld oe more readily procured ; the fish would be more perfectly 
cored and filler for fiiodf tnan under the present mode of salting and 
ciirii^ A superior quality of this description of fish would open to us 
ooi oqIt the market of California, but also several foreign markets 
fivcn which our fish are now excluded, by reason of their imperfect 



launediately after the disappearance of the ice in the Gulf of 8t 
Lawrenccv ev«*ry spring, vast c}uantiue8 of herrings draw near the 
shurvs, in order to deposite their spawn. Our fishermen cannot partici- 
paie ID this fishery, because they are unable to enter the gulf so early. 
The quantity of ice passing out by Cape Breton prevents their doing ao 
mitil the season (c>r this prolific fishery has passed. If our fisliermcn 
cuold land and set up ashing stations on the coasts within the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, they might send home the season's catch by freighting 
%t-saeUv and winter their boats and part of their vessels there. In such 
caje they would be ready to participate in the early herring fishery 
the moment the ice left the snores ; and, having procured a sufficient 
tpiaiitiiy for curingt they would also be furnished with an ample supply 
*A bait far the early cod-fishing, which is excellent. As the herrings 
appraacb the shores they arc naturally followed by the cod, which 
ii-ed upon iheou In the early part of May the cod are Ibund in great 
abundanoe within half a mile or a mile of the land, in very shoal water ; 
«4 oowae, they may be taken with perfect case, and therefore with 
much profit. 

Imfrad of returning to tlieir port of ownership with the fares of her- 
non and cod which might thus be taken before our vessels are now 
uUc to enter the gulf, these cod would be dried and cured in the best 
maaocr by shore crews, and rendered fit for any market. The ves- 
■giU and thtnr fishing crews might at the same time be constantly and 
profitably occupied in pursuing closely the several fisheries, as they 
> ^xn-d each other, throughout the entire season, securing the best fisn 
' '. ercrj description in the largt*st quantities. By leaving some of the 
I* m^M and vessels on the coast, the fisheries, especially that for mack- 
' rri, OHigfat be jimsecuted until some time after the period when our 
v^aaek are now ubliffe<l to leave the gulf on their homeward voyage, at 
which lale period the finest fall mackerel are always taken. 

Penmoent fishing stations within the gulf, with boats and vesseb 
Mkwmym there, would render the fishing season considerably longer for 
'Msr fiahenneo. Thc*y would then share in the early spring and late 
lall fisheries, fit>m both which they are now excluded by the existing 
ai I a aim nwuts 

1ft is Qoly necessary to advert to the frightful loss of life and property 
ahich occurred in tbe (»ulf of Hi- Lawrence lust October, to show bow 
idraBftageous it would be to our citizens if, instead of remaining at sea 
'juuQ0Jik the heavy galeii which fi^|uenlly occur in the gulf, their fishing 
had each aome convenient fishing station, well sheltered, to 



AMI»UI^«»'' UUPOBT 



V. » 



I 



v*..» !«...'^ii u :iil limes, and where the crews could be ren- 
icio iuitii^ ihe comiDuance of bad weather at sea. 

NAVIUATIOX or THS ST. LAWRBNCB. 

. \.v'ii vNrith iho right to land and cure fish on the shores of the 
. . V iia\ liiiUiou of the river St. Lawrence becomes a matter of 

i IK .». Ii V aii.^hi bv our fishermen in the gulf, instead of being sent bv 
.. 'i...j. i»ivl viaiii»ort>u3 voyage around Nova Scotia, in order to reach 

IV [uu lu il^o I'uion from whence to be sent into the interior, mi^t, 

>x :»v .i u aJs U)i market, be shipped in our own vessels from the fishing 

I . ...(».» Oil iho cHvast, and these vessels, proceeding up the St. Law- 

M .iv < » lurfi^hi ffuoh any or all of the ports or places on the great lakes, 

wlu u 4 Jiupply of sea-fish is highly prized. 

lUo uuiucrous and constantly increasing body of consumers in the 
l;h ,a Wi'Ht, even to its remotest extremity, would thus be furnished 
\\ 4ih ^khk\ tidh at reasonable rates, caught and cured by our own hardy 
l4:jlH'uacn, and transported ia our own vessels. 

VRENCH FISHBRIBS AT NEWFOUNDLAND. 

The recent movements in France with regard to bounties on fish 
caught at Newfoundland, and exported to foreign countries, are singu- 
Im ly iuteresting at the present time, because it wiU be found, from what 
ItJiows, that the changes which take place during the present year in 
the allowance of those bounties are calculated to exercise a powerfiil 
vHiH't on the deep-sea fisheries of the United States.* 

llnrt^ailer we are to have fish caught and cured by citizens of France, 
uuttning our markets under the stimulus of an extravagant bounty, to 
iUMunelt) with the fish caught and cured by our own citizens. 

'tiiiN altogether new ana unexpected movement on the part of France 
liUM already attracted attention, and excited much interest and uneasi* 
iiMtfs among the fishermen of the eastern States. The matter at present 
MimwU thus: 

The law of France which granted bounties to the sea fisheries being 
Hbout to expire, the project of a new law was submitted to the Natiooal 
AHNMinbly on the 20th December, 1850, by the government. An able 
ruiHirt on these fisheries was at the same time submitted, which, among 
iillinr things, sets forth that the bounties paid by France during the 
liiuo years from 1841 to 1850, inclusive, for the cod-fishery only, had 
amounted to the mean annual average of 3,900,000 francs ; the number 
iif men employed annually in this fishery amounting to 11,500 on the 
average. The annual expense to the nation was therefore 338 francs 
)er annum for each man. France, it is said, thus trains up able and 
lardy seamen for her navy, who would cost the nation much more if 
they were trained to the sea on board vessels of war. 

* TrMiaUtioDi of reoent legislative documents of the National Asembly of France are «|>> 
IMnded to Uiia report, and to theee reference is made for foil particolais. Tor these and other 
Vftluftble documents the undersigned is indebted to Hon. Abbott Lawrence, minisler at the 
Murt of St. James, to whom his best acknowledgments are jusUy due» and are respectful] j 



I 



OOIXnCIAL AJIB LAKB TBADB. 29 

A oommittee of the National Assembly reported at length upon the 
propoaed law, and the state of the deep-sea fisheries. From this re- 
ports it appears that these fisheries, although enjoying large bounties 
and priviiegest were languishing, owing to the great distance at which 
they are conducted, and a farther increase of bounties on exportation 
waa reeommended, in order to stimulate their drooping energies. Upon 
Chia elaborate report, the National Assembly passed the proposed law 
OD tbe 22d July, 1851. It provides that, from the first day of Janu* 
ary» 1852, until tbe 30th June, 1861, the bounties for the encourage- 
of tbe ood fishery shall be as follows : 

BOimTIEa TO THB CRBW. 

L For each man employed in the cod fishery, with drying, on the 
of Newfoundland, at St. Pierre, and Miquelon, or on the Grand 
Banlu 50 francs. 

2. For each man employed in the fisheries in the seas surrouMing 
loelandt without drying, 50 francs. 

3. For each man employed in the cod fishery on the Grand Bankf 
widxMit drying, 30 francs. 

4. For each man employed in the fishery on the Dogger Bank, 15 



aOVNTIBa ON THX PRODUCTS OP THB PISHBBISS. 

L Dried ood of French catch, exported directly firom the place where 
the sanie is caught, or finom the warehouse in France, to French colo* 
oics in America or India, or to the French establishments on the west 
ooaat of Africa, or to transailantie cauntriu^ provided the 9awu are landed 
m a port tAert there i$ a French consul^ per quintal metrique, (equal to 
22U| P<>oik1s avoirdupois,) 20 francs. 

2. t>ried cod of French catch, exported either direct from the place 
wbffr caagbt, or fitnn ports in France, to European countries or foreign 
Scales witnin tbe Meaiterranean, except Sardinia and Algeria, per 
(juintid metrique, 16 firancs. 

3. Dried cod of French catch, exported either to French colonies in 
America or India, or to transatlantic countries, fi^om ports in France, 
witfaom being warehoused, per quintal metrique, 16 fi^cs. 

4. Dried oxi of French catch, exported direct firom the place where 
caogbc, or from tbe ports of France, to Sardinia or Algeria, per quintal 
iDeCffU|oe, 12 francs* 

BOtJHTT ON OOD LiyBRS. 

& Cod IiTers which French fishing vessels may bring mto France as 
tbe p ro d uct of tbeir fishery, per quintal metrique, 20 francs. 

Fram the foregoing scale of bounties, it will be seen that there are 
aoiDe grooods for tbe fears entertained by the fishermen of New Enff* 
laad, that the dried ood caught and cured by the French at Newfouno- 
bad, will be introduced into the prbdpal markets of tbe United Sutas, 



40 AMOBMW^* VBFOnr OV 

with the advantage of a bounty very nearly equal to two doUara for 
each American quintal — a sum almost equal to what our fishermen ob* 
tain for their dried fish when brought to market. It mu9t not be over* 
looked* either, that# besides this excessive bounty on fish exported to 
transatlantic countries, the French fishermen will enjoy also the bounty 
of fifty francs (almost ten dollars) per man for each of the crew, a far- 
ther bounty of twenty francs per quintal metrique on the cod-oil which 
he lands in France ; and farther, an almost entire remission of the duties 
on salt used at Newfoundland. 

With competition at hand so encouraged and stimulated, it will aooa 
be necessary to give our fishermen every facility and advantage for jpur- 
suing their business which by any po9sibility can be procured for 
them. 

By the treaty of Paris of 1824, the French were restored to the 
fisheries at Newfoundland. They in a short time took possession of the 
west coast and the northeast coast, and under the high stimulus afforded 
by Aeir heavy bounties, they nearly drove the British fishermen off of 
those coasts, and competed successfully with them in the foreign mar- 
kets they had previously supplied. 



ooumuh Mm hsmm vbadb. 41 



PART II. 



THE TRADE OF THE LAKES. 

In obedience to your instructions, the following detailed report is 
Mibmiucd on the condition, history, and prospects of the trade and com* 
merce of tlic great lakes of America ; the character, nature, quality, 
and value of tlieir imports, exports, and coastwise shipments; the 
places where originated, and whether on the increase or decrease ; the 
pres<ai enumeration of their entrances, clearances, tonnage, and 
crt-w«9 wht'ther progressive or retrogressive; with comparative state- 
n.'*Qt « of liie present and past years ; the i'acilities and obstructions to 
ilr XT free navigation and the transportation of goods; the internal im« 
{tniv«-aM*ms compl<*ted, under way, projected, or imperatively re* 
q-jiri*ttl; tbe chafact(*.r f()r productiveness, whether of agricultural or 
mm<Ta.l wealth, or of that arising from fisheries or the ibrest of the cir* 
rumi'jot'nt <li5tricts; the growth, prospects, and present condition of the 
UArbun^ liglit-hou^'s, beacons, piers, and other works indispensable to 
K^ure navigation; and, lastly, the farther works of construction, re- 
njoiral of olx*«tacles, and general improvements of navigation, requisite 
i.»r the dt velopna-nl and exploration to the fullest extent of the mesti* 
uiabic n«ource> of these noble waters, and the vast territories sur- 
r«»unii«ng them. 

It has Ikm'U diflicult to obtain much information and full detailed 
c^atemcnts on stmie of these points, owing, it is bc^^Ueved, to the abscincc 
f*i firu\ieT legd rec]uiroment8 and authoritative departmental instruc- 
ihjOB in that res|K'ct, and the want of means (except at the private 
* \|w n^^ of the otUcers and others) of furnishing sucn statistical data. 
yii»< ut the ofIi(*ers of the customs on the lake frontier are attentive, 
and .ire dcsin>us of furnishing all the statistical and general information 
in tin .r power, and many of the citizens engaged in trade and com* 
ay-ree« and in tlie bhinn)ent and trnns|)ortation of produce and mer^ 
rhan^lise, and espeeially incorpoiated companies or associations, have 
::i<|u«otIy furniJie<l the pubhc with usc^ful inibrmation on tlie lake 
traiif' and commence. 

Tlx* intrri*j»tii of thoso engaged in such business are ordinarily ad- 
%aort*d by expositions of such data. But full and authentic data, in 
proj>i r fiirm lc>r ready compilation and condensation into intelligible 
tabular statements, especially tliose for comparison, cannot be obtained 
Wiibuut legal provision to such end, and parlicuhu* departmental in- 
tfnictiocu prc'senting u»ybrm abstracts. Pounds are also necessary, to 
rvKnprusate tlie time and labor devoted to such important -stTvioe. 
Sk-v<rnd of the most valuable revenue olHcers on the lake and inland 
froaucT now receive inadeqtiate compensation for their iaithful and 



42 ANDSaWB' BBPOET ON 

onerous services* And with respect to federal officers* punciuatkg 
should be enforced by legal enactments. The organization of a sta- 
tistical office, the duties of which should include the decennial census, 
as a permanent bureau attached to the proper department at Washings 
ton, to which full information and data from all the departments ami 
offices at the seat of government and throughout the Union, and from 
all our officers abroad, should be rendered, and which could obtain 
like information from the State governments and other trustworthy 
sources, and from foreign governments likewise, tnight prove eminently 
useful. 

Properly established, and conducted by intelligent, accurate, indus- 
trious persons, it might easily collect quarterly all the requisite data of 
our trade and commerce with foreign countries, of our internal trade 
and commerce, of our internal improvements and internal transporta- 
tion, of our growing resources in every quarter, and of our coastwise 
trade. And all statistical data that might be wanted, could be advan- 
tageously published in advance of every session of Congress. That 
such information would be invaluable to the statesmen of this country 
who seek to legislate upon national principles, no one can deny. That 
vigilant detector, the public press, would then be enabled to expose 
errors or fallacies in time to prevent their causins; inconvenience. 

Other governments, less liberal than ours,' seek such information to 
enable them to find new objects for taaxitien» It would be especially 
important to ours as enabling it to abolish indirect or direct restrictions 
and burdens upon the advancement of every branch of industry, as 
it might then do without danger of mistake as to the facts. The para- 
mount duty of this government is to relieve the people from all un- 
necessary taxation, and this measure would tend to (urtner such object* 
Congress would not then, as is now too often the case, be compelled to 
legislate on such subjects in the dark, by conjecture, or, what is infi- 
nitely worse, upon the false data and incorrect and deceptive statistics 
furnished by interested persons. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties now existing, it is believed that an 
approximation, sufficiently near the realities of the case to convey 
an adequate understanding of the subject, has been attained in the 
following pages ; and that the results, as shown, will be alike gratify- 
ing to the enlightened and patriotic statesman, as displaying the im- 
mense development and incalcalable prospects of the resources of his 
country, and astonishing to the casual observer, who has, it is probable, 
never regarded the lake trade of the West as the right arm of the 
nation's commerce, or its area as the cradle of national wealth, pros- 
perity, and progress. 

For the convenience of reference and comparison, as well as from 
regard to historical and geographical propriety, the matter collected 
on this subject has been thus divided and arranged. 

A review, general and detailed, of each of the lake districts of col- 
lection, seventeen in number, commencing from the Vermont district 
to the eastward as the first, and among the first constituted, and thence 
proceeding westward to the head of Lake Superior. 

To each of these districts is attached a synopsis of such commercial 
and custom-house statistics as were attainable, and foand to be to the 



OQUmXAL AND LAKB TSADB. 49 

poiM ; wimh a general synopsis of the lakest severally, with their trade 
and bnck countries ; and, added to these, detailed statistical tables in 
i cieTCtt c c to the whole of the great St. Lawrence basin. 

To enter in this place on a discussion to prove what is so generally 
as the advantages accruing to a country (h>m a various and 
ivt« commerce, would be superfluous ; but, nevertheless, so little 
to be known, and such limited interests to be felt, in relation 
Sd oar own internal commerce, and to its bearing on the trade and 
pnMperily of the country at large, that a few words on its nature, past 
tiMarjt present requirements, and bearing on our commercial, social, 
* political cooditioo, will not, it is presumed, appear entirely imper- 



In the 6rst place, the general self-gratulation of the people and their 
legisklors at the fact that within scarcely a century's lapse our foreign 
has grown up to be second only to that of Great Britain, 
tt> threaten it also with rivalry, appears to have blinded them to 
a percrpcioo of the diflerence of the circumstances attending maritime 
and inland navigation ; of the reasons why the latter requires aid 
the poblic to efiect what in the former is safely left to tne means 
e&tefprise of individual communities ; and, lastly, of the prepon- 
deratif^ influence of the latter on the former branch of national pros- 
perity. It appears, moreover, to have led casual observers to the opin- 
no that* because our maritime commerce has experienced so wonder- 
hil an increase under circumstances somewhat untoward, it could have 
made no greater or further progress if liberally fostered by the hand of 
government ; and, secondly, that because one branch of commerce has 
•o succeeded, all other branches can so succeed. 
To these propositions it may be replied briefly : 
First. That the maritime commerce merely exports to foreign mar> 
kels the surplus productions of our country, whereby to purchase im^ 
poru finm the same or simikr markets. 

That this maritime commerce is sustained for the most part by 
opolrot commercial communities, on whom no burdens rest, at farthest, 
DOC the construction of their own harbors and their maintenance. 
That without a supply of produce for exportation, the foreign corn- 
would be carried on under such an adverse balance of trade as 
lid be injurious rather than profitable. 
That* for the present, the preponderance of our foreign exportations 
be of raw material, as agricultural produce, produce of the forest, 
die fisheries, and the field. 

That even when this ceases to be the case, and our articles of ex* 
port sImU be naore largely manufactures and articles of luxury, in lieu 
of raw produce, the necessity of raw produce to the seaboard and the 
large ooomiercial cities will still exist and increase, from the necessity 
of supplying material and subsistence for the commercial or raanufoo- 
toriog popQratioo. 

That of those articles of raw material which are neither shipped as 
foreign nor used as domestic provision, such as minerals and metals, 
every too native, brought into the domestic market and manufactured 
for borne uat, supplants so much of foreign raw material or 



4t JOmRMWB* B9J90BV <m 

manufajctore, and teods thereby so far to change the balanoe of tmde 
in our favor. 

It is contended by some political economistSy that of nations engaged 
in commercial pursuits, the largest exporters and the smallest import* 
ers must be the gainers, since a large excess of importation must cause 
a drain of the precious metals to pay for such excess. It does not 
follow that if this be true as to foreign or maritime commercct it is 
equally so as to inland or interior trade. 

The former cannot exist but by means of the latter ; the latter amy 
exist, and in some sort flourish, without the aid of the former. 

Again, for articles of bulk and weight, no means of transportatioQ 
can compete with water carriage, especially for great distances. It is 
the best and the cheapest. 

This, then, is the position of our inland and maritime navigation and 
commerce; the former is the feeder of the latter, the source of its 
greatness ; for at such a vast distance do our granaries and storehouses 
of agricultural and mineral wealtli lie from our marts and workahopSt 
that out for the network of lakes, rivers, and artificial improvements 
with which our country is so wonderfully intersected, ihey could never 
be rendered available for exportation or liome consumption on the aea* 
board, and in the old and thickly settled districts. 

These considerations show the interest which the external or mari* 
time commerce has in the advancement of the lake trade and naviga- 
tion ; and establish that the maritime commercial communities, and the 
commonwealth, should, as a matter of justice and duty, as well as of 
expediency, aid liberally all improvements which may facilitate the 
prosecution of business, the cultivation and exploitation, and yet more 
the transportation, of that produce which is necessary to the existence 
of the one, and the well-being of the other. The lake trade is obliged 
to effect much more bv its own means than the foreign, and it has 
infinitely less means whereby to efiect it. 

It is well known that this inland or lake trade is in the hands of new 
States, peopled, for the most part, by emigrants, whose chief possession 
is their mdusUry, swelling the coffers of the older and wealthier com* 
munities. The latter now virtually demand that these infant States 
shall not only produce, but transport produce, and clear the way for 
that transportation, for their benefit, at their own expense. Henoe 
the expediency and justice of lending, under these circumstances, 
federal aid to the new States, so far as removing or surmounting such 
obstacles in free channels of trade open to all or any States, as are 
offered by the flats of the Lake St. Clair, the rocks and shoals of Lake 
George, or the Sault St. Marie, is, it is considered, incontestable. 

The details of the districts, and the general synopsis of the lakes 
and lake country, will undoubtedly suffice to establish the facts and 
Aovr the realities of the vast extent of the existing trade, its past 
growth, and its gigantic future. But a brief glance at its general iea- 
tunes may be useful for the concentration of ideas and ready percep- 
tion of results. 

The coast line embraced in this report include both shores of Lake 
Champlaiu, with which it commences (discharging Its waters into the Su 
Lawrence by the Sorel or Richelieu river,) the southern bank of the river 



COLMnAI. AHO LAKB TItADB. 



46 



6t Lawnnicet Lake Ontario, the Niagara river, and Lake Erie, to the 
diTidiiifr Itoe between New York and Pennsylvania; thence the southern 
ccMt of Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania and Ohio line ; thence the 
aoortiwiesteni coast of the same lake to the Michigan line ; and thence 
the vkolc aouthem banka or the Detroit river, St. Clair lake and river, 
the weatcm coast of Lake Huron, along the southern peninsula of Michi-* 
ffao, the whole coasts of Lake Michigan, including the shores of Illi- 
noia, Obto, Wisconsin, an^ Michigan, and all the southern and south- 
w'atem onaat line of Lake St. George, the river St. Mary's, and Lake 
Suprrinr, including the shores of northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
MinnraoUi, to the frontier of the British possessions at the outlet of 
Raaij bke and Lake of the Woods into the waters of Lake Superior. 
The extent of the whole line exceeds three thousand miles in length, 
and embraces portions of the following States, several of them the 
wealthiest of the entire Union : Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, MichigBn, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and the Minnesota Terri- 
tArVf on the one side ; while the lakes open to our commerce on the other 
a ctwac line of nearly eoual extent, and in some parts of hardly inferior 
fimiliCT, on the Canadian shore. The lakes themselves, with their 
of measurement, are as follows : 



Ui 



Greatart 


Greatwt 


Mean 


EleTation. 


length. 


breadth. 


depth. 




MiUi. 


MUiM, 


Feet. 


Feet. 


355 


160 


900 


627 


390 


100 


900 


578 


960 


160 


900 


574 


240 


80 


84 


565 


180 


35 


500 


232 


1,555 















Sq.mUeM. 

32,000 

99,000 

90,400 

9,600 

6,300 

90,000 



Tbeae lakes are estimated to drain an entire area of 335,515 square 
milea, and discharge their waters into the ocean through the river St. 
Liwreoce, which is rendered navigable from Lake Erie downward to 
M ve«acls not exceeding 130 feet keel, 26 beam, and 10 feet draught, 
and the free navigation of which for American bol|pms may, it is anti- 
r paled, be acquired by the concession of reciprocity of trade to the 
Canadian government* 

The whole traffic of these great waters may be now unhesitatingly 
tfated at $326,000,000, employing 74,000 tons of steam, and 138,000 
uma of aail^ for the year 1851 ; wliereas, previous to 1800 there was/, 
•caroely a craft above the size of an Indian canoe, to stand against an 
anregale marine, built up within half a century, in what was then 
alowat a pathleas wilderness, of 215,000 tons burden. It may be inter- 
rMiDg to state that the first American schooner on Lake Erie was built 
at Erie, Pennsylvania, in 1797, but she was lost soon afterward, and 
the example was not followed. 

Aooiber point ahoold be here mentioned in regard to this vast aug- 
sxntatinn of maritime force and tonnage, which is, that the increase of 
UiMira^ is moat inadequately represented by the increase of tonnage ; 



/ / • 



■^ 



4$ ANPBBWS' BSPOBT <UI 

«ince9 by the increased capacities of the vesselsi their speed while under 
way, their dispatch in loading and unloading, and the substitution of 
steam as a motive power, both for sail on the waters and for human 
labor at the dock, the amount of traffic actually performed by the same 
amount of tons in 1851, as compared with that performed in 1841, is 
greater by ten-fold. 

To illustrate this position, it is worthy of notice that, in 1839, the 
^twenty-five largest steamers on these lakes had an average of 449 tons 
. burden, the largest being of 800 tons. In 1851 the average of the 
twenty-five largest fell little short of 1,000 tons, and the average of the 
whole steam fleet, consisting of 157 steamers and propellers, was 437 
tons. Ten years since, from a week to ten days was allowed to a first- 
rate steamer for a voyage from Buffalo to Detroit and back. In 1851, 
three days only were required by first-rate steamers, and four to five 
by propellers. 

These facts show that four times as much business is transacted in 
1851 by ten steamers as was effected by the same number in 1841. 
The substitution of steam for sail in the same period has, it is evident, 
effected a yet greater increase in the speed of transit and celerity of 
transhipment ; and this substitution is nourly on the increase ; in proof 
of which, of 7,000 tons of shipping now on the stocks at Buffalo, 250 
only — one brig — are sail ; all the remainder steam or propellers. 

Of this latter species of vessels the increase is so great and so regu- 
lar, and so rapidly are they growing into favor, that there can be out 
little doubt that they are destined ultimately to supersede vessels pro- 

EUed by sail only, especially for voyages of moderate length, and in 
;alities where fuel is abundant and easily to be procured. In no 
region of the globe are these two conditions, on which rests the availa- 
bility of screw-steamers, more perfectly complied with than on the 
lakes, where the longest voyages do not exceed three weeks, at an ex- 
treme calculation, and where bituminous coal of a very fine quality 
can be procured at an average price of three dollars and a half per 
ton, and at many points at two and a half on the docks. 



ooumuL Axm laks tbaob. 



47 



The fellowiog uUe, taken from a very valuable report by Messrs. 
Mans&rld aod Oallagfaery of the statistics and steam marine of the United 
States iur ]8S1, will show the comparative force of the steamers em- 
played in the oceanic and the lake trade, and will exhibit a result suf^ 
Dcieaily surprising to readers unacquainted with the business of the 
intrriar : 



DwenplMm of 




Total 



tmrj bcMU Ao, 

Tfltel lake aad tiwr 



T«Ul 



9i hkm mad rtver. 



Number. 



9S 

3S3 

67 

80 



695 



663 
52 
50 



765 



635 
765 



1,390 




Toniufa. 



91,475 
90,738 
13,345 
18,041 



819,500 



164,963 

15,799 

4,733 



904,795 



313,500 
804,735 



417,396 



Officon 
Iterewi. 



7,775 dim. 



4,548 

6,311 
549 



11,770 » 



16,576 
817 
914 



17,607 



11,770 
17,607 



99,977 



5,8ST 



The distribution of steamers in the basin of the lakes is as follows : 

District of Burlington 11 

Plattsburgh 6 

Ogdensburgh 4 

Sackett*d Harbcjr 1 

Oswego 9 

Rf H:hestor 2 

Niagara ] 

Buffalo 42 

Pres<iue Isle 7 

Cleveland 13 

Sandusky 1 

Toledo 4 

Detroit 47 

[irhilimackinac 12 



Chicago 



The number im each lake is — 

Champlain 17 

' Ontario 17 

Erie il4 

Straiu 12 

Michigan 14 



\ 



•\ 






48 



AmmBt^* RSPOBt OH 



The entire number of vessels and crews of tbe interior trade amotmts 
to 140 bottoms, and 5,837 men, in excess of the whole ocean and coast 
navy, though the tonnage employed in the former is smaller by 7,775 
tons. 

I It is for this wealthy commerce of tbe interior that all the Atlantic 
cities are now striving, in earnest competition, by the creation of uevr 
outlets and avenues, for its transaction ; and this very competition is 
good evidence that all the eastern or New England and middle Slates 
are, in some sort, more or less aflected by it. 

The great system of exchange between the cities of the ocean sea- 
board and the entire West is transacted through the lakes, and the 
channels connected with them ; and it is not umnteresdng to observe 
that the increase of the population in the Atlantic States, and that of 
the tonnage of the West, have kept even pace with each other. 



Tabk of popidatioTi and tonnage* 



Tean. 



1790 
1800 
1810 
1830 
1830 
1840 
1850 



i 



d 



1,009,823 
1,233,315 
1,471,891 
1,659,808 
1,954,717 
2,234,822 
2,728,106 






22.1 
19.3 
12.8 
17.7 
14.3 
22.07 



i 



a 

•fit 



958,632 
1,401,070 
2,014,695 
2,699,845 
3,587,664 
4,526,260 
5,898,735 






958.6 
46.15 
43.79 
34 

32.88 
26.16 
30.32 



i 



SB 



None. 

50,240 

272,324 

792,719 

1,470,018 

2,967,840 

4,721,430 



i 





£ 



442.04 
191.09 

85.43 
101.89 

59.08 



Nona. 



3,500 

20,000 

75,000 

215,787 



In this scheme it must be observed that the six New England 8tates» 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and 
Connecticut, possess an area of 63,326 square miles, with a population 
of 2,728,106, being 43.09 persons to the square mile. 

The Middle States, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, pos* 
sess an area of 100,320 square miles, with a population of 5,898,735, 
or 58.80 persons to the square mile ; while the northwestern States, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, and the Minnesota 
Territory, have an area of 373,259 square miles, with a population of 
4,721,430, or 12.70 persons to the square mile. 

When this last division shall have become as densely populated as 
the Middle States now are, it will contain a population, directly tribu- 
tary to the trade of the lakes, of 22,000,000 ot souls ; and there is every 
reason to believe that the increase of population will be as rapid, until 
that result shall be fully attained, as it has been since 1800. How 
wonderful and grand a spectacle will it then be to many, doubtless, of 
those now born, when, at the commencement of the twentieth century, 
this lake country shall be seen supporting a population of so many 
millions ! And what will then be the amount ana vduc of that trade, 
and the sfggregate tonnage of that marine, which has sprung up, in les» 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TBADE. 



49 



than fcrty ycar#, from nothing to two hundred thousand tons of steam 
mil f hipping! 

It 15 stated that the entitip amount of appropriations made by govern- 
r*i»ni, for the l)enefit of all rivers and harbors, since its first organiza- 
tM«, ha^ been $17,199,233, of which only $2,790,999 were devoted to 
tlic hkes, the balance being all for the Atlantic coast and rivers; and 
ihaf, too, in fiirc of the facts, that in consequence of several unavoida- 
trie Jijsidvantages, in the present condition* of the lake coasts and har- 
hiyn^ there is a greater pn)portional loss of life on these waters than on 
*ir* cicean itself and all its tributary seas. 

It may be well to note here the loss of property and life by marine 
-iLvuters on the lakes, which are not only m themselves most lamenta- 
t'.'*, but which become far more deplorable when it is considered that 
a: a small outlay the navigation could be rendered as sale, at the least, 
I' that of any other waters. 

The di5advantages alluded to above are to be (bund in the facts, 
'tint while the lakes are exposed to squalls, gales, and tempests, as 
• nflent as those of the wean, they have not sufficient sea room to allow 
-' a vessel scudding before the weather, since, if the gale were of any 
1 imtirm, f^hc would soon run from one end to the other of the lake, on 
« hii"h sbi- might be caught, and so incur fresh and perhaps greater 
itin^. In like manner, the breadth of these basins is so compara* 
t:vt ly diminutive, and so much beset with dangerous reefs and rocky 
.^Linds, that a vessel cannot long lie to, in consequence of the terrible 
uvl 'msidioas drift which is ever liable to drive her to unforeseen 
■!' ^tructvio. 

The fallowing table will exhibit the loss of life and property incurred 

i :rine the fiiur last succeeding years, which are surely disastrous 

'.If nigh to plead trumpet-tonguecf with government for the extending 

-ac means of security and protection to the navigators of those peril- 

u* ^eas of the interior. 



Yeftn. 






ToteJ «f ter ymn. 



Property. 


LivM. 


$430,512 
36H,171 
558, »26 
730,537 


55 
34 

395 
79 


2,078,046 


563 



Tbr excess of lives lost in 1850 was occasioned by the explosion ol 
■•• boilrrs cm Ixiard two steamers, and the burning of the third, which 
..1/1 r« bcmrd a large number of emigrants; this may be, therefore, in 
- nje degree deemed accidental and extraordinary, as such catastrophes 
-•• */ rare occurrence on the lakes. The great preponderance, how- 
^•T. of the vear 1851 over those of 1848 and 1849, has no such pallia- 
•- <i, fiooe lfc*y were the effect of heavy gales, the alienee of harbors 
^•."f^farT for the protection of mariners, and the obstruction of the 
^•uthn of such as do exist, by bars, on which a terrible surf breaks, and 
»hach ratirrly preclude the' possibility of entering the place to which 



50 ANDREWS* BEPOKT ON 

they have in vain fled for refuge. It is of little benefit to the mariner 
that the government has expended comparatively inconsiderable 
amounts in the erection of piers and light-k)uses at the entrance of a 
few bar-mouthed rivers ana harbors. 

The total of the losses on the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific 
coasts, in the year 1851, amounted to 328 vessels, and many hundred 
lives, out of a total marine measuring 3,556,464 tons, being a loss of 
one vessel to every 10,844 tons of shipping. 

The lake losses of the same year were 42 vessels and 79 lives, out 
of a marine measuring 215,975 tons, being a loss of one vessel to every 
5,142 tons of shipping. The proportion of vessels lost on the lakes is 
therefore much in excess of the losses on the ocean coasts, and that of 
lives still more so. 

In this point of consideration it is worthy of remark that a single 
powerful government steam-dredge could be kept continually in com- 
mission, and employed during seven months of tne year, which could, 
with perfect ease, remove the obstructions on the flats of Lake St. 
Clair and Lake St. George, open the bars, and deepen the beds of all 
the harbors, from one extremity of the lakes to the other, in the course 
of a very few years, and keep them unobstructed thenceforth to the 
end of time, by an annual appropriation of one-fourth the amount of 
the augmented compensation recently granted to the Collins line of 
steamers, and, of course, two such vessels, materially lessening the 
duration of the work; for one-half that appropriation. 

Nor does it appear that the opening an area so vast to the enterprise 
and efficicncv of our inland commerce, giving perfect protection to so 
important a branch of the national marine as that employed in the navi- 
gation of the lakes, is an end less worthy than the furthering and 
encouraging any system of post office transportation, and ocean steam- 
marine, however incomparable its deserts; and this without regarding 
the preservation of what is generally held invaluable among earthW 
things — ^the life of human beings. 

The expediency and justice are thus shown of extending some meed 
of protection and encouragement to the regions, with their ports, har- 
bors, and marine communications, which are the theatre of a commerce 
so valuable as that for which all the Atlantic cities arc contending ; and 
to perfect the internal and inland communications of which, by canaU 
ana railroads, the young States, in which that theatre is placed, are 
making so great eflbrts. 

The policy of doing so cannot but be seen on considering the effect 
which the construction of railways, the opening of canals, and the 
facilitation by all means of transportation and intercommunication, has 
upon the growth of cities, the population, cultivation, wealth, and pros- 
perity of districts, which actually seem to grow and expand in arith- 
metical progression to the ratio of their improved accessibility, and the 
number of their outlets and avenues for commerce and immigration. 

It may not, therefore, be now impertinent to examine the operation 
of these influences on the unparalleled increase of the West, which can, 
in fact, be traced directly to these causes. 

It has been shown already that, however remote the period of the 
discovery, exploration, and partial colonization of these wilds and 



OOLOtfXAL AND LAKS TRADB. 51 

waters, aiiTtiiiiig like practical navigatioQ of them for commercial pur- 

i» -9et wms unattempted until after the commencement of this century. 
n 1679 a French craft indeed was launched at Erie, Pennsylvania, 
t'lf the expedition of the celebrated and unfortunate La Salle ; but this, 
w hicb was an experiment for a special purpose, wholly unconnected 
>)b ith trade, was not followed up. In 1797, as has been before stated, 
lii* first American vessel was launched on the lakes. In 1816 the first 
«*' amer was built on Uie waters of Lake Ontario, and the first on Lake 
Lnc* IB 1K18. For some considerable time the first vessels put in com- 
.. ««oo oa Lake Erie, were used merely for facilitating the movements 
1 . i operations of the Indian traders, carrying westward supplies and 
L'lOkfns ti>r the trade, and returning with cargoes of furs and peltrie^ 
1'. Ib25 the Erie canal was completed, and its influence began at oncey 
. • Ite teh through the western country. The western portion of the 1 
Mite tif New York immediately began ^ assume an air of civilization 
')J Ui advance in commercial growth. This influence continued still 
tv increase until the Welland canal and the Ohio canals were completed. 
Trtc toonage, which had then increased to about 20,000 tons, found at 
tiu« time full employment in canning emigrants and their supplies west- 
u ard, which continued to be theu: principal trade till 1835, when Ohio 
ii^sau to export breadstufis and provisions to a small extent. In 1800 
Ohio had 46,000 inhabitants ; in 1810, 230,760; in 1820, 581,434 ; in. 
:^30, 937,903. 

Daring this year a portion of the canals was opened, and during the 

u n yv'ara next ensuing after 1830 some five hundred miles of canals 

f..id been completed, connecting the lakes bv two Unes with the Ohio. 

I'nder the influem;e of these improvements the population of the State 

augmented to 1,519,467 individuals. In 183d 'she exported by the 

A«^ the equivalent of 543,815 bushels of wheat. In 1840 her ex- 

;»«n3 <if the same article over the same waters were equivalent to 

«.^H.^UOO bushels of wheat, being an increase, in the space of five years, 

: di4' articles of wheat and flour, of what is equal to 3,300,000 bushels 

■ •: wheat, or nearly six hundred per centum. These articles are se- ' 
.' '.t-fl, as being the most bulky, in order to illustrate the eflect of canals 
«|K<i lake commerce. At this period, 1840, there were not completed 

• •'.•r two hundred miles of railway in the State, and this distance was 
'ij{M>?*/tl of broken portions of roads, no entire route exi:3ting as yet 

■ 'o^* the length or breadth of the State. In 1850, there were mopera- 
«i -lomething over l(>ur hundred miles of railroad, and rather a greater 

r.gth ot canaU, while the population had increased to 1,908,408, and 
r r xportA, by lake, of wheat and flour, were equivalent to 5,754,075 
' .«btf*U of wheat, and that, too, in spite of the fact that the crop of 1849 I 
w '< almost an absolute failure throughout the West. ^ ^ 

In 1^1 tlic exports of wheat and flour, by lake, were e(]uivalent to 
■ lr«-4 than 12,193,202 bushels of wheat; and the cost of freight and 
vMpfnn^ charges on this amount of produce falls Uttle, if any, short of 
i^'fUf^i^M); nearly the whole amount having reached the lakes via the 
.'lalf and railwavs of Ohio. 

Similar sketches of the other northwestexn States, during their rise 
-.<J advancement to their present condition of prosperity, and influence 
f ) ikac confedcratkxi, might be adduced * in tliis place, all equally flat- 



52 ANDRBW8* REPORT ON 

tering to the energy and enterprise of the western people, and to ihe 
influence of internal improvement on commerce ; but this narrative of 
the eldest State of the group will suffice to illustrate the subject, and 
give some idea of the unexampled progress of the whole. 

Westward of Ohio, the Wabash canal brings the vast producticms of 
Indiana to the lakes, passing through a small portion of Ohio, from the 
port of Toledo to the junction, thence to Evansville, on the Ohio river, 
and traversing the entire length of the Wabash valley, one of the 6nest 
wheat and corn countries in all the West. This canal is four hundred 
and sixty-four miles in length, and is one of the most important of re- 
cent improvements. 

^ It is worthy of note here that, in addition to its vast commercial 
business by the great lakes, Ohio, and more particularly its commercial 
capital, Cincinnati, the largest, wealthiest, and finest city of the West, 
and the great emporium of th(^t region, has an immense commerce, 
both in exports and imports, by the rivers Ohio and Mississippi ; and 
it appears that a larger portion of groceries are imported for the use of 
the interior, into Cincinnati, by the river, than to the lake-board, via 
the lakes ; and farther, that while a much larger portion of the trade 
in cereal produce goes by the lakes, a majority of the live stock and 
animal provisions is sent by the rivers or otherwise. No ill effect is 

-produced, however, on either commercial route, by this competition, but 
rather the reverse, there being times when either route alone is closed 
to navigation — ^the lakes during the winter by the ice, and the Ohio by 
the failure of its waters during ihe summer droughts. There is, more- 
over, commerce enough amply to sustain both channels ; and while the 
State, its beautiful capital in particular, is a great gainer, no port or 
place of business is a loser by this two-fold avenue and outlet for com- 
mercial transportation. 

The southern Michigan and northern Indiana railway terminates both 
at Toledo, Ohio, and at Monroe, Michigan^ on the lakes, and runs west- 
ward, through the southern counties of Michigan and the northern coun- 
ties of Indiana, to Chicago, at the head of Lake Michigan, on the east- 
ern border of Illinois. This road passes through some of the most 
fertile portions of these States, and, being recenUy completed through 
its entire length, may be confidently looked to as sure to add greatly to 
the commerce of the lakes at its termini. 

Farther to the northward, on the Detroit river, the central Michigan 
railway communicates across the peninsula, from the city of Detroit, 
with new BuflTalo and the lake ; and, having been open some years, 
has done more to develop the matchless resources of this State, and to 
urge it forward to its present commanding position, than any one other 

.^ute. Cities, villages, and large flouring mills are springing into ex- 
istence everywhere along the line of this road, depending upon it as the 
avenue of their business to the lakes. 

The Fontiac railway and many plank roads connect various other 

Gints of tlie interior, and are vastly beneficial to the commerce oR the 
kes. 

Following the line of the lakes westward. Lake Huron may be 
passed over, as presenting no internal improvements worthy of note. 
One of the principal of those which are already projected is the exten- 



COLOmAL AND LAKB TRADE. 53 

^. Q of the Pomiac railroad to Saginaw, touching at a point on the St. 

< t ur rivert opposite to Samia, Canada West, where it is destined to com* 

:i.unicatf with a branch of the great western railway from HamiltoDt 

«<) Lakt* Ontario, to Lake Huron. Another road is also projected in 

iooada, from Toronto, across the peninsula, by Lake Simcoe, to Pene- 

; i.'itrubhine, on tlie great Georgian bay, which will shorten the route to 

::.« Sault Str. Marie by many hundred miles, and, should tlie much 

*:■ riiindt^d and long proposed ship canal around the Sault be now at 

: •: 'fii.ci»*d, will lend more largely than any other improvement to 

•i' »t !<»p and bring to a market the incalculable mineral resources of 

L if Sup(*rior. 

Siuthward of Lake Su|)erior, and bordering on the western shore * 

' Lak# Michigan, lies the upper or northern peninsula of Michigfifti, 

1 the n<irtbem portion of Wisconsin, little known as yet, except to 

t.U r-ment trapiiers, traders, and voyageurs, and natura^ hitherto the 

-ire of no internal improvements tributary to the cormierce of the 



:a,» •• 



r.i«$io^ Miuthward, however, to Green bay, and its sources in die 

• rifir of Wisconsin, tlierc are lately completed some improvements 
:. *.'.• internal navigation of that State, which are, perhaps, of more 

{•■rtant^ to the future growth of the lake commerce than any yet 
» : :» vit-d in any part of the State. These arc the works on the Fox 

• •' r, and the canal connecting the waters of that stream with the Wis- 
:.«in, which opens the steam navigation of the lakes to river craft, and 
f nnLt although it is scarcely probable diat the same vessels which 

^ i;:atr* the lakes will pass through the rivers. This, in fact, is by no 

. • :»M* orcwL^ary to the success of the project, the importance of which 

« * und in iIm* tact, that by it the steam route from tiie Atlantic to the 

;• r valley of the Mississippi is incredibly shortened ; and thereby 

• «bok* tnidf:, springing into existence throughout that vast upper 
. TV, is, in a great decree, rendered tributary to the lakes. 

Tr.r- juncnion of the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers is, in fact, by 

* "xjutf brought n<>arer to the lakc\s than to St. Louis ; and the trans* 

• '• limn of f^iMKls lK*ing by an uninterrupted line of steamboat navi- 

n diniuffhout the whole chain of lakes and across the State of 
' • "Q«in, tin* trade to be* one dav transacted by this route will be 

TK- rirhn«*5.« of the soil of Wisconsin in the valleys of the rivers, and 

• •*- ttfifdt-rs of tlie Luke Winnebago, is rarely surpjLssed or equalled, 

' wu4 4 (nitainin^ from out* to thrr<' thousand inhabitants are every- 

'• *prin:ring into exUtence thmugh her lerritori(»s, which are proba- 

• :• •tUM'd In iK-rome, in a fi'W yezirs, great commercial cities. 

'^ i'hu ard of this route there an* no very important chiuinels of com- 

•itMin tributary to the lakes ui»til we reacli Chicago, where Lake 

.;nn I* conne<'led with the Illinois river by a canal of iOO milet* 

^ih, o|M'ninu to that lake the vast wealth and tnifhc of the richest 

%.tlU-y in iIm* known world. 

\\ i>!ri«nds an* al>o projected from Milwaukie, one of which is com- 

.1 wicnr liirty mile« to tin* westward, which is destined to extend to 

M.*<«in»ippt. There are als4i plank roads from many {MMUts, more 

*« Q^euil as aveuues of commerce to the lakes ; at present, how- 



54 ANBRBWS' RBPOBT ON 

ever, the only communication between the northern and southern routes 
is by the Illinois and Michigan canal. This was originally intended to 
be a ship canal, connecting Chicago with Peru, on the Illinois river, 
but was only constructed equal to the admission of ordinary canal boats, 
which can, on reaching the latter point, be towed by steam down the 
river to St» Louis, and return thence laden with sugar, hemp, tobacco, 
flour or grain, and thence by horse power to Chicago. 

Whether the original plan of this canal will ever be carried out, is at 
best very problematical, since there are obstacles in the periodical shal- 
lowness of the waters of the Illinois which would frustrate the only 
object of the improvement, to wit, the through-navigation of the works 
by lake craft. 

fl?his canal was opened in May, 1848, and the first section of the 
Chicago and Galena railroad in March, 1849. In 1847, the year pre- 
vious to the ^ening of the canal, the real estate and personal property 
in Cook county, of which Chicago is the capital, was valued at $6, 189,385, 
and the State tax was $18,1^2. In the year following, when the canal 
had been one season in operation, the valuation rose to $6,986,000, and 
the State tax to $25,848. In 1851 this valuation had risen yet farther 
to the sum of $9,431,826, and the State tax to $56,937. In 1840 the 

Eopulation of Chicago was 4,479, and the valuation of property not far 
om $250,000 ; while in 1851 the population was about 36,000 and the 
assessed valuation of real and personal property was $8,662,717. In 
1847 the population, according to the city census, was 16,859 ; in 1848 
it was 20,023 ; in 1849, 23,047 ; and in 1850, according to the United 
States census, 29,963 ; having increased twice more rapidly than beioA, 
since the completion of the canal. The population of Chicago at this 
time — ^August, 1852 — ^is nearly, if not quit^, 40,000. 

In regard to this train of argument, and to this view of the effect of 
internal improvements on the growth of the West, and on the commer- 
cial condition of that portion of the country, it will be well to follow up 
the same train of examination in relation to the growth of certain points 
to the east of the great lakes, such as Buffalo, New York, Oswego, Bos- 
ton, and other cities directly affected by the same commerce, through 
the internal channels of communication in New York and Massachu- 
setts. 

In 1800, the city of New York, with its suburbs, had a population 

of. * 63,00a-in 1850, of. 7(X),000 

Boston 38,000 " 212,000 

Philadelphia city and co . 73,000 " 450,000 

Cincinnati 750 " 116,436 

Buffalo " 42,260 

Oswego " 12,205 

Albany 5,349 ** 50,763 

Chicago ** 29,963 

St. Louis 2,000 " 77,860 

Hence it appears, that between the years 1800 and 1850 the popula- 
tion of New York and its suburbs doubled itself once in every 16 years ; * 
Boston, once in every 25i ; Philadelphia, in every 20 ; Cincinnati, in 
every 6J ; Albany, in every 15 ; St. Louis, in every 9J years. 

This covers a term of half a century ; but from 1810 to 1850, a 



OOZX>lfIAL AND LAKE TRADE. 55 

> nod of Ibrty years, the population of New York doubled itself once 
•ti txery 15 years; Philadelphia, in 18}; Boston, in 18}; Albany, 
.r. 16 ; Cincinnati, in 7 ; St* Louis, in 9} ; Buffalo, in 8} ; and Detroit, 

From 1820 to 1850, a period of thirty years, the population of New 
Y« rk doubled once in 13 years ; Philadelphia, in 16 ; Boston, 15 ; Al- 
tiany, 15} ; Cincinnati, 7} ; St. Louis, 7 ; Buffalo, 6} ; Detroit, 8. 

Frum 1830 to 1850, a period of twenty years — ^the term of duplica- 
\,'4i — thL* being the first census taken alter the opening of the Erie 
• iTmiI, but before its influence had been mucli felt. on the seaboard, 
juine Xo rbe non-completion of the Ohio and lateral canals — was, in 
>• w York, 15 years ; Philadelphia, 17} ; Boston, 20 ; Albany, 20 ; 
C:nctnnnu, 8} ; St. Louis, 5} ; Buffalo, 8} ; Detroit, G ; Cleveland, 5; 
I'.' I San<Iusky 5. And from 18^10 to 1850— a period of ten jTars, du* 
".2 which nearly the whole western population had become exporters 
' y mean< of the Ohio, New York, and Philadelphia oanals, and the 
vohnos line« of railway — ^the effect of these influences on the period ot 
. :plicali«»n in the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, and New York, has 
•Ta truly astonishing; but the same influence, reacting and reflected 
•' -tn the Eai-i upon the western cities, is yet more wonderful. 

Acci»rdjng to the ratio ol* their increase during these ten years, New 
\ ■•k would double her population in 12 years ; Boston, in 12 ; Phila- 
1' !phia« in 12} ; Baltimore, in 13} ; Albany, in ]6} ; Cincinnati, in 6; 
>u Louisa in 4; Buffalo, in 8}; Detroit, in 9; Cleveland, 6} ; San- 
:u-ky, 5} ; Chicago, 4 ; Milwaukie, 3} ; Toledo, 6 ; Oswego, 8. >^ 

Hmce it appears, tliat every new improvement is bound by inevitA 

aMr laws to pay its tribute to some great channel of internal com- J 

: » rcf. The existence of such a channel has indirectly created the / 

• '-i^-Mity for the improvement ; and the same law which called it into | 

' \:*tmre as necessarily requires it, by a reactionary impulse, to indem- / 

.•"v it5 creator. ^ 

m_ 

Befi»re the present century shall have passed awaj, the United ^Stales 
■v.U undoubtrdly present to the world a spectacle unequalled in past 

•tf^ry. More than fifty millions of republican freemen, all etjual citi- 
1' fi* of a confederacy of indejH*ndent Slates, united by congenial 
•ympathif^ and hopes ; by a devotion to the principles of political and 
•• .:t^'us freedom, and of S€»lf-govomment ; bound together by a com- 
.TjfKi hmcruage and harmonious laws, and by a sacred compact of union, 
^ .1 also be firmly cemented witli one another by indissoluble bonds 

' njotual dependence and common interests. The remote sections of 
•jj»- rrinfefleracy will be made near neighlK)rs by means of canals. 
Ra'.lmads will chain all the several parts each to eac^h ; the whole 
>^ipfc' from the Pacific to the North Atlantic ocean, from the great 
.ikf • tf» tlic (Julf of Mexico, cultivating the arts of peace and science, 

'id iocited by a genuine rivalry for Uie accomplishment of the real 
"..L^^into of the American pf'ople. 



56 ANOBBWS' BBPORT ON 



THE LAKE DISTRICTS, 

WITH A DESCRIPTION OF EACH : 

STATISTICAL STATEMENTS OF THE CANADIAN AND DOMESTIC TRADE, 

AND A GENERAL SUMMARY. 

No. 1. — District of Vermont. 

Port of entry, Burlington ; latitude 44° 27', longitude, 73° KY ; popu- 
lation in 1830, 3,525; in 1840, 4,271; in 1850, 6,110. 

This, which is the easternmost of all the lake districts, comprises the 
whole eastern shore of Lake Champlain, from its southern extremity at 
Whitehall to its northern termination, excepting only a few miles at the 
head of Missisquoi bay, which fall within the Canadian line ; and em- 
braces all those portions of the State of Vermont which are subject to 
custom-house regulations. 

Lake Champlain is about one hundred and five miles in length, and 
varies in breaath firom one to fifteen miles ; it contains several islands, 

Erincipally toward the upper end, of which the largest are North and 
outh Hero, and La Motte island ; and, in addition to all the waters of 
Lake George, its principal affluent, the outlet of which enters it at Ti- 
condero^a, receives nine considerable streams: the Otter creek, the 
Onion nver, the Lamoile, and the'Missisquoi, from Vermont to the 
north and eastward ; the Chazy, the Saranac, the Sable, and Boquei 
I rivers on the west, and Wood creek on the south, fi-om the State of 
' New York. It discharges its own waters into the St. Lawrence by the 
Sorel or Richelieu river, in a northeasterly course ; the navigation of 
which has been improved by the works of the Chambly (Canadian) 
canal, so as to afford an easy communication for large vessels to the 
St. Lawrence, and thereby to the great lakes. From its southern ex- 
tremity it is connected by the Champlain canal with the Mohawk river 
and the Erie canal, at the village of Waterford, where the united 
works enter the Hudson, and thus form a perfect chain of inland navi- 
gation from the lakes of the far northwest to the Atlantic seaboard. 
The whole length of the Champlain canal, including about seventeen 
miles of improved natural navigation on Wood creek and the Hudson 
river, is about sixty-four miles. It is forty feet wide on the surface, 
twenty-eight at the bottom, and four deep. The amount of lockage is 
eighty-four feet. On account of this artificial line of intercommunica- 
tion. Lake Champlain is included, not improperly, in the great chain 
of American lakes ; although, to speak strictfy, it is not one of them, 
having no natural outlet directly into them, and so far from being the 
recipient of any of their waters, serving, like them, -itself as a feeder 
to the St. Lawrence. 

The lake is bordered on its eastern shore by lands composing this 
district, with a coast line of considerably more than a hunared miles, 
including its many deep, irregular bays and inlets, of great productive- 
ness and fertility, especially adapted to grazing and dairy farms, and 
to the cultivation of the northern fruits. Its western shores are, for the 



COLONIAL AND LAKE TRADB. 57 

.n >>t {tHitt high, wild, and barren, soon rising into the vast and almost 
u ir'c» sj»il»li' ridgos of the Adirondack mountains,* lying within the 
(tiiititi*^ of Hamilton, Herkimer, ' and Essex, in New York, a region 
tli»' uil.lfa.1 and most rugged, the le:ist adapted to cultivation or the 
r» ^i.i» !j«*f» of man, of any to the eastward of the great American desert ; 
niitl stiil the haunt of th(» deer, the moose, the carilK)o, the otter, and 
ifK b» avrr, the wolf, the panther, and the loup-cervicr, w^hich still 
aU'uinl ill this fasln<»ss of rock, river, lake, and forest, almost within 
*j:id «»f prrat and populous cities. 

iJy its mrans of communication with the St. Lawrence, and its out- 
'♦: !<» th«* Hudd<^)n, this lak<» has become the channel of a large and im- 
[•■r-ini inidi* willi Canada, especially in lumber, employmg nearly 
IV o h^rulred thousand tons of craft aod shipping, counting the aggre- 
traJf of cnlrirs and ch*anmces, and giving occupation, to speak in round 
n'MoU r#, lo twelve thousand men. 

TIj»* o|i#*nin;r of the Op:densburg and Vermont railroads, connecting 
N» w \i»rk and Boston more directly with the lakes, has, it is probable, 
i:. ^Ti,*- d<jn*e aflJcird this trade; at least, the returns of 1851 exhibit 
a ri*.iiii: oH' in the Crniadian trade of Lake Champlain. It does not, 
K* w»\tr, appear that the oi)ening of new channels of trade is wont 
'.-■li'iV lo alh'cl llie interests of thost* already existing, but, on thecon- 
".trv, bv incHNising faciliti(»s and consecjucnlly augmenting demands, 
.1.i^i•> lo il»e livehness and vigor of business, and is ultimately beneficial 
t" :i'.]. H*^n<re, there appears no just cause for apprehending any per- 
!:.:«'»• ot d« (Tease or deterioration of the shipping mterests, connected 
v*fi Like Champhiin. 

I*uriin£rtnn, the port of entry of this district, is the hirgest town in 
?!.< Sriie i>f Vern)ont, containing about ten thousand inhabitants. It is 
t» a'jtitully situated on a long, regular slope of the eastern shore, as- 
ei fniln:: irra<luallv from^ht* head of Burliimton bav, on the southern side 
o: th«- ii* Umchure of the Onion river into the lak(*, and is the capital of 
fr.jtitnd' n county, and by far the most considerable commercial place 
"f th»* Slate. It has, moreover, a fine agricultural back country, of 
'»is;'fi it i< the mart and outlet. Burlington is distant from New York, 
f»v railway, alxKil three hundred mili^s; liom Boston two hundred and 
•..'..•^v-five; and Irom Mc»ntreal one hundred. By its possession of a 
i»:.tr.d {M^^ilion, with the advantages of bolli land and water steam 
'*!•..'♦ ^, alike llir travel and transportation to the grand emi)oria of 
I* i:.' I'll, Ni'W Kn^land, and New York, it is making rapid advances 
r\ \i .titli and jHipuIation; and now, with railroad communications 
Mj»:: «.!i eiilier r>ide of the lak<', can scru^cely fail lo improve and in- 
' -• i-'% in a ratio eommensurat(* with that of the* improvem(*nls in its 

T' •• orilv melh«Kl, within our reach, of arrivini; at the aL'gregatc 
»::*■ ifil of the lakf efniinn-ree and Irallie, is bv takin*}; the accounts of 
•!.»•• ind otiiee at Whitehall, \s}ii('h exhibit ihe amount and value of 
r. • •• haiidi-e il* llvt-rfd at the lake, and the quantity and value of pro- 
.]-.«♦• --reriveti tVom the lake; and then by eslimatintr the coasting trade 
••t t!v- lak*' ab.)ve Whitehall, which tloes not rcaeh the canal. Bv 
•^ .i.j< I'.uiz from llu' aiji:rei:ates of th<'se, the Canadian trade of the dis- 
■l \ erinont and Champlain, we arrive at th(^ gross amount of the 






58 ANDBBWS' REPORT ON 



• 



aggregate coastiag trade of the whole lake, as comprising both the col- 
lection districts ; out owing to this compulsory mode of procedure, no 
definite understanding of the proportion of commerce attaching to each 
separately, of the two districts, can be reached. 

The amount of assorted merchandise delivered into Lake Champlain 
in 1851 was ] 25,600 tons, at $1 75 per ton. 

Average valuation as on Erie canal $21,875,000 

Amount of produce received from the lake 3,515,895 

Add for coasting above the canal 1,000,000 

Total commerce of the lake 26,390,895 



« 



The Canadian trade of Vermont district, for the years 1850 and 
1851, was as follows : 

1850« 1851. 

Exports of domestic produce 3651,677 $458,006 

" foreign merchandise 294,182 309,566 

Total exports 945,859 767,572 

Total imports 607,466 266,417 

Total 1,552,325 1,033,989 

Subtract total of 1851 1,033,989 - 

Decrease of 1851 519,336 

The tonnage in the Canadian trade for the two years was as follows : 

Year. No. Tom. No. Tom. 

1851 788 94,235 695 91,967 

1850 818 122,813 731 105,359 

Decrease in 1851 30 28,578 36 13,390 

The aggregate shipping of Lake Champlain, both foreign and coast- 
wise, is represented to have numbered 3,950 entrances, measuring 
197,500 tons, and employing 11,850 men, with a corresponding nimi- 
ber of clearances of the same measurement and crews. 

The enrolled tonnage of this district in June, in 1851, was 3,240 tons 
of steam, and 692 tons of sail. 

Tonnage. 

Tom. 

Inward. — ^Amferican 166 steam. 56,421 

338 saa. 17,490 

504 73,911 



COXX>NIAI. AND UUCB TRAPB. 59 

Tons. 

BritUh 122 steam. 9,566 

162 sail. 10,758 

284 20,324 

Oatward. — American 147 steam. 58,024 

318 sail. 17,020 

•565 75,044 

British 119 steam. 9,321 

111 sail. 7,602 

230 16,923 

Valur of produce imported from Canada in bond ^311,512 

Value* fif iinfxirts from Canada 251,211 

Value of p<kh\s of domestic produce and manufacture ex- 

pr>ned to Canada 458,006 

Value of fi>rci;rn goods 108,712 

Value of prKHls of foreign pn>duce and manufacture ex- 

prtf d to Canada in l)ond 200,854 

V.uue <»f pn)ixTty cleared at Whitehall for the South 3,515,895 

No. 2. — District of CHA>rpLAiN. 

Portofrntrv, Plattsburph; latitude 44© 42', longitude 73^26'; jvipu- 
LiiiMH in IWO; 4.913 ; in 1840, 6,416 ; in 1850, 5,618. 

ThU di-itrict, which is situate on the western side of Lake Chani- 
i'la;n, «)vrr ajrainsl that last described, inrludinj^ the peninsula at the 
Ii.w#T t nd bf 'tween the waters of that lake ancf lake George, with the 
tlirivin^ town of Whitehall and the outlet by the Champlain canal, hiis 
a c<»a<i-l;:.c of c<|ual extent, though less mdented by bays, than the 
'•pfM^'^itf' di-triri of Vermont. 

It has twt) principal harlxirs — Whitehall, situate on both sidts of 
WlkkI creek, at its entrance into the lake, in a beautiful and romantic 
>ii*', with considerable water power, through which passes the vcTy 
irrrat maj.)rity of the wh(»le export and iin|)ort trade lor Canada, and 
\^h.• h i*» a singularly flourishing an<l improving village; and Tlatts- 
b'ir;:h. r)*ar to the upntT extremity of the lake, at the head of a fuie 
a;.«J *parious bay at ine d(lK)uchure of the Sanuiac river, by which it 
i^ cofijif^cled with the mineral and lumlx^ring regions of the interior, and 
with thr ncess<*s of the Adirondack chain. The village is well laid 
out, anrl cf»ntatns the United States barracks, and several prosperous 
manut.jrtori<*s on the river. This district has little or no back countrs', 
tlK* mountains ri.-sing abrupt ami precipitous from the very verge of the 
lake in many places, and leaving a narrow strip of shore only, with a 
li w viilair«'S mattered idone: the road to Plattsburgh, beyond which all 
IS bowling wilderness as far as to the vjdley of the Black river. Little 



* Tb* CaDAdiAn trade of tlitg diitnct, princt pally, is m American veMeli. 



60 ANDREWS' REPORT ON 

dependence can, therefore, be placed on these regions for agricultural 
produce, although their forest and mineral wealth compensates, in some 
measure, for the sterility and ruggedness of their soil. 

Plattsburgh is the port of entry of this district, although Whitehall is 
the larger commercial depot. The only railroad which touches it 
is that of Ogdensburg, crossing Missisquoi bay and the narrows of 
the lake at Rouse's Point, and opening, at the town of Ogdensburg, a 
perfect inland intercommunication between the great lakes and the 
Atlantic ocean at Boston. It is on the water communications, there- 
fore, afibrded by the lake, that the population of this district for the 
most part rely for the prosecution of their commercial enterprises and 
the transportation of their produce. 

There are five daily steamers running during the season from White- 
hall, touching at Burlington and Plattsburgh, for St. John, Canada 
East, and for St. Alban's, Vermont. 

The Canadian trade of this district during the years 1850 and 3851 
was as follows: 

1850. 1851. 

Exports of domestic produce $322,378 $375,649 

foreign merchandise 316,843 373,453 

Total exports 639,221 749,002 

Total imports 435,383 294,484 

Total commerce 1,074,604 1,043,286 

1,043,286 — = 



Decrease in 1851 31,318 



Yean. No. Tons entered. No. Todb cleared. 

1851 598 123,229 598 123,229 

1850 788 120,294 754 116,931 



Difference.. 190 2,935 156 6,298 



The decrease of the year 1851, it will be observed, affects the num- 
ber of entries and clearances only, the comparative tonnage being an 
increase on the preceeding twelve months. 

The tonnage enrolled m this district, June 30, 1851, was — steam, 
917 tons ; sail, 3,291 tons. 

Canadian trade. 

Imports in American vessels $1,019,039 

Exports in American vessels , 24,246 

Tonnage. 

Inward. Toxu. Outward. Tons. 

American, steam 90,436 American, steam 90,436 

sailing 8,139 sailing 8,135 



Total 98,571 98,571 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 61 

lavard. Tona. Ootward. Tons. 

Briiisb, steam 3,899 British, steam 3,899 

siiiliiig 20,759 sailing 20,759 

24,658 • 24,658 

Doty c<»ll«H:ted on imports in American vess^s 846,639 

Do* do. British vessels 5,210 

TouU duty 51,849 

Impr>nrd from Canada in American vessels 8228,241 

D«. do. • British vessels 24,246 



• 



252,487 

Amount imported in bond 27,994 

Am'^imt of free goods 13,802 

Total 294,283 

Value of domestic goods exported 8375,549 

Fi»rf ixrn prxxls exported 8267,587 

For# JCTj giKxls cntidcd to drawback 105,866 

373,453 

No. 3. — ^District of Osweoatchie- 

P«»ri of cnirv, Ogdensburg; latitude 44"^ 41'; lon^tudc 75^ 32* ; 
I- :.m! ition in ik'iO, not defined; in 1840, 2,526; in 1850, 7,756. 

Tt.i< fiistrict extend/along tlie southern shore of the St. Lawrence, 
:p rn ti.e p»int where the lx)iindary line of New York and Cantida 
*:nk«s the grrat river— 43^, 73^ 20' — to Alexandria, nearly opjK)site to 
<ian:in<M]tif\ on the Canada side, and the thousand isles of the St. Law- 
I'-nce. The extent of this coast line is al)out eighty miles, trending in 
4 ^»uthwe«<tiTly direction; it includes the considerable commercial 
«!• \*f< and improving tcmii of Ogdensburgh, besides the smaller ports of 
Ma.>«>rtia, Lotiisvilhs Waddington, Morristown, and Hammond, and it 
»ii^ Ut-tinu' the theatre of a very hirge and increasing trade with Can- 
a^b, and ct>a>twi8<% particularly since the opening of tlie Ogd<*nsburg 
:'i.lr*iad. 
• Thi** inijiortanl line was op<»ned from Ogdensburg to Rou.<e'Fl\>int, 
'*h«Tf it <'f)mbine8 with llic eastern and southeastern n^utes, in the au- 
t iinn of 1^50 ; and from this point passengers and freight crossing 
L.ik»- Chamnlain have easy exp<'dition, eilluT to the New Knijland 
.**'.ii' ^ by railroad, or to New York, via Lake Champlainand the Hud- 
-• o nv»r, or bv the new lines of railroad down the vallev of tlie latter 
/*»-at tlKirought'arc. There being no line of transportation whatever 
*:.r»Mi-h ihi*-! dij^trict from Uie Canadas, except the above-mentioned 
•'■i4i, and previous to the o|>ening of that way none of any kind — llie 



62 



ANDRBWS' REPORT ON 



district itself being, moreover, a mere Btrip of ten miles* width between 
the river shore and the Adirondack highlands«-4be e£fect of this road 
has been very great on the general commercial prosperity, and 
particularly on that of Ogdensburg, which monopolizes the Canadian 
transportation business, for the other ports mentioned are merely river 
harbors, doing a small coasting business, and driving some small traffic 
with their neighbors a4ft'oss the water. In consequence of these advan- 
tages large quantities of freight find their way into this port fi'om all 
parts of the upper lakes and of Canada, for transmission \o various 
marts on the Atlantic seaboard ; and large amounts of merchandise, 
both foreign and domestic, are thence distributed through the difierent 
lake ports, both of Canada and the United States, from New York and 
Boston. 

The following statistics will show the comparative coasting trade of 
Ogdensburg in some of the principal articles during the past five years, 
the results Tor 1849 being made up only to the 1st of October of that 
year. 

Imports coastunse. 



Articles. 



Flour barrels. 

Whiskey do.. . 

Pork • . • . do.. . 

Beef do... 

Sugar ....... .hogsheads. 

Pig iron tons.. 

Coal do. . . 

Wheat • .bushels. 

Com do.. 

Salt barreb. 

Tea . . . . .w. chests. 

Coffee. . . • • tons. . 

Tobacco .boxes. 

Sundry merchandise,Yalue 



1847. 



5,000 
1,217 
3,000 



325 

300 

3,000 

15,000 

3,000 

10,000 

10,000 

320 

2,000 

12,366,200 



1848. 



4,500 
1,157 
2,500 



375 

350 

3,054 

25,000 

4,000 

15,000 

15,000 

320 

2,000 

$2,482,925 



1849. 



3,800 

865 

1,800 



300 

275 

2,500 

18,000 

3,500 

10,000 

10,000 

• 320 

1,200 

$2,106,450 



1850. 



158,600 

452 

2,612 

2,758 

37 

300 

490 

149,310 

31,934 

10,369 

78 

Included in m 

15 

11,612,668 



1651. 



375,000 

1,291 

2,887 

6,034 

43 

100 

371 

377,725 

82,458 

14,287 

44 

erchandise. 
37 
#426,927 



The above statistics clearly demonstrate that the opening of the rail- 
way has created a complete revolution in the trade of Ogdensburg, a 
large demand having suddenly sprung up for coastwise imports of pro- 
duce, to be exported seaward by railroad, while the call for foreign 
merchandise, formerly imported coastwise for home consumption, has 
been entirely superseded, goods of that description being now largely 
intro4nped by railway from the seaboard, for distribution through Can- 
ada aRt all the lake regions. ^ 

By this change, the mercantile prosperity and activity of this town 
and district has, it will appear, been increased fifty-fold, and the trade 
matured from a mere home-consumption business to an immense for- 
warding, foreign importing, and domestic exporting traflic ; nor, in view 
of the incalculable hourly increase of western productiveness and con- 
sumption, can any one pretend to assign any limits to the future 
improvement of this branch of commerce. 



COLONIAL AMD LAKB TRADE. 



63 



TJj*^ coastwise exports during the same period, of a few leading 
arti*. I* s, were as follows : 



1 

\rtirle«. j 1847. 

» 


1848. 


1849. 


1850. . 


1851. 


1 
W». •«^T ..••••..karrcU., 142 
>*2*'A .••••••.. .Duuiidn.. 193 6()0 


120 

180, (HK) 

3,4(M) 

4,(K)0 

5,0<K) 

250 

990,000 

500 

5,000 

20,510 

200 

20,000 


140 

190,000 

3, MM) 

3,000 

4,000 

100 

800,000 

100 

3,000 

10,000 

150 

15,000 


* 

406 135 
5 900 1A tu^ 


\«».^ bam'lii.' 3.75H 


4,544 

4,841 

3,052 

660 

1,332,300 

1,158 

420 

28,000 

57 

140 

796 


615 


> '''^ M..' 6,669 

I -'..> r.. .♦«,,,,, ,,M ft .. 7.1k2 


1,757 
199 


f • .r-iti.. ••••«••• ..torift 311 


776 


r •«^. t>oundii ' 1.099 2H0 


40 200 


y .or bmrreU. 3,267 

f^><> •* bttfiiri*. 5 , 6^H 

w.- : pounds.: 18,000 

H -« UJe*.: 187 

> '•?.*• p«iu No.' 20.000 


1,447 

27,800 

6 

700 

6,394 


i 1 





Ti.»* r>iimat<*d value of Uie imports and exports for the years above 

. 1 :!.»'' I, is as follows : 





t 1847. 


1848. 


1849. 


1850. 


1851. 




..' $2,»<n4,150 
3.HU,325 


$2,9a*<,015 

341,933 

49,831 

81,844 


12,482,695 

311,084 

48,395 

32,685 


12,463,648 
359,933 

205,815 


52,424,145 

918,587 
214,520 
618,648 


^ ' •*• «• * #*««rt». • • • • 








T ♦.* commerce. 


.. 3,193,475 


3,461,623 


2,M4,8o9 


3,029,396 


4,175,900 



Tr.- r« [>f>n of inward and outward bound vessels is as below, for 
• I i-t t\^o vear» : 



Vr4ri. 


1 
NumhfTofi 
enincft. 


Toiw. 

1 


Men. 

19..'i.'<H 
12,464 


Niiiiiherof 
clcarauf't*«, ' 


1 
Ton*. 1 

1 

1 


Men. 


-;i ^. 


IJ^t-i 

6»;9 


; 

351,427 ' 
242, 'eH) 


973 • 
6:>5 ' 


359.287 
242,931 


19,341 
12,2m 


*• rrt»r,.., 


333 


1(10,647 


7,074 


3\f< j 


116.:i56 


7,123 



F.' • u th** al)<»\e figures it will be readily pereeived, independent of 

* ■ c ••' :ai inerraM* of e<itnineree in llie di.^^triet conse(|iient on llie op<»n- 
*: «• ••' l\.r railroacU, llril llir returns for the years previous to 1850 nro 
.!. r- -...I niirnKersarid are probably very far fioin aeeurate, whilst those 

• r \<At and lN'^1 are in detail, and the merehandis(» is valued at a v<tv 
.'A ; :••; so niurh m», that if the valuali(»n of as.M^rled niereliandise 
•••• ■ ..I'uU' areuidin:: lf> the rates adopted in other dislriets, it would 
r I •• *.iir iznt^^ anjounl to a sum hi^^her, by at lea.-Jt a niilhon of dollars, 
t 1 Jn lli,jt exhibilrd above. 

Tr.' t^nnaire enroUed and licensed in lh<* di>trict is 1,985 tons of 



64 



Andrews' report on 



steam, 576 tons of sail— employing 125 men. The original cost of 
the above tonnage was $208,300. 

Abstract of the nttmber of vessels^ tonnage^ and men employed upon tfie same^ 
which entered and cleared from the port of Ogdensburg^ district of Os- 
tuegatchicj New York^ distinguishing American from British^ during the 
years 1850 and 1851. 





IN WARD. 

• 


OUTWARD. 




Years. 


AMERICAN. 




BRITISH. 


AMERICAN. * 


BRITISH 


* 




No. 


Tons. 


Crew. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crew. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crew. 


No.' 


Tons. 


Crew. 


1850.. 
1851.. 


414 
598 


179,339 
253,808 


7,941 
11,266 


255 

404 


63,441 
97,619 


4,523 
8,272 


413 
583 


180,980 
263,274 


7,924 
11,226 


242 

390 


61,951 
96,013 


4,294 
8,115 



J. C. BARTER, ColUctor. 
Collector's Office, District of Osweoatchie, N. Y., 

Ogdtfuburg, Deceniber 31 » 1851. 



Canadian Trade in 1851. 



Imports and exports in American vessels 

Do do British vessels 

Exported foreign goods entitled to drawback — 

In American vessels $74,367 

In British vessels 193,807 



$332,420 

500,747 



Goods not entitled to drawback. 



Domestic produce and manufactures — 

In American vessels 52,369 

In British vessels 199,681 



268,174 
98,424 

366^598 



Total exports 

Imports paying duty — 

In American vessels 18,305 

In British vessels 63,727 

On the sea 9,425 



252,050 
618,648 



Duty collected. 

3,732 

13,742 

1,893 



91,457 

Produce imported in bond 115,286 

Free goods 7,775 



19,367 



Total imports 214,518 



COLOMAL AND LAKE TRADB. 65 

No- 4. — District op Cape Vincent. 

P<ict of enlrv. Cape Vincent; laliludo 44° 06', longitude 76^21'; 
p-pulaii'iri in li<3(), not defuicd; in 1840, not defined; in 1850, 3,044. 
ri.is district, commencing? at Alexandria, on the southwestern border 
o( 0*w( i;alchi<s extends about eleven miles southwesterly up the St. 
Lt^^n iict\ ti» the outlet of Lake Ontario, and Black river bay, on which 
Su AttiV l{ail>or is situated. Capt^ Vincent, owing to the sinuosities 
ill I iffi iTiilariiics of its shores, has a coast line of* nearly thirty-eight 
Hi/' *, and einbracf s the shipping ports of Cape Vincent, Clayton, and 
A ' V!r;dria, whi(*h are lor th«* most part mere stopping places for the 
li%' >u ainrrs plying between Montreal, Ogdensburg, and the ports of 
Lii^e (>(ii:jrif>, which touch at these landing-places to procure wood, 
*' . t.iblo, fuilk, and (»iher necessaries. To this fact is owing the very 
c ' >idcrabl«« amount of tonnage entering and clearing from these little 
:> :ii, though it is at one*' evident that no indication is thereby afforded 
"i lilt' ac t'jid bo Mat ss transacted in tlx* districts It has some small 
rr...!i viih Canada, carried on principally in skills across the St. Law- 
nrne and among the thousand islands; but, if there be any coasting 
'J Air at all, it is >n >lend4«r that no returns of it appear tojiave been» 
•it .:.y t.me, n irularly kept. 

<' ijie Vii.eeiii, the port of entry, is some twelve to thirteen miles 

:- 'u Kiu::>tnii, C. \V.; the distance being about four miles over the 

r. «.ii erianncl of the St. Lawrence from Kingston to Long Island, then 

'• t»v.i II M'\rii and eight miles across the island, and then a mile over 

" • « h.iiiiit! on the American side to Cape Viiu*cnt. 

T .»' i(i:{ii/n^ fiom ("anada, 1851 $61,358 

T .- rXfXM ts to Canada, 1851 33,188 

Total Canadian commerce, 1851 94,546 



I' :-'!> rn.rii Canada, 1850 850,756 

»-'..••:!- trom Canada, 1850 69,284 



T • 1 Canadian commeice, 1850 120,040 

Do «lo do 1851 94,546 



Decrease 25,494 



Tv C.rfi.idi.in eonnneree of this ili-trict previous to these years was 
■ * '.: '• t'liiow jn*r \.due>: 

I •• •! C*trj.:di:in eornnxree of 1819 $!K).484 

b» do .lo 18-18 91.597 

T .•• ♦'lifoli' d tonn.iL'e of the district amounts lo 2, 19G tons, all sail. 



Iliitrie*. Tt'ii« C'rtw, C'learamtM. Toim. 



• •»•«•••• •« • a • • c 






Oew 



IftcrmM 41 ]i0.3N> 4.tio9 41 I 110,3co 

( I _ 

5 



I9,W7 
14,645 



4,669 



$6 ANDREWS* RBPORT ON 

Canadian Trade. 

Imports in American vessels $61,358 duty, $1,370 

Exports, domestic produce and manufactures 32,389 

Tonnage inward. 

In American vessels, 696 sail 427,457 

In British vessels, 53 sail 12,473 

Same outward. 

No. 6. — District of Sackett's Harbor. 

Port of entry, Sackett's Harbor; latitude 43*^ 55', longitude 75^ 57'; 
population of township in 1850, 4,136. 

This district is composed of that portion of the coast of Lake Ontario 
which runs almost in a due southerly direction from Tibbit's Point, 
round Chaument bay. Black river, and Henderson's bay, terminating 
at Stony Point, and embracing a coast lino estimated at one hundred 
miles, following the sinuosities of its very irregular and deeply indented 
shores. It includes the shipping places of Throe-Mile bay, Chaument 
bay. Point Peninsula, Dexter, tSackett's Harbor, and Henderson. 

Sackett's Harbor, the principal commercial place and port of entry 
of the district, is situated on the southwest side of a deep inlet known 
as Black River Bay, at about eight miles distance irom tne take. Its 
bay and harbor are well situated tor shelter imd defence. The harbor 
is by far the best on Lake Ontario for ship-building, and as a naval 
and commercial dep6t. A crescent of land stretches otF from the lower 
part of the village, forming an inner and outer harbor. The latter has 
a depth of water sufficient for the largest ships-of-war within two 
fathoms of the shore. The same depth of water extends to Black 
river, where there is another excellent position for ship-building. 

The first settlement of this place was made in 1801; it advanced 
little until the commencement ot the last English war, when it became 
a considerable naval and military depot; but, since the promulgation 
of peace in 1814, it has made little comparative improvement, other 
points possessing superior advantages of position as regards artificial 
routes, by railroads and canals, having diverted from it a portion of its 
business, although it still maintains its commercial character. The ad- 
jacent country is a fine agricultural region, and its abundant water- 
power renders it well adapted to the growth of manufacturing enter- 
prise, while Watertown, a few miles inland, is a flourishing town, well 
situated on the Black river. Still, in spite of tlicse advantages, the 
commerce of Sackett's Harbor has been on the decline for some years; 
whether on account of the exhaustion of lumber resourc(?s, or the diver- 
sion of supplies for the inland home consumption, and of agricultural 
produce for export, from the coast trade to canal and railroad transpor- 
tation, does not sufficiently appear. At all events, the declared value 
of the commerce of the district has materiallv declined, as will be seen 
from the following table, since ]84G. 

The other small towns, mentioned above, are used to a trifling extent 



COIXmiAI. AND IJkXB TRAOB. 



67 



M landing-places for irnported merchandise, and for shipment of pro- 
liucr, by ibe surrounding inhabitants, to the extent of their own wants 
nr.d a>nveniences, but not in such amounts as to render them worthy 
< 't any notice as commercial depots. 



y 

w 

r. 



m II 

importo. • 
iM ciporU 
esportfl. . 

ToUl 



1 

Declared valuoi 
for 1846. 


Declared Tallies 
for 1847. 


Declared Talow 
for 1851. 


$1,550,909 

1,851 

M06,986 

75,345 


»1,257,H23 

3,891 

841,478 

38,353 


1497,809 

56,118 

303,258 

31,980 


3,735,091 


3,141,445 


879,165 





Some portion of the above deterioration may be, perhaps, ascribed to 
1 discrepancy in the valuation of articles ; but it is hardly probable that 

' result, as a whole, can bo attributed to such a cause; nor is it 
:.• oessary to sf*ek far for reasons, since the experience of every day 
•• •icbi's OS that the places which possess the greatest facilities of 
:r m^missioii and transportation of produce and merchandise, and the 
':.-<: numerous inlets and outlets for articles of commerce in the shape 
f internal improvements and intercommunications, will necessarily 
ui.ick and take at disadvantage those which rely solely on external 
rraJ<'. 

It ts not to 1)0 doubted, thenMbre, that Ogdcnsburg and Oswego 
\.:i\v attacked iSackett*s Harbor, and diverted from it a portion of its 

• iu.<«istf* traffic; while it is as certain that some of the agricultuial 
pfiAJuce which formerly soucht a market, via the lakes, now seeks the 
-.inn* ultinnate drstination inlaiul, via canal and railroad. 

Su<-h arv the revolutions, in some sort, of commerce, and such the 
I't^jfTts-i <*flhe times; the result being, that those places which arc 
' I intent ti» be stationary, and do not endeavor to keep up with the move- 
r:;«-nt, enl«Tprisr, and energ\' of the times, must needs retrograde ; nor 

• in any ri'itoral advantages insure to them a long monopoly of pros- 
[•• 'ty nn«l sut'c<>s. 

The following table will be sufhcient to convey some idea as to the 
•»fi^rati«>n of the chanses alluded to above, and the class of articles 
Ax-ted thereby : 



68 



AKDRBW8 aBFORT ON 



Exports coa^twUe for 1847 anij 1851 



Articles. 




Lamber thousand feet. 

Staves • thousand. . . . 

Shinjfles • do 

Ashes barrels . . . • . 

Pork do 

Oats bushels 

Barley do 

Corn do 

"Wheat do 

Peas and beans.. • do 

Potatoes do 

Flour barrels . . . . . 

Indian meal. do 

Butter pounds. . . . . 

Cheese do 

Wool do 



V\g iron tons. .. 

IiMither pounds 

Domestic spirits. • .gallons. 

Do. woollens yards.. 

Do. cottons do. . . 



Total estimated value 



4,406 

919 

371 

420 

339 

37,583 

80,678 

41,624 

—4,926 

3,553 

1,650 

788 

4,141 

850,000 

9,706 

64,800 

2,021 

17,600 

36,240 

56,250 

334,000 



$841,478 



1851. 



2,896 

25 

57 

366 

145 

34,068 

62,895 

42,581 

5,402 

7,173 

970 

169 

161,500 

1,344 

11,400 

732 

1,500 

63,240 



(303,258 



For the same years the importations of some few articles of coast- 
wise trade were as follows ; and beyond this there is no more to be 
stated concerning this districti unless it be to point out that in 1847 
the exports to Canada consisted of barley, oats, corn, vegetables, 
cheese, machinery, and manufactures ; while in 1850 and 1851, flour 
wheat, and vegetables were imported from that country, together with 
animals. The Canadian trade has augmented somewhat, while the 
coasting trade has decreased. 

Coastwise Imyortcuions. 



Articles. 



Fruit barrels. . . . 

Salt do 

Flour do 

Wheat bushels. . . . 

Cotton bales 

Wool do 

Gypsum do.. 

Coal do 

Hides pounds.. .. 



1847. 



1,369 

11,984 

],166 

15,265 

351 

231 

430 

340 

25,150 



1851. 



1,501 

7,851 

1,630 

37,890 

147 

331 

1,280 
33,960 



GOIiOinAL AMD LASB TBADB. 



69 



Tlw steam tannage cDroUed in the district, June 30, 1851, was 343 
Ions, and sail tonnage 6,768* 



Tmil 


Eotries. 


• 

Tons. 


Crewi. 


C'learnnces 


Tons. 


Craws. 


1 *Mr* •••«••••. 


684 

737 


348,438 
328,126 


14,706 
13,624 


679 
751 


347,394 
332,433 


14,650 
13,670 


•MMiPBBQB. . • • « 


53 ' 

1 


20,312 


1,082 . 


72 


14,961 


975 



Canadian Trade in 1851. 

Imports — American vessels $56,118; duty, $16,399 

E&prirts — American vessels 21,980 

£amvam and clcaranca^ District of SachetCs Harbor^ New Yarky during 

t/ie year 1851. 



r#aU03l TKAOB. 



No. Teasels. 




CVASTIKO TIUOK. 



hm of Tvssels. 
do.. 



200 

31 
207 : 

31 



453 
441 



Tons. 


Men. 


Bojt. 


163,816.56 
2,994.00 

162,760.91 
2,994.00 


6,835 
193 

6,834 
193 


349 
340 


181,626.61 
181,639.45 


6,982 
6,936 


347 
347 



No. 6. — District of Osweoo. 

Pari oi entry, Oswego ; latitude 43^ 25', longitude 76^ 37 ; popu- 
..lion in 1830, 2.703 ; ia 1840, 4,665, ; in 1850, 12,205. 

The district of Oswego has eighty miles of coast-line, from Stony 
ViJiOl to tlie w*c8tcm shore of S<Kius bay, and embraces the ports of 
Tfrrmsv Salmon river, or Port Ontario; Sandy Creek, Oswego, Little 
> idtts, and Sodus Point. None of these ports, with the exception of 
^^vrgo, although they are all-im|K)rtant to the accommodation of their 
*'vn tmniediate neighborhcxxis, for the shipment of produce and theintn^ 
dunkio of merchandise of all kinds, can t)e said to be valuable in re- 
iT'tfd to ibc facilitation of trade and the centralization of commerce, as 
"<uiected with distant portions of die country. 

Pc««eiistiif^ advantages, both for coastwise and Canadian commerce, 
rjr»*ly ei|ualled and never surpassed, this port of entry has by rapid ' 
•trvfea, wiibin tlic last lew years, attained an importaiue among the 
srrac business marts of the lakes, which guaranties an indefinite in- 
crease of its commercial and maritime power, until the whole territories 
U the British and American northwest shall have become densely popu- 
lued ; their fertile soil advanced to the highest state of cultivation ; 



70 ABIDRBWS^ REPORT ON 

the fisheries of their lakes prosecuted to their utmost capacity ; and 
their unfathomable mineral resources penetrated and developedt so far 
as science and enterprise may effect. 

These advantages are of a threefold nature. First, an easy and rapid 
communication, both by canal and railway, with New York and Boston, 
via Albany, and by lake, canal, and railway with Ogdensburg; 
secondly, a harbor which could at a small expense be rendered per- 
fectly secure and accessible, at the nearest point on the lakes to tide- 
water ; and, thirdly, a direct communication by lake with the most 
thickly settled portions of Canada, and by lake and the Welland canal 
with the whole western and northwestern lake-country. 

The city of Oswego, port of entry, and capital of Oswego county, 
New York, Hes 160 miles WNW. of Albany, 373 from Washington ; was 
incorporated in 1828 ; and is situate on both sides of the Oswego river, 
connected by a bridge 700 feet long. It extends to the lake shore. 

The harbor, next to that of Sackett's Harbor, is the best on the south- 
em side of Lake Ontario. Tt is formed by a pier or mole of wood, filled 
with stone, 1,259 feet long on the west side of the harbor, and 200 
feet on the east side, with an entrance between them. The water 
within the pier has a depth of fi-om 12 to 20 feet. The cost of this work 
was $93,000. It is among the earliest improvements of lake harbors 
undertaken by the government, having been commenced in 1827. 

The protection anticipated from these works has not fallen short of 
what was expected ; but the piers, being built of cribs of timber, filled 
with stone, began to decay so early as 1833. Some steps were taken 
in the year 1837 to replace the old work with permanent structures of 
masonry, but these were soon discontinued, and what remains is rapidly 
going to ruin, with the exception of 600 feet of the west pier, which is 
weU built of stone and is in good condition. 

It is calculated that for the moderate sum of $207,371 these works 
can be secured and improved in the following manner, so as to render 
the harbor perfectly secure and of easy access to the largest class of 
vessels in use on the lakes : 

1. By rebuilding the whole pier-line in substantial solid masonry. 

2. By enlarging and strengthening the west, or light-house, pier-head, 
and defending it by a five-gun battery. 

3. By removing the gravel and deposites within the piers, which have 
become a barrier to the entrance of the inner and outer harbors. It is 
an original depositc by the littoral currents of the lake, not caused or 
increased by the piers. Once removed, it can never return while the 
piers stand. 

The principal harbor-light is on the pier-head on the west side of the 
entrance. The tonnage of the port in 1840 was 8,346 tons ; by com- 
paring which with the present tonnage, as given below, the general 
increase of the port will be readily seen. 

The population of the town is about 13,000 persons. 

The Oswego canal, formed principally by improvement of the natural 
course of the river, passes through the great salt districts of the State 
at Salina and Liverpool, to Syracuse, where it connects with the Erie 
canal from Albany to Buffalo. Oswego is, therefore, the great outlet 
for the western exportation of domestic salt. The Syracuse and Os- 



COLONIAL AND LAKE TRADB. 



71 



wcffD railway connects the city with Syracuse, and thence with Albany, 
Buflulo, New York, and Boston. It is distant from Rochester, by lake, 
r>5 milrs, and from Sackett*s Harbor 40 miles. The rapid increase of 
thr commerce of Oswego is aptly illustrated by the following table, 
^xhibitine tbe traffic in some of the leading articles of importation by 
Uikr during three years : 



Article*. 1849. 

barrel*. . 317,758 

busholi. .' 3,615,677 

iVim. .... ^ .... ^ do 383,230 

Bartey do ' 65,tM6 

Rf« do 31,426 

fJOa do...., 133,697 

rm^^ndhmim. do...., 24,012 

Pork ^ b«rrek..' 35,098 

do....: 20,375 

do.... 10,b72 

'. feet....' 51,101,432 



1850. 



302,577 

3 , 847 , 3o4 

426,121 

120,652 

66,439 

113,463 

25,068 

26,262 

6,789 

11,435 

67,586,985 



1851. 



389,929 

4,231,899 

1,251,500 

194,858 

106,518 

175,984 

63,634 

97,950 

15,854 

4,479 

83.823,417 



The annexed figures will show what portions of some of the 
articles wen* received from Canada during the same period : 



above 



Articlet. 



...•...«•..• .barrels. . 

WWu bushels. . 

ftfs • do.... 

(htt do.... 

>M. ••.>.. •.•.•..... tdo, . . . 

do.... 

U^mkmt .••..«. feet. . . . 

barrels. . 

pounds. . 

WW do.... 



1849. 



198,623 

623,920 

16,044 

55,700 

16,322 

6,648 

44,137,287 

2,235 

115,759 

97,141 



1850. 



260,874 

1,094,444 

7,499 

90,156 

22,380 

10,372 

50,685,682 

1,580 

2>5,087 

77,941 



1851. 



359,875 

670,209 

53,950 

78,771 

60,335 

11,496 

62,527,843 

*584 

75,000 

82,908 



Of the abovf? amount of 4,231,899 bushels of wheat, only 1,676,213 
were Jbrwarded bv canal ; and, while there were received by lake only 
-W9,929 barrel."* of flour, there were forwarded by canal 888,131 barrels, 
•bowinft tliat of ih<* remaining 2,555,686 bushels of wheat there were 
mamifactun*<l by tlie Oswego mills, and sent forward by canal, 498,200 
bwrrls of Bour, 'while probably 13,000 barrels of flour in addition were 
ahsorbiHJ by local consumption. 

Accrirding to this calculation, the capacity of the Oswego flouring 
milU cnonot fall short of 511,000 barrels of flour per annum. The 
value of the Canadian commerce of this district is estimated, for 1851« 
as follows: 

laports paving duty $435,153 

IffipofU booded and free 1,349,259 

Totol foreign imports 1.784,412 



72 ABTOREWS' RBFOBT OJT 

Exports of foreign merchandise S915,900 

Exports of domestic merchandise 2,291,911 

Total exports to Canada $3,207,811 

Total foreign commerce 4,992,223 

This, it should be observed, amounts to very nearly one-half the entire 
Canadian commerce with the United States. Owing to the large pro- 

ertion of Canadian produce entered in bond, the amount of duties col- 
;ted is comparatively small, when contrasted with that received in 
other districts ; but this fact renders the trade none the less valuable to 
Oswego. 

The whole amount of duties collected in Oswego, in 1851, was 
$89,760, while there was assessed and secured on the property entered 
in bond the further sum of $226,937, making a total of $356,697 duties 
assessed on property entered at the port of Oswego during the year. 

The coastwise imports at the port of Oswego, for the year 

1851, amounted to $6,083,036 

Coastwise exports of 1851 11,471,071 

Total coastwise 17,554,107 

Add foreign commerce 4,992,223 

Total 1851 22,546,330 

The enrolled and licensed tonnage of the district amounts to 21,9i2 
tons sail, and 4,381 tons steam, being an aggregate of 26,323 tons. 

The whole number of entrances and clearances for the year are as 
below : 



Tean. 


Entrances. 


Tons. 

• 


Men. 


i 

1 Clearances. 


Tons. 


Men. 


1851 


3,318 
3,004 


721,383 
656,406 


28,157 
24,032 


3,198 

2,771 


685,793 
604,159 


26,089 
23,548 


1850 




Increase 


314 


64,997 


4,125 

1 


427 


81,634 


2,481 



The enrolled tonnage for 1840 was 8,346 ; for 1846, 15,513 ; for 
.1847, 18,460 ; for 1848, 17,391 ; and for 1851, 26,323 tons. 

The value of the commerce of Oswego, for several years, has been 
declared as follows: In 1846,810,502,980; in 1847, $18,067,819; and 
in 1851, $22,546,330. 



OOIiOiriAL AHD LAXX TRADB. 73 



CANADIAN TRADE IN 1851. 

Imports* 

In Atnericati vessels— 

In bond $197,040 

Paying duty 174,212 

Fr«- 9,513 

$380,766 

In British vessels — 

InUind 1,137,308 

Paving dutv 260,941 

Frvc '. 5,398 

1,403,647 

Total imports 1^784,4j[2 

Erporis foreign produce and manufactures. 

EntiUed to drawback. Duty "collected. Not entitled to drawback. 

In American vtrsscU . . $90,532 $36,381 $287,288 

In British vessels ... . 170,603 53,379 367,477 

261,135 89,760 •654,765 

• In this an- iucluded — 

Tm 825,606 pounds, value W23,057 

Cofire 369,612 pounds, value 37,220 



460.277 



Export* domettie produce and manttfactwti. 



la American vessels €1,190,048 

Ia British vesseU 1,100,863 



2,291,911 



74 



ANDREWS^ RBPORT ON 



Imports at the DUtrict of OswegOj coastwise, during the year endifig De- 
cember 31, 1851. 



Articles. 



Fiflh • bairels. 

Ashes — pot and pearl ....casks. . 

Lumber .< • • • •feet. . . 

Staves and heading. .... .M.. . , 

Laths M... . 



Shingles M... . 

''Wheat bushels. 

Flour barrels. 

Barley bushels. 

Rye do. . 

Oats do. . 

Com do. . 

Potatoes • do. . 

Peas and beans .do. . 

Apples barrels. 

Peaches baskets. 

Butter. packages 

Cheese ...do.. 

Pork barrels. 

Hams and bacon casks .. 

Lard 
Beef 

Tallow do.. 

Hides • . .number 

Sheep-pelts bundles 

Wool .pounds 

£^gs .barrels. 

Beeswax do. . 

Horses number 

Cattle do.. 

Grass-seed casks. . 

Hemp bales. . 

Hops. do. . 



.packages, 
. .barr^.. 



Malt. bushels.. 

Tobacco .hhds .. . 

Broom-corn bales. . < 

Whiskey barreb. . 

Ale and porter.. .do.. . . 

Dry ffoods boxes ... 

Furniture. packages, 

Paper and books bundles , 

Leather rolls. . . 

Paint barrels.. 

Salsratus .casks. . . 

Glass boxes. .. 

Starch .do. . . . 

Oil cake ...tons.. .. 

Lard Oil .barrels.. 

Candles • boxes. . . 

Iron (pig and scrap) . . • .tons. . . . 

Nails..* ......kegs.., 

Grindstones number . 

Coal ..••• tons... 

Limestone do. . • . 

Corn-brooms dozen.. . 

Platform scales .number . 

Sundries 



Total. 



Quantity. 



3, 
21,295, 

1, 

1, 

1, 

3,561, 

130, 

171, 

53, 

1,251, 

I 

10, 
22, 
15, 

7, 
42, 



7, 
2, 



1, 
1, 

2, 
1, 



335 
895 
574 
799 
179 
423 
697 
054 
347 
568 
213 
306 
874 
202 
327 
45] 
029 
888 
950 
666 
208 
940 
447 
090 
272 
400 
702 
67 
50 
15 
406 
266 
377 
955 
282 
300 
619 
200 
251 
245 
355 
108 
275 
132 
305 
303 
633 
433 
685 
550 
279 
300 
799 
640 
126 
300 



Value. 



S? 



213 

8 

4 

3 

2,849 

520 

102 

26 

29 

625 

2 

2 

4 

48 

38 

419 

175 

266 

159 

9 

21 

SO 

12 

7 

2 

5 

4 

7 
18 

4 
25 

4 
26 

1 
25 
IS 
38 
44 

8 

1 

5 

S5 
72 
2 
16 
1 
6 
3 
1 

6 
36 



,345 
,375 
,000 
,995 
,716 
,557 
,358 
,216 
,808 
,284 
,164 
,653 
,437 
,402 
,159 

564 
,346 
,680 
,250 
,000 
,496 
,400 
,834 
,S7(> 
,400 
,790 
,020 
,680 
,000 

400 
,872 
,980 
,850 
,773 
,380 
,500 
,190 
,S00 
,100 
,250 
,300 
,320 
,928 
,960 
,763 

606 
,320 
,990 
,740 
,500 
,116 
,500 
,196 
,S80 

252 
,000 
,539 



6,083,03$ 



COUmiAL AND LAKB TRADE. 



76 



Erpartif cooftuAK^ /ram the dutrict of Osw^gOf during the year ending 

December 31, 1851. 



Anielea. 



Quantity. 



• • • .• 



• •• • « 



r«A 

l^Wa^aa • • • ■ 

..feet... 
.barrels., 
.buehelf. 

do... 

••■•..•... •Mjrew. « 

tiercce.. 

• .....number. 

F«Hi barrel!.. 

Haas aad baron ....... xa^ki .. 

Lu4 package!. 

Weol pounds • 

fides and skins .do. .. 

...do... 

...do... 

xasks... 

^rvu of torpentine ... .barrels. • 

..boxes., 
.pounds , 

Famitore. 

^anos number. 

WasMH and curiaffes ... .do . • 

...boxes.. 
....jars... 
...barrels. 
do... 



G 

Waltr liciie 



...do... 
.pounds. 



flau 

Draga. Ibt 
Glssa. 



-ware, and earthenware. 

, .tons 

Oaf aAd ofser iron ....... .00. ...•.............•••••• 

PVg and scvap iron do ••••« 

Wiml pounds 

Ksili and epikca do 

Hloensaad castings tons 

Hardwatv 

Ta • boxes 

Kq^gar pounds 

Tea chests 

GiBM ••••.«•...•.... .pounds. ................ ....< 

CnJ 

'l*!^ 



5S5 

148,300 

2,727 

2,500 

7,500 

6,616 

603 

150 

5d5 

1,014 

144 

15,495 

100,581 

111,873 

97,125 

650 

1,350 

550 

195,265 



43 

98 

850 

495 

5,498 

16,101 

376,601 

150,000 



43,429 

3,117 

1,267 

415,400 

3,593,631 

1,376 



1,050 
9,961,000 



1,440 

3,380,799 

3,213 



Value. 



170,752 
13,125 

1,668 
10,908 
•2,000 

3,750 

8,317 
15,075 
12,000 

8,925 
20,280 

1,296 

3,409 
12,189 
10,069 
11,655 
26,100 
20,250 

2,200 
11,717 
29,250 

8,900 
13,360 
34,000 

1,900 

4,811 

16,101 

328,941 

30,000 

30,000 

16,000 

16,000 

147,139 

1,737,160 

249,360 

37,997 

62,310 

143,745 

11,080 

16,300 

6,300 

677,270 

98, U9 

43,200 

338,080 

16,065 

18,500 

7,073,525 



11,471,071 



No. 7. — District op Gbnbsbb. 

Pdrt of entry, Rochester ; latitude 43^ 08', longitude 77^ 61' ; popu- 
UtinQ in ]83U,'9,207 ; in 1840, 20,191 ; in 18*50, 36,403. 

The Genesee district has a very limited commerce except with 
Canada ; with eighty miles of coast it has but one shipping place, 
which is situated at the mouth of the Genesee river, at a disUnce of 
aboot three miles from Rochester city. The passage of the Erie canal 



76 



ANDREWS BBPORT ON 



and a parallel I'me of railroad through the entire length of the district, 
but a few miles distant from the coast, offering better facilities for the 
transportation of passengers and merchandise, whether eastward or 
westward, than the lake can afford, confines the commerce of the port 
entirely to Canadian trade. Rochester is well situated on the falls of 
the Genesee, which are three in number, with an aggregate descent of 
268 feet within the city limits„affbrding almost unbounded resources in 
the shape of water-power, applicable to most manufacturing purposes, 
and applied largely to the flouring business ; the greater part of the 
wheat shipped by canal from BufftJo being floured and reshipped by 
canal to its ulterior destination. 

It occupies both sides of the river, and had a population, in 1820, of 
1,502 individuals. In 1830 it had increased to 9,269 : in 1840 to 20,191, 
and in 1850 to 36,403. In 1812 it was laid out as a village, and in- 
corporated in 1817. It was chartered as a city in 1834, and the city 
limits now occupy an area of 4,324 acres, well laid out with a good 
regard to regularity. Rochester has three bridges across the Genesee 
river, besides a fine aqueduct over which the canal passes, tr&versing 
the heart of the city, and adding much to its prosperity, as well as to 
the rapidity of its growth. 

The Canadian commerce of this district was, for 

1851. Imports $49,040 

Exporu 913,654 

Total 962,694 



1850. Imports $95,283 

Exports 326,899 

422,182 



In 1851 $962,694 

1860 t 422,182 



Increase 540,512 



. The amount of 


tonnage entered and cleared from this port 


was : 


Te&r. 


Entrances. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Clearances. 


Tons. 


Men. 


1651 .... 


487 


212,794 


7,997 


487 


212,794 


7,997 



There are enrolled in this district 429 tons of steam and 57 of sail 
shipping. , ^ , 

Exported to Canada. 

In British vessels, foreign goods • $335,708 

In British vessels, domestic goods entitled to drawback . . . 445,967 
In British vessels, foreign goods entitled to drawback 131,979 

913.654 



QOUnnAh ANO LAKB TRAOB. 77 

Imporied/rom Canada, 

Dnij collected. 

In American vessels S8,456 $1,765 

lo Briiish vessels 40,584 8,773 



49,040 10,538 



Na 8. — ^DisTBiCT OF Niaoaba. 

Port of f-ntrvt LewUton ; latitude 43^ OS', longitude 79° 07'; popa- 
:ukm in 1830; 1,528 ; in 1840, 2,533 ; in 1850, 2,924. 

Tht« district embraces all the lake coast of Ontario, from the Oak 
Ortbard creek to the mouth of the Niagara, and thence up that river to 
the fall.^ cm the American side, and includes the ports of Oak Orchard 
Crprk, OlcoCtf and Wilson, on the lake shore, Lcwiston and Youngs* 
'••wn on llie river, and on office of customs at the suspension bridge 
which crosses the Niagara, at three miles distance below the falls. 

There is a very considerable trade from Buffalo passing through this 
district to Canada, across the suspension bridge; especially in the 
wioiiT season, at which time it is by far the better route, on account of 
vi'* railn>ad communication from the falls, which were, in former years, 
J* nerally considered as the head of navigation. 

At that time tlie trade of the Niagara district was of the greatest im 
fa^rtam-e; but since arts and science have opened new channels of com- 
uiunication on either side of that great natural obstacle, the field of its 
■oafmerrial operations has been narrowed down to the supply of the 
:• ic*al wants of the circumjacent country- 

Lewi<^t(Hi, the p>rt of entry and principal place of business, as well as 
::.'* largf'^t town of the district, is situated on the cast side of the Niagara 
nvf-r, *f»ven miles above its mouth, opposite to Queenstown, Canada, 
Aich wliich it is c*onnected by a ferry. It has a population of about 
\MiH} piT.<^>ns, and communicates with Buffalo and Lockport by rail* 
•** ay*, ami with Hamilton, Toronto, Oswego, and Ogdensburgh, during 
:Mf- sinntnfT season by daily steamers. It c:Lrries on some valuable 
t' iffir with Canada. 

Thi* ili.strict is, as yet, rather barren of internal improvements, having 
■ T I Vir object the connecting the circumjacent regions with the lake 
i: 1 rivrr : lor thrre is but on<* railway passing through it, which has 
Koflalo and Lockport lor its n.^spt^ctive itrminL One or two other 
rnd*, however, are in prcKHss of construction, designed to connect 
lJ/ir|i»-*ter and Caiumdaigua with the great wost<»rn railway through 
(*maJ.i, a,4 it is uitended, by means of a second suspension bridge 
-• rf>*« ilie NiricTJuni, near Lcwiston. 

It u, lioweviT, a question with many minds win^ther it will be pos- 
•.l»lr to construct a bridge upon this principU* sufficiently steady and 
:i:ni Ui admit of the passage of a locomotive with a heavy train. But, 
!■ this as it may, there will be no dillicultv« it is probable, in making 
'i>* transit in single cars, by horw-|XJwer- ft s<^ms somewhat remark 
•blc that, while the success of railroad communication by means of sus- 
pcQsauo is so entirely problf*matical, no attempt should have been made, 



78 



ANDREWS' EBPOET ON 



or even proposed, to throw a permanent arched bridge across the river 
near the mouth of the Chippewa creek, which could be effected, one 
would imagine, by means of stone piers and iron spans, without great 
risk or difficulty. Should the suspension plan, however, prove unfea- 
sible, it is probable that the iron tuoular bridge system, so triumphantlv 
established in Great Britain on the Conway and Menai straits, will 
be adopted. So that it may be almost conndently predicted that the 
Niagara district will very shortly be brought into the line of a great 
direct eastern and wesiern thoroughfare, which will add greatly to its 
Canadian commerce overland, and materially increase the size and 
progress of Buffalo. 

In former days, all freight coming up Lake Ontario, destined for con- 
sumption, was transported by land from Lewiston across the portage 
around the falls of the Niagara. The noble river itself affords an ex- 
cellent harbor at Lewiston, being far below the rapids and broken 
water, which extend to some distance downward from the whirlpool. 
Youngsto>^Ti, a few miles lower down the sti'eam, is also a good land- 
ing place for steamers. 

A line of 6ne mail-steamers plies regularly between these places and 
Ogdensburg and Montreal daily. The other ports above mentioned 
are mere local places for shipment of domestic country produce, and 
the receipt of merchandise. No definite returns have been made of 
their business, so that it is not possible to enter upon this branch of the 
subject in detail. 

The returns of the commerce of this district prove it to be as follows : 

Imports from Canada during the j^ear 1851 8103,985 

Imports coastwise " " '* 236,684 • 

Total imports 340,669 $340,669 

Exports to Canada, foreign $150,023 

domestic produce 426,023 

coastwise 433,634 









Total exports 1,019,418 1,019,418 

Grand total 1,360,087 



Total foreign commerce $689,769 

Total coastwise commerce 670,318 



Total commerce of the district 1,360,087 

The tonnage employed in this district for the followiug years, was : 



Yean. 


EnironceB. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Cloaranoes. 


Tons. 


Men. 


1851 


990 
903 


427,968 
358,048 


21 , 188 
16,950 


990 


427,968 

OKQ AJQ 


21,188 
16,950 


1850 




UMO U«'U , V1U 


Increase... . 


87 


69,920 


4,238 


87 


69,920 


4,338 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADB. 



79 



The enrolled and licensed t^mnage of this district for 1851, was : 

Steam ]00 tons. 

S.iil 505 '* 



Ti»i;il tonnage 605 



i( 



The incrca.^i' in this district will bo seen by a planr(» at the follow- 
,iU tables : 

Enn»nnd jihippiu<? !<'ir the year 1838 119 tons. 

" 1843 112 " 



•4 



• « 



*• 



kft 



• • 



• » 



4i 



'* 1*48, 
" 1851. 



730 •' 
605 " 



Tlie fiireipi eoiiiTncrci; for the years 1847, 1850, and 1851, compare 
» k>Unws : 



Ki{Mirt<, dorot Stic 

foreign 

Imports from Canada 



If Ii'iti.'-h v*s -*•!«. . 



1847. 1850. 1851. 

1.166,541 J*^; 



18,015 
184,556 



$260,074 $426,761 

464 159,023 

353,9/>l 103,985 



079,492 



689,767 



Canadian trade in 1851. 



IniporU. 

$42,115 
61,870 



Duty collected. 

$7,854 

12,102 

f 



103,985 19,957 



KxiMrU^— foreign gmpds. 

tlntitled to drewlijirk. 

In Amrrir.in vr^M L- $24,722 

In Briti^i \v<^A< 75,242 



Not entitled to drawback. 

$32,052 
28,007 



99.964 



60,0.59 



Erjxtrts—domrftic prnducr and manufhcliire. 

Vi AuH'rioan v» "k-I* $212,924 

It Bnti*h vf!t*<ls 213,837 



Trim) t'xitnrts and imports in AnuTican vei::>cU 
T<4al rxports ami imports in British vessels. . 



426.761 

$311,813 
378,956 



690,769 



80 AKDRBWS' RBFOaT OIT 

Statement of men and tonnage employed in the Canadian trade uith lAa 

, dUtrict. 

American steamboats 2,968 men. 424 boys* 

" sail vessels 66 " 1 boy. 

Total Americans in foreign trade 3,034 " 426 boys. 

Foreign steam vessels 9,209 men. 491 boys. 

" sail vessels 130 " 54 ' " 

Total in foreign vessels ,9,339 " 545 '* 

Statement of crews on board coasting vessels* 

No. entries. Tons. Men. Boys. 

Steam vessels 282 203,120 6,930 818 

Sail vessels 19 1,696 80 17 



Total 301 204,815 7,010 836 



No. 9. — District of Buffalo Creek. 

Poit of entry, Bufialo; latitude 42© 53', longitude 68*^ 55'; popula- 
tion in 1830, 8,668; in 1840, 18»213; in 1850, 42,261. 

This district has a coast-line one hundred miles in extent, commenc- 
ingtat the great falls on the Niagara river, and thence extends south- 
ward and westward, embracing the ports of Schlosser, Tonawanda, 
and Black Rock, on the river ; Buffalo, on Buffalo Creek, at the foot of 
Lake Erie ; and Cattaraugus Creek, Silver Creek, Dunkirk, Van Buren 
harbor, and Barcelona, on the southern shoie of Lake Erie; being all 
the ports between the Falls of Niagara and the eastern State line of 
Pennsylvania. 

"Buffalo Creek" has a commerce larger than that of any other lake 
district in the United States, amounting to nearly one-third of the whole 
declared value of the lake trade, and showing the astonishing increase^ 
in the single year 1851, of 819,087,832. This increase may partly 
be attributed to the opening, in May, 1851, of a new avenue of trade 
to one point of the district, in that noble work, the New York and Erie 
railroad. The commencement of operations on this route necessarily 
increased the competition for the "trade of the lakes;" and, while an 
excellent share of business has fallen to the lot of the new enterprise, it 
would appear that the old-established lines have been gainers rather 
than losers by its opening. 

Within the boundaries of this district, and, in some sort, all serving 
as the feeders and receivers of its lake commerce, are the terminations 
of the following great avenues to the seaboard : the Albany and Buffalo 
railway, the New York City and Buffalo railway, the New York City, 
Corning, and Buffalo railway, the Buffalo, Canandaigua, and New York 
City railway, the Buffalo and Niagara Falls railway, the Buffalo and 



oouMfiAii aud i.m tkadb. 81 

8iaie Line railwaTt extending to Erie, Pa., through Dunkirk ; the New 
Ycirk and Erie railway, extending from the port of New York to Lake 
Eric at Dunkirk ; and last, not least, the Erie canal, intercommunica- 
tnf between the lakes and the Atlantic tide- water. 

The three Buffalo and New York roads, and the State Line road, 
have been put into operation since the commencement of the present 
year — 1852 — and cannot, of course, be taken into account as operating 
upoQ the* commerce of this district previous to that date. 

Ofthe ports above named, as being embraced in this district, the city 
of Bufllilo is by far the most important; of the others, Dunkirk and 
Tiioawanda, only, have any actual claims to consideration. Schlosser, 
h .ne sitnated three miles only above the falls, where the current is 
^irraJy so rapid as to be almost dangerous, enjoys few commercial 
a^ivanuges, and is remarkable only as a landing-place for pleasure 
pvties, and the scat of a small Canadian trade, carried on by means 
It: »kifl4 across the river. 

The Nbgara, to this point, is navigable for steamers and other ves- 
^'-U of the largest lake-class ; but, the channel being difficult and the 
« urrent perilously strong, vessels of any magnitude rarely venture 
t/4>aiielves so near the falls. The Canadian port of Chippewa is 
orarly opposite this point; and, during the summer season, a small 
ftramer plies regularly twice a day between Chippewa and Buffalo, 
r r.tcring the Niagara from the Chippewa creek, by means of a cut, and 
thr-nce proceeding up the river to the Buffalo harbor. 

Tonawanda is more eligibly situated for trade, on the Tonawanda 
( r«fk— a fine navigable stream — the Niagara, and the Eric canal; the 
n\er and creek forming an excellent harbor. It is twelve miles north 
f'licn Buffalo, on the canal; and, owing to its facilities for the tran- 
•'iipment of produce saving twelve miles' tolls, its business has in- 
'r»'.iM'<l rapidly during the last three years. This business is princi- 
p •liy transacted by Buffalo houses, and the commercial transactions of 
T 4iawanda are, lor the most part, made in the Buffalo markets, to 
iKf ich easy access is bad by means of the Buffalo and Niagara Falls 
r iwmy. 

Thi' cftmmerce of this port in 1850 was valued at $1,205,494, and 
r.i KSl at no Ws than $3,7^2,0^0, consisting of 81,(592,423 exports by 
i.iLr, and S2,0b^9,6(i3 imports ; showing an acrsregalc increase, over 
CI- %:ilue fifihe business uf 1J550, of $2,576,592.' 

Bb(*k Itf)ck, the next port in order, is similar in situation to the last 
: **tiIjim1 ; being situate on the Niagara river and Erie canal, only two 
n '!«-« distant from Buffalo. 

The returns of the trade and commerce of the lakes at this point are 
' ••..lUv included, by the colle»clor, with those of BuHiilo. In li^50 and 
1 •*'>!, ihey wer«% howevi*r, made distinct, and are as follows: in 1850, 
f i.m7.fiyj; in lh51, $2,349 3'i4: showins^ an inereast* on ihr y«ar of 
l^lol.f>tl. Th** priuri|Kil rommiTce ot' Bl lekUock c<«nsist8 in a traffic 

rrir^it OQ wiiii Canada, by nuvinsiif a ferry, whirh plits cf>n<i.intlv 

s of the river, and in the manufacture of 
:. :r, t^ir whicn purpose several mills have bc*en Citablished at this 

6iU«-r creek, Cattaraugus creek. Van Burcn harbor, and Barcelona, 
6 



82 AMDSBWS' BEPORT ON 

are, each of them, convenient landing places for supplies, and for the 
shipping of the produce of the neighborhood ; but tne value of their 
commerce has not been made up or returned, as the small-class vessels, 
which ply in the trade between Buffalo and these ports, rarely extend 
their trips beyond the limits of the district, in which case they are not 
required to report their cargoes at the custom-house. Their imports 
consist of all kinds of merchandise, and their exports of butter, cheese, 
pork, wool, lumber, and vegetables, the country behind and adjacent 
to them being one of the richest and most fertile portions of the whole 
State of New York. 

Dunkirk is situate on Lake Erie, about 45 miles west of Buffalo, 
with which it is connected by railway- It has a fine harbor, with an 
easy access for vessels of light draught of water, and communicates 
with New York by the Erie railroad, 464 miles in length. There are 
some slight obstructions at the harbor mouth, as is the case with most 
of the lake ports, which if removed, would make navigation perfectly 
free for vessels of light draught ; but the bottom being ot rock, it cannot 
readily be deepened. 

The commerce of Dunkirk, which previously was merely nominal, 
amounted in 1851, after the opening ot the Erie railway, to the sum of 
$9,394,780, being of exports $4,000,000, of imports «5,394,780. The 
Buffalo and State Line railway, which connects that city with Dun- 
kirk, also connects it with Erie, Pa. 

The city of Buffalo, the port of entry of this district, had a popula- 
tion in 1810, of 1,508 persons ; in 1820, of 2,095 ; in 1830, of 8,668 ; 
in 1840, of 18,213 ; and in 1850, of 42,261 ; showing an increase of 113 
per cent, from 1830 to 1840, and of 132 per cent, from 1840 to 1850. 
This would lead to the conclusion, on the average rate of increase on 
the last ten years, that on the 1st of January, 1852, its population did 
not fall far short of 50,478 persons- 
Buffalo occupies a commanding business situation at the western 
terminus of the Erie canal and the eastern terminus of Lake Erie, con- 
stituting, as it were, the great natural gateway between the marts of the 
East and the producing regions of the West, for the passage of the lake 
commerce. It is distant from Albany, on a straight line, 288 miles — by 
canal 363, and by railroad 325. From Rochester, 73 miles ; from 
Niagara Falls 22, SSE.; from Cleveland 203, ENE.; from Detroit 290, 
E. by N.; from Mackinaw 627, SE.; from Green Bay 807, ESE ; from 
Montreal, Canada East, 427, SW.; and from Washington, D- C, 381, 
NW. 

The harbor of Buffalo is constituted by the mouth of Buffalo creek, 
which has twelve to fourteen feet of water for the distance of a mile 
from its mouth, with an average width of two hundred feet ; and is pro- 
tected by a fine, substantial stone pier and sea-wall jutting out into the 
lake, at the end of which there is a handsome light-house twenty leet 
in diameter, by forty-six feet in height ; there is, liowever,',a bar at the 
mouth preventing the access of any vessels drawing above ten feet of 
water. A ship-canal seven hundred yards long, eighty feet wide, and 
thirteen deep, has been constructed into the place as a further accom- 
modation for vessels and for their security when the ice is running; yet 
the harbor, which* is perfectly easy of access in all weathers, is very 



OOI^NIAL AND LAKB TRADB* 83 

fiu* from being adequate to the commerce of the place, and is often do 
much obfttructed by small craft and canal-boats, especially when forced 
in suddenly by stress of weather, that ingress or egress is a matter not 
easily or rapidly efiected. The extension of the Erie canal a mile to 
the eastward of its original terminus, and the construction of side-cuts 
imo it ibr the refuge of boats, will do something to relieve this pressure ; 
and much has been efiected by the enterprise of tlic city authorities, who 
have already expended largo sums in the excavation of ship-caf)als 
insidr the sea-wall, on which warehouses for the storing of goods and 
fjdliiating the transliipment of merchandise are in progress of erection. 

Two very large canal basins are also in progress, under the auspices 
of the State, ibr the belter and safer accommodation of canal-boats. 
ThLi will tend to attract them from the main harbor, and will materially 
increase its capacity tor lake shipping. One of the above named basins 
ts lieing constructecl near the mouth of tlic harbor, and the other some* 
thinu nion* than a mile distant, easterly. The two, being in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the creek and communicating with it, and also with 
«*acti ocImt by canal, will aflbrd ample facilities for transhipment to 
hixb suU'^ of the city. 

Mfirr than this, however, is required, to meet the demands of the 
lafgp and daily increasing commerce of the place, and it is contempla- 
ird to open a new channel from the lake to the creek, at above a mile's 
diManct* fn^m its mouth, across the isthmus, which is not above two 
buodrc-d and fifty yards in width ; and this improvement, with the erec- 
ts ki of a new breakwatcT, wouhl render it sufficiently capacious for 
the oofnputed increase* of shipping for many years to come. 

BofiaIi> is n handsome an(l well built city, with streets, for the most 
p0t« rectangular and recliUnear, and many handsouK^ buildings. It is 
Liie terminus of that stupendous State work, the Erie canal ; oi* three 
iiaes of railway connecting it directly with New York; and of one com- 
omnicating, through Albany, with both the cities of New York and Bos- 
too. Ii is also^hc eastern terminus of the Builalo and State Line rail- 
way, which is destined to extend westward^ by means of the south 
Uiore railways, to Toledo, Detroit, and Chicago. A railroad is also 
prayerted hence to Brantford, in Canada West, which will open to the 
cty the whole trade of the rich agricultural valley of the Grand river, 
wjiii the aiijacent lumbering districts, and is destined to connect with 
the grmt wt•^t^»rn road, and tlience, via Detroit, with all tin* West, and 
Ky Lake Huron with the mineral regions of Lake Superior. It has a 
inr-dock of sufficient caiKieitv to admit u steamer of sixteen hundred 
tons burden, and three hundred and twenty Hvi length, with a ma- 
r.nc railway to facilitate tho hauling out and repairing of vessels. 
Tbmr is alio near {\u* same shipVcjrd in which theso are to he i()uud, a 
Uripr d«*rric*k Ibr the handling of lx>ilers and lu*M\y machinerv* In 
ibntu it appears that this city is n\<olvi'd to keep fully abrriist with the 
prfigre«ii ol the times, and not to lose the start which shr t(H)k by Ibrce 
•t birr nattirul advantages through any want of energy or exertion. 

As being the oldest port on Laki* Erie, and having taken, and thus 
Uf held* tlie lead in the amount and value of Ikt lake commerce, the 
a mu pf r cial returns of BuflUlo are fuller thnn thost^of most other ports; 
iod as the history of lier commercial pr(»gress is Mttle less than the 



84 ANDBBWa' BEPORT ON 

history of the rise and advancement of all the commerce vreet of it, 
no apology will be necessary for entering somewhat fully into the his- 
tory of the lake commerce of Buffalo, and its details, at this time. 

This commerce dates its actual commencement from the year 1825, 
the year in which the canal was finished and opened, so as to connect 
the waters of Lake Eric with the Atlantic; though the first craft 
which navigated those inland waves was built many years anterior to 
that date. The first American vessef which navigated the waters of 
Lake Erie was the schooner Washington, built near Erie, in Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1797. The first steamer on this lake was constructed at 
Black Rock, in 1818. In 1825, however, the whole licensed tonnage 
of all the lakes above the Falls of Niagara consisted of three steamers 
of 772 tons, and 54 sailing craft of 1,677 tons, making an aggregate of 
steam and sail tonnage entering the port of Buffalo ot only 2,449. 

In 1830 this had increased to 16,300 
In 1835 " " 30,602 

In 1841 •* " 55,181 

In 1846 " " 90,000 

In 1851 " " 153,426 

It will be observed that the ratio of increase, during this series of 
years, was, from 1825 to 1830, 113 per cent, per annum. 

1830 to 1835, 18 

1835 to 1841, m " 

1841 to J 846, 12 

1846 to 1851, 14 

Astonishing and unprecedented as is this increase, it yet gives no ade- 
quate idea of the increase of business transacted by it; for the changes 
which the last quarter of a century has wrought in the construction and 
models of vessels — adapting them to greater speed and capacity for 
burden, together with the improvement in the modes of shipping and dis- 
charging cargoes — have increased the availabiUty of th^same amount of 
tonnage more than tenfold. In order to ascertain the real augmentation 
of the commerce of Buffalo, during the period abc^ve mentioned, recourse 
must be had to the quantities of the articles transported. In 1825, and 
for many subsequent years, all the grain cargoes were handled in 
buckets, and from three days to a week were consumed in discharging 
a single cargo, during which time the vessel would, on an average, lose 
one or two tair winds; whereas the largest cargoes arc now readily 
discharged by steam, in fewer hours, than in days at that time. 

Again: steamers now require but twelve hours to make trips for 
which three days were then, at the least, necessary. 

Up to the year 1835 the trade consisted principally of exports of 
merchandise to the West. During that year, however, Ohio commenced 
exporting breadstufis, ashes, and wool, to some extent. The following 
table exhibits the quantities of several leading articles of western pro- 
duce, during the various periods from 1835 to 1851 : 



OOLDNIAL AND fsAMM TEADB< 



85 



ArhdeM Aipptd eastward from Buffalo by canal. 



.do* • • 



...do... 
.mimber. 



\ 



do. .. • 



1835. 



86,333 

95,071 

14,579 

6,503 

4,419 

3,565,372 

140,911 

1,030,633 



1840. 



633,700 

881,193 

47,885 

35,070 

7,008 

33,410,660 

107,794 

3,423,687 



1845. 



717,406 

1,354,990 

33,069 

68,000 

34,603 

88,396,431 

3,957,007 

6,597,007 



1850. 



984,430 

3,304,647 

3,608,967 

146,836 

17,504 

159,479,504 

8,805,817 

17,534,981 



1851. 



1,106,353 

3,668,005 

5,789,843 

117,734 

35,585 

75,927,659 

7,857,907 

11,103,383 



_ ■ 

The fi^nircs above arc taken from the canal returns for the several 
yelk, and of course do not embrace the whole imports of the lakes, 
boi are given as the best attainable standards of the increase of lake 
o»inmerce, up to the date when the statistics of that commerce began 
u» br kept in a manner on which reliance might be reposed. 

Tbc table next ensuing will give a fuller and more satisfactory idea 
iif the actual increase of the trade, as well as of the various kinds of 
articles rt^ceived at Buffalo, during a series of consecutive years. In 
this table all packages of the same article are reduced to a uniform 
uMe ; and for this reason, probably, some articles will be found to vary 
io quamity* for the year IU51, from the figures contained in the report 
made up at the collector's office, and furnished bv Mr. Wm. Ketchum, 
tfae collector, showbg the receipts at Bufl^o, Dunkirk, and Tonawanda, 
by lake, together with their tonnage, their value at each point, and their 
aggregate liir all the points combin<*d. 

xhe fiiUowing table was made up from day to day, during the several 
•easofWt and will be found substantially correct. By reference to the 
iArial tables, following this report, some details will be found very 
cariotts and interesting at this juncture, for reasons which will be ad- 
imecd hereafter: 



86 



ANDREWS • BBPOBT ON 



Article!. 



Flour barrels. 

Pork do... 

Beef. do. . . 

Bacon, ••• • • .pounds. 

Seeds .oarrels. 

Lumber. • .feet . . 

Wool bales. 

Fish barrels. 

Hides No. 

Lead pigs. 

Pig iron tons. 

Coal dp.. 

Hemp r. bales. 

Wheat bushels. 

Com ...do.. 

Oats...; do.. 

Rye • do.. 

Lard pounds. 

X aiioiv •*.••.....*•....... .uo . . 

Butter do.. 

Ashes casks. 

Whiskey do. . 

Leather rolls. 

Staves No. 



1848. 



1,294,000 
66,000 
53,812 
included in pork 
22,020 
21,445,000 
40,024 
6,620 
70,750 
27,953 
4,132 
12,950 
665 
4,520,117 
2,298,100 
560,000 
17,809 
5,632,112 
1,347,000 
6,873,000 
9,940 
38,700 
3,313 
8,091,000 



1849. 



1,207,435 

59,954 

61,998 

5,193,996 

21,072 

33,935,768 

49,072 

5,963 

62,910 

14,742 

3,132 

9,570 

414 

4,943,978 

3,321,661 

362,384 

5,253 

5,311,037 

1,773,650 

9,714,170 

14,580 

38,753 

3,870 

14,183,602 



1850. 



1851. 



1,088,321 

40,249 

84,719 

6,562,808 

9,674 

53,076,000 

53,443 

10,257 

72,022 

17,991 

2,881 

10,461 

421 

3,672,886 

2,504,000 

347,108 

50 

5,093,532 

1,903,528 

5,298,244 

17,316 

30,189 

8,282 

19,617,000 



1,216,603 

32,169 

73,074 

7,951,500 

11,126 

68,006,000 

60,943 

7,875 

48,430 

28,713 

2,739 

17,244 

3,023 

4,167,121 

5,988,775 

1,14M40 

li|i59 

4,799^500 

1,053,900 

2,343,900 

13,509 

66,524 

8,186 

10,519,000 



At the present moment the official documents, alluded to above as 
following this report, merit something more than ordinary attention, as 
they display the character, quantity, and estimated value of each article 
passing over the lakes eastward, in pursuit of a market, and the places 
of shipment on the lake indicating, with sufficient accuracy, the 
regions where produced. Thus it will be observed that the small 
amount of cotton received came via Toledo, which may be held to sig- 
nify that it reached that point by canal from Cincinnati, to which place 
it had beea brought from the southward by the Ohio river. The same 
remarks will apply to tobacco, and in some sort to flax and hemp. 
The latter, however, arrive in nearly equal quantities by this route, 
and by the Illinois river, the Illinois and Michigan canal, and by lake 
from Missouri. 

Nothing can be more interesting or instructive, as connected with the 
lake trade, than statistics like these, showing whence come these vast 
supplies, and what superficies of country is made tributary to this 
immense commerce. 

The recapitulation of the tables, referred to, shows the commerce of 
Buffiilo to have been — 

In 1851, of imports, 731,462 tons, valued at 3^31,889,951 

exports, 204,536 " " 44,201,720 

Making an aggregate "of. 76,091,671 

In 1860 it was ,... 67,027,518 

Increaseon 1851 9,064,153 



CXKUmiAI* AND LAKB TBABB. 87 

or the trade there were, in 1851, imports from Canada. . . $507,517 
" " " exports to Canada 613,948 

Total Canadian trade of 1851 : 1,121,465 

Of tbe trade there were, in 1850, imports from Canada. . . $307,074 
*• " " exports to Canada 220,196 

Total Canadian trade of 1851 527,270 

locrease of Canadian trade on 1851 $594,195 

It is, perhaps, proper here to observe that much of the property 
purcliased in Suflalo for the Canadian market passes over the Niagara 
Falls railway to the suspension bridge, where it is reported as passing 
Mo Canada from the Niagara district, and is as such reported Is the 
iri^e of that district. 

The tonnage of this port exhibits an increase no less gratifying than 
trui of the commerce. 

Tannage far 1851. 







Crews, 
total. 


■EITItB. 


AMBRICAK. 




VmmIs. 


Tons. i 


VeMols. 


Tons. 


ArTr*»la - - 


7,227 

7,4b6 


601 
(i93 


72,212 
71,241 

1 


170 
205 


30,100 
31,927 


■ ^V^kV^bl^^^^^^P4 


» * • * • •■• •*• ••• •• ••••••• 


\#VTVMftt*^ 


14,713 


1,194 
939 


143,453 1 
149,537 1 


375 

528 


69,027 


Do. 


of 1850 


56,048 




It and dccrotfi • • 






• 




inc. 255 


dec. 5,084 


dec. 153 
255 


inc. 12,979 
5,064 


Aartf»to 


tucrmm for IdSl 




Ia fiuvt^B DOftS. •>>•■• 






t 




Tnm B^ 


102 


7,895 















Coasting trade /or 1851. 



Uwd 
T-4a1 



Klto. 4o. do. 1^50 



I 



of 1H51. 



No. 



3,719 
3.762 



7,4H1 



9,050 
H.444 



6(i6 



Tons. 



1,448,772 
1,433,777 



373. K50 



I 



Men. 



60,374 
59,705 



2,hb2,049 ^ 120,079 



3,0S7,:»30 I 134,799 
2,713»700 125,672 



9,120 



ThU array of tonnage would suffer little by comparison with that of 
anj ot'our Atlantic ports. It is composed of 107 steamers and steam* 



88 A3XDKZWB* RBPORT ON 

propellers, and 607 saUiag vessels, vary ing in size from steamers of 310 
feet length and 1,600 tons burden, to the smallest class of both steam 
and sailing vessels. It is a significant fact, that out of nearly 7,000 
tond of vessels building at Buffalo on the 1st of January, 1852, there 
was but one sailing vessel— of 230 tons — ^the remainder consisting of 
steamers and propellers; showing conclusively that steam is daily 
growing more rapidly into favor in a trade so admirably adapted to its 
successful application as that of the western lakes. 

The present population of Buffalo, as stated above, is estimated at 
50,000 persons ; the principal part of the inhabitants being employed 
in occupations more or less closely connected with the commerce of the 
lakes and canals. 

There is, moreover, much manufacturing successfully carried on in 
this place, more especially in leather, iron, and wood. 

In l^e above calculation of the commerce of Buffalo, no estimate has 
been made of the enormous passenger trade, or of the value of de 
many tons of valuable goods and specie transported by express over 
the railways and on board the steamers. But were it possible to 
arrive at the value of such commerce, it cannot be doubted that it would 
swell the aggregate amount of the trade, by many millions of dollars. 

The enrolled and licensed tonnage of this district is 22,438 tons, of 
steam measurement; and 23,619 tons of sail, enrolled. 



^ 



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204 



iUfDRBWa' BBPOBV OCT 



Suoement showing the estimafed value ofefuk aggregate of the several arti^ 
eles received at each of the $everal ports in the district of Bvffulo Creek 
coastwise and from Canada^ and total valves of aU^ftyr the year ending 
the 31st December^ 1851. 



RJSC£IV£D AT BUFFALO. 



ArticlM. 



Aflhet 

Ale 

Ala 

Alcohol 

Barley 

Beef 

Beef 

Beef 

Bark 

Bacon and hann. 
Bacon and hams. 
Bacon and hams. 
Bacon and hama. 
Bacon and hams. 
Bacon and hams. 



Beeswax 

Beeswax 

Bruomi 

Broom •corn . . . . 
Broom-com . . . • 

Books 

Boots and shoes. 

Bladders. 

Batter 



Butter 

BuUer 

Butter 

Butter 

Beer-pumps . 
Beer-bottles . 
Bath brick... 

Brick 

Brick 

Bones 

Bones 

Briatles 

BHviles 

Brandy . . • • • 
Brandy . . • • • 
Buffiilo robes. 

Oandles 

Carpeting. • . . 
Carriages. . . • 
Oedar posts. . 
CMar posts. . 
Clement. • . • • , 

Cheese 

Cheese 

Cheese 

Cider 

Cigars 

CcSil 

Copper 

Copper 

Copper 



Quantities. 



PadcafOB. 



13,721 



39 

789 

166,188 

54,414 

6,23*2 

356 

129 

236 

4,215 

1,792 

3,540 

95 

l,5»4i 

257 

9 

32 

9,280 

5,238 

340 

84 

7 

19,251 

1,229 

1,156 

18 

8 

2 

1,600. 

805. 

37,800 

56 

5 

272 

10 

20 

4 

4 

3,246 

3,551 

57 

171 

1,530. 

42 

581 

163,099 

701 

62 

64 

57 

17,009 

540 

243i 

15 



casks 

barrels 

doico bottles. . 
casks......... 

bushels 

barrels ....... 

tierces 

casks 

packages 

boxes ........ 

barrels 

tierces ....... 

casks 

hogsheads .... 

tons 

barrels 

casks 

boxes 

dozen 

bales 

tons ••• 

boxes 

boxes 

barrels 

keffs 

firkins 

barrels 

casks 

hogsheads .... 



tons 

tons 

hogsheads . 

sacks 

casks 

hogsheads . 

casks 

bales 

boxes 

rolls 



cords. . 
barrels 
boxes, 
casks., 
tons. . . 
barrels 



tons .. 
barrels 
tons .., 



Pounds. 



6,860 
16 

284 

7,977 

17,412 

2,488 

178 

12 

70 

1,348 

716 

1,770 

66 

9,568 

38 

2 

3 

22 

1,047 

16 

102 

5 

2 

1,925 

122 

289 

7 

4 

1 

3 

151 

112 

10 

113 

2 



4 

194 

106 

1 

119 



97 
156 



500 
64K) 
720 
040 
024 
480 
8U0 
000 
900 
800 
800 
800 
000 
500 
5(K) 
550 
700 
200 
800 
600 
500 
(KM) 
040 
100 
100 
900 
000 
2(H) 
800 
100 
600 
220 
200 
000 
000 
500 
000 
600 



200 
760 
530 
140 
700 



800 
300 



3,596,260 

25,200 

11,400 

34,018,000 



Value. 



! 



(291,550 



16,569 
116,383 

521,894 

64S 

405,765 



1,311,500 



8,69D 

3,430 

63,879 

8,500 

3,360 

84 

934,859 

10 
94 
64 

330 

1,890 

400 

1,460 

163,300 

91,306 

1,710 

8,550 

858 

1,043 

346,956 

253 

9,850 
68,036 

966,700 



COLnfUh AHD UkXM TRADB< 



105 



RBCEIV£a> AT BUFPALa-CootinaMi. 



Aiticlw. 



QoaDtiiiM. 



FmekMgm. 



tktm. 



Hsto. 



H. 



Hf^wi 



53 

5*938,746 bushelf..« 
8.939 bamk... 

SlObalM 

1,417 iMtrralt... 

930I«1m....< 

154eMks.... 

3 bftrreb . . . 

116 eratM.... 

11,433 bamb.. 

3,336 Mclii .... 

1,057 roll* 

9,981 barreli... 

83 cord 

9,471 bales 

113 tons.. •••. 

1,338 Mdu 

1,857 barrels.. 
1,916,603 barrels.. 
9, 108 barrels . . 
9,095 barrels... 
908 boxes.... 
15.^ baskeU . . 

303 sacks 

397 boxes . . . . 
1,995 packages. 

9 tons 

9,985 packs.... 

115 boxes.... 

69 casks ...< 

939 barrels... 

7 boxes . . . . 



195 packages, 
boxes .... 



3,185 

18 tons 

1,830 boxes.... 

611 casks 

710 packages. 

48 tons 

991 barrels . . . 
1,154 barrels... 

4«753 

1,793 tons 

180 cases.... 
364 packages. 

48,013 

604 bundles .. 

96 tons 

€9,780 casks.... 

8,594. ••••••• M 

7bales..... 

969 hogsheads 

643 boxes.... 

81 barrels . .. 

9,010 bandies .. 

690 pieces .... 
6, 060 pieces.... 
7, 1861 tons 

540 casks.... 

197haiidks.. 



• • . . 



Pounds. 



5,300 
333,469,776 
63:2,664 
139,500 
198,380 
130,200 



61,600 

15,600,4^ 

166,800 

10,570 

9,994,3(H) 

164,000 

1,337,950 



648,930 

963,786,248 

310,800 



528,850 



487,100 



345,900 



32,710 
195,350 



533,100 

39,100 

359,650 



3,921,300 

9,000 

109,300 



3,478,950 

33,600,800 

9,769,700 

5.156,400 

9,308,800 

3,100 

901,750 



Value. 



909,730 



|530 

9,679,436 

5,858 

13,950 

8,569 
46,500 

8,186 

91,456 
66,790 

598 
59,886 

346 
44,478 

91,609 

4,258,110 
9,108 

14,711 



65,460 

945,900 

6,099 
7,810 

33,360 

4,865 

17,310 

30,596 

4,500 

1,098 

188,765 

697,800 
635,011 
957,890 
165,660 
784 
4,304 

18,849 



301,496 



15,413,960 { 



106 



ANDREWS BBFORT ON 



RECEIVED AT BUFFALO— Contiiraed. 



Articl 



QuantitiM. 



Packages* 



Naila 

Lard 

Lard 

Laid 

Lead 

Lead 

Lead pipe 

Leather 

Leather 

Lumber, black walnut. 
Lumber, black walnut. 
Lumber, black walnut. 

Oak, timber 

Oak, timber 

Oak, timber 

Ship-plank 

Lumber 

Shingle bolU.. 

Laths 

Shingles 

Malt 

Machines 

Machines 

Machines 

Mattresses 

Merchandise 

Merchandise 

Merchandise 

Medicines 

Nuts 

Nuts 

Nuts 

OaU 

Oil 



Oil 

Oil-cloth 

Oil-cake , 

Oil-cake 

Oil-stones 

Paint (clay) . . . , 
Paint (lead)..., 

Paper 

Paper 

Paper , 

Pianos 

Plaster 

Peas and beans. 

Poultry 

Poultiy 

Railroad ties... 

Pork 

PoUtoes 

»a«« 

5v 

Reapers 

Roots , 

Rope 

Ry 

Sunratus 

Salsratus . . . . , 

Sausages 

Sheepskins . . . . 
eepskins . • . , 



3,951 kegs 

9,354 barrels.... 

2,482 casks 

2,577 kegs 

20,888 pigs 

8U tons 

18 packages . • 

8,343 rolls 

121 boxes 

661,479 feet 

153 tons 

1,511 pieces 

386,967 ieet 

2,841 pieces 

6,214| tons 

789,142 feet 

81,773,633 feet 

31Ui cords 

12,634 bundles.... 

6,099M 

896 bushels. . . . 

73 

21 pieces 

15 boxes 

182 

654 boxes 

1,590 packages.. 
47 bales 



Value. 



Pounds 



395,100 



3,305,150 



1,622,160 
3,600 



679 packages . . . . 

978 barrels 

69 casks 

16 boxes....... 

1,133,611 bushels 

6,023 barrels 

232 boxes 

23 packages . . . . 

583 hogsheads . . . 

1,845 tons 

78 boxes 

6,417 barrels 

88 kegs 

5,096 bundles 

122 boxes ....... 

1,200 rolls 

18 

90 tons 

949 barrels 

300 pounds. . . . . . 

75 boxes 

12 734 

32^825 baireis'!!!!!! 

11,446 bushels 

33i tons 

10,308 sacks 

289 

202 bales 

138 packages . . . . . 

19,435 bushels 

270 boxes 

617 barrels 

46 barrels 

7 tons 

7,376 bundles. ••••• 



864,550 
3,766,566 



4,643,100 

851,000 

245,318,000 

465,750 

505,720 

1,219,800 

26,88(1 



92,200 
5,460 



687,300 
35,500 

160,720 

36,281,952 
1,818,500 

6,900 
3,981,500 

3,120 
1,933,900 

289,200 

9,000 
180,000 
189,800 

4,0.50 

3,546,800 

10,504,000 

686,760 

2,128,100 

231,200 

30,300 

20,70<l 

1,088,360 

193,210 

11,500 

1,489,200 



1 



115,804 
282, IM 

81,100 

180 

758,1^0 

14,000 

74,729 

15,780 

8,995,100 

3,105 

2,928 

15,245 

806 

8,200 

1,099 

113,550 

1,340 

3,444 

340,143 

151,503 

1,380 

30,007 

156 

22,899 

86,016 

1,800 
540 

2,847 

399 

4,202 

393,900 

6,868 

63,909 

57,800 
1,010 
2,760 

11,661 

13,455 

559 

187,900 



OOUNflAL AMD LAKB TRADB. 



107 



EfiCEIVED AT BUFFALO-X^nUniMd. 



Afticlas. 




r»r*. 



rond«. 



T«U] pounds. 



BIO' KAb •••••••••••■••• 



T«M of 3/jOO pouiMk. 



QuantiiiM. 



FaekagM. 



bamlf. 
boxM. . 
cmaka* • 
ions... 
boxes.. 
boxM. . 
bamls. 



18,906 

3,758 

277 

113 

9,179 

485 

338 

997 

3,906 boxM... 

10,696,000 

31 i cords... 
6,994 paektMi 
9,439 Umb... 
69 chests.... 
66 boxes... 
1,417 bofshesds. . . . 
859boxss... 
18 bsrrels.., 
bsrrtls... 
barrels.., 
boxes. . • 
barrels.. « 
boxes. •• 
tons .... 

les... 
casks .. . 



917 

919 

113 

10 

39 

9 

107 

116 

"1 



4,aS0,3lU bushels.. 

61,336 bales.... 

4l:<] tons.... 

3,596 packafcs. 

825. .V. TTr. . . 

1,480 

40 loos 

413,000 Ibet 

85,799 

97,288 pieces.... 



Pounds. 



1,519,480 
745,680 

4,373,100 

95,350 

141,580 

99,144,000 

94,5(K> 

9,077,900 

608,000 

5,580 

6,600 

1,717,900 

69,440 

70,0b0 

11,300 

4.000 

7,800 

36,100 

8,080 

940,018,600 

12,364,700 

473,050 
33,00U 
14,800 

9,346,520 

119,159 



1,462,923,946 1 31,889,951 



731,461.1246 



VUno. 



•47,965 
49,710 

8,456 

1,014 

6,998 

390,880 

196 

311,580 

43,776 

9,939 



907,888 

3,955 

3,985 

1,017 

300 

780 

1,497 

9,156 

9,835,917 

3,709,410 

14,104 
895 
177 

63,840 

1,637 



I 



RfXTElVED AT DUNKIRK. 



Al^. 



147 casks 



91, WO 



3,638 




:l 



9,293 barrels 
487 tierces. 



3, 19.?, 910 ' 



80,675 



11 tons... 
633 Urrels. 



9 casks 



i 



4 hamli< 



970. 5CH ; 



n, 



08 



ANDBBWS' BSl»ORT OK 



RECEIVKD AT DUNKIRK— OontinQed. 



Articles. 



Broomi 

Broom-corn. .... 

Broom-curn 

Books , 

Boots and shoes. 

Bladders. 

Butter , 

Butter , 

Butter , 

Butter , 

Batter , 

Beer-pumps. . . . , 
Beer-Dottles. . . . , 

Bath brick , 

Brick 

Brick 

Bones 

Bones 

Bristles .., 

Bristles , 

Brandy 

Brandy 

Buffalo robes.. . . 

Gandles 

Carpeting 

Carriages 

Cedar posts. . . . , 
Cedar poets. .... 

Cement 

Cheese 

Cheese 

Cheese 

Cider, 

Cigars 

Coal 

Copper 

Copper 

Copper , 

Coffee 

Com 

Com-meal 

Cotton 

Cranberries . . . . , 

I>eer-skins 

Earthenware . • . 
Earthenware . . . 
Earthenware... 
Eggs , 

Feathers 

Felt 

Fish 

Firewood , 

Flax and hemp . , 

Flaxseed 

Flaxseed 

Flaxseed 

Flouf 

Fruit, green .... 

Fruit, dried 

Fruit, dried 

Fruit, dried. ... 
Fruit, dried..... 



Quantities. 



Packages. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



200. bales. 

16 boxes. 
4 boxes. 



40,000 

3,200 
200 



1 



6,230 kegs... 
56 barrels. 



639,800 



30,000. 



120,000 



•2,400 

400 
160 



63,700 



150 



11 bales . 
8 boxes. 
3 rolls.. 
3 



1,1(K) 

240 

90 

2,100 



550 
48 
90 

150 



10,178 boxes. 
2 casks, 



11 barrels. 



204,160 
3,300 



90,399 
33 



766 tons 



6 barrels, 
2 masses. 



1 sack... 

4,697 bushels 

6 barrels. 



1,532,000 

4,000 

100 

263,0.% 

1,296 



3,064 

9,800 

10 

9,113 

19 



545 barrels 

2 bales.. 

2 casks.. 

9 crates. 

1 barrel. 
1,203 barrels. 
118 sacks . 



87,200 
280 

1,400 

192,480 
5,900 



3,230 
100 

139 

9,684 
9,360 



618 barrels. 



185,400 



422 sacks 



61,735 barrels 
136 barrels. 



42,200 

13,334,760 
21,760 



3,706 



1,055 

916,079 
136 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRAOB. 



109 



RiX:eiV£D AT DUNKIRK— Conliniiad. 




HaU 

IU.T 

Hxlca 

HtAM 

}i^m 

n f 



Quantities. 



Pftckigw. 



166pAek»gw 
34pMk 

86 boxM . . . 
158 p«ckaf«s 



Pounds. 



32,200 

3,400 

380 
1,300 

9,460 



Value. 



19,900 

3,400 

3:1 
59 

1,738 



It ' " 



72 barreb. 

186 

12 



1H,UU0 

1H,C00 

600 



1,080 
186 
300 



H 



s 



2,461 

8 bundles. 



•••••• 



4H5 casks. 

14,743 

1,455 

279 



173,670 

173, HM) 

1.47«,3«H) 

^73,<HM) 

iiJ3/i00 



8,238 

4,857 
95,829 
43,650 
16,740 



ftr*-« ntm»t%m •••••«•••••••• • 






]} 



6 casks. . . . 
27 packages 




96 
224 



i*-n 



t 

I 

i 






15*<kegs 

1,569 barreb : \ 

250ke<ni ^ 

I 



15,bU0 
340.'2r)0 



513 
27,380 



i^«>#' 

l.«aU-4rr 

t i^k'^mr. » « .1 I ft. 

^Ii»». . %• .'. 'it, 

-« «^ • « HI »!iiut. 

(».a tiik. . ' 

'»aa Usi'w 

* a^pl«lkk •• .. 




19'i rolb . 
2 buxtfi 



/ 



i 



' 6().0(J<) feet. 



3:>.HM) ! 



3j « i».M 



H*J,00OfiMt... 
245,(N>4ipi«r««< 






i 



3 '( 

13 boxes U 



9.:hk» 



18,156 



8,40« 



902 



950 



110 



ANDREWS* REPORT ON 



RECEIVED AT DUNKIRK— ContinQed. 



Articles. 



Matti 

Marchandiie .. . 
Mercbandiie .. . 
Merchandiie .. . 
Medicines ..... 

NuU 

NaU 

NuU 

OaU 

Oil 

Oil 

Oil-cloth 

Oil-cake 

Oil-cake 

Oil-stones .... 
Pkint (clay)...< 

Paint (lea<i) • • 

Paper 

Paper 

Ptiper 

Pianos • 

Plaster 

Peas and beans , 

Poultry 

Poultry 

Railroad ties.. 

Pork 

PoUtoee 

R»g» 

Rags 

Reapers 

Roots 

Rope 

Rye 

Saleratus 

Saleratus 

Sausages 

Sheepskins . . . 

Sheepskins . • . 

Sheep 

Seed 

Seed 

Seed 

Stone 

Stone 

Soap 

SUrch 

Starch 

Staves 

Stave bolls. . . . 

Sundries 

Tallow 

Tea 

Tin 

Tobacco 

Tobacco 

Tobacco 

Tongues'. . . • . . 

Tripe 

Type 

Varnish 

Veneering 



Quantities. 



Paokages. 



1,073 packages 
14 tons 



4j>ackage8 
9 barrels... . 



634 bushels. 

223 barrels.. 

15 boxes • , 



23 barrels. 



48 bundles 



3.... 

Iton 



1,000 

67 boxes 



1,762 barrels.. 
2,005 bushels. 

14 sacks... 

1 



Pounds. 



! 



242,600 

200 

1,500 

20,288 

66,600 

4,500 



6,600 

2,000 

2,000 
2,000 



4,000 



564,000 
120,000 

2,800 

1,000 



Value. 



#56,450 



37 

190 

5,550 

900 



77 



300 

la 



415 



24,904 
1,903 

70 



55 packages. 



13 barrels 



7 bundles 

1,062 

220 barrels. 
6 sacks.. 



88 boxes 

20 boxes 

4 boxes 



1,100 
5,000 



1,400 
85,000 

35,600 

4,400 

1,500 

120 



1,100 
260 



175 
2,655 

9,461 

388 

60 

8 



573 packages 
236 barrels... 



162,000 
71,000 



171,900 
4,248 



92 hogsheads . . . . 

167 boxes 

10 kegs 

9 barrels 



133,700 
2,880 



18,588 
135 



OOLQIflAL AND LAKB TRABB. 



RECEIVED AT DUNKIRK-Continned. 




RECEIVED AT TONA WANDA. 






1,168 cokfl 



584,000 



i 



420 bucheU 
1,803 bamb. 



20,160 
576,960 



2M 
14,4M 




112 



ANDEBWS' B8P0RT ON 



RECaSIVED AT TONAWANDA— Continaed. 



Aitiele8% 



Brandy 

Baffalo robes . . 

Candles 

Garpetiog .... 

Carriages 

Cedar poBts . . . . 
Cedar posu. . . 

Cement 

'Cheeee....... . 

Cheese 

Cheese 

Cider 

Cigars 

Coal 

Copper 

Copper 

Copper 

Coffee 

Com 

Corn-meal .... 

Cotton 

Cranberries . . . . 
Deerskins. . . • • . 
Earthenware . • 
Earthenware . . 
Earthenware . . 

!?»»• 

Feathers 

Felt 

Fish 

Firewood 

Flax and hemp , 

Flaxseed 

Flaxseed 

Flaxseed 

Flour 

Fruit, ffreen ... 
Fruit, dried . . . 
Fruit, dried. . . < 
Fruit, dried. . . . 
Fruit, dried. . . . 
Furniture . . . . . 
Furniture . . . . . 
Furniture... *.< 

Furs 

Furs 

Furs 

Ginseng 

Ginseng 

Ginseng 

Glass 

Glass 

Glassware .. . . , 
Glassware .. . . . 
Glassware .. . . < 

Glue 

Grease 

Grindstones... . 
Grindstones... . 

Hats 

Hair 



QuAntiti< 



PftckagM. 



Pounds. 



76,683 



Value. 



• » 



14,600 



> • ft 



207,773 bushels. 



11,835,288 



83,109 



156 barrels 



11,750 
21,806 



1,175 
1,340 



2 barrels 
16,147 cords.. 



170,181 barrels 



640 

48,441,000 

3,257 



3G, 7.59,096 
i()',629 



19,031 
3.200 



19 

32,294 

1,746 



595,633 

'I'ioea 



1,900 
4,000 



OOLOlflAL AND LAKE TRADB. 



113 



RECEIVED AT TONAWANDA--GoatiniiML 



Artidw. 


Quantities. 


Valoa. 




Packa^et. 


Poundi. 




U^m 

H^m ^ 


1 


13,940 
107,100 


1697 
2,980 


H4« ^ ^ 

Htf* V1HB 


ll,895galloni. 


H^ 


H-'vH nttlir. a ............ X ,, . 
















Ho« ^ 








Horwaiidhea*.....^ 








H«i4«mf« 








HMt4w%im ^ 








Mu^wmM 








lUf^wmf* 








IfW ^ 








liwm^....^ 








\rm^ 








Urn 








Huik 










1 4,450bamli 


1,112,597 




UM IVIIi'J.W'.'J.'.'!!! 


77,883 


Ln4 ^ 












Lmdwipm ^...•^ 








^^ rT^ *** »»**•*»**■*••**'»*- 


{ 


58,856 


10,594 




s 


t ■■fcii ■ Marfc wmhint 








L«ai»r. black wabrat 








(W^ fwNr 


i 1.013.849 feet 


4,516,500 






141,960 


ihk Umhm ^ 






15,141,876 feet 


45,425,000 


515,856 


i^uS r.'...;,;; 








mJ. . . r/.r.\\'r..\7.! ! ! I ! ! ! ! . 


557 M 


111,400 


1,382 




"I""*" 


wadMM. v/.. y.v. r/j.wv.! ! ! 


\ 


59,553 


2,508 




S 


^,H| 












H,,,fclP 1 , ■ 
















MiittrinM 
















Hflte. ^ 




r;!!!"!!!!!!!!; 












<^U ^....^ 


10,485 bittheb 


335,530 


3,145 

* « • • a •« ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 


en 
















<»t^k* ,. .x,...x,,..x 


1 


22,912 


*iM% 




170 














f ■ Hi ( In^l X . . . 
















r ■ AtfV 












• # # a • •• • • •• • * • a 4 






• ••••••••••••••••••••••« 


• ••••aaaa •• a • • a 4 





8 



114 



Andrews' rbport ok 



RECEIVED AT TONAWANDA-^Continoed. 



Article 



Pkstor 

Peu and bouM. 
Poultry < 



Quantities. 



Packages. 



Pounds. 



Value, 



83 bushels. 



4,980 



Poultry.... 
Railroad tk 

Pork 

PoUtoes... 

Rafs 

Rafs 

Rem 



2,257 barrels 
238 bushels. 



722,240 
14,280 



|83 



27,084 
142 



eapei 
oois. 



Ropo 
Ryo 



Salvratus . 
8al»rattts . 
Sau«a^es.. 
Sheepskins 
Sheopskios 

Shoep 

Seed 

Seed 

Seed 

St(M\#...... 

Sto^ue 

So«p. 



■s 




2,233 
667 



Staivh 

Starch 

^^Yss I 6>729,725, number. 

StaTv btUb 
SuiMlne*. • • 
TaHow . , . . 



L 



62,917,459 



I 



*r»a 



861,035 
11,150 



201,870 



86,000 
669 



Tin 

Tobacco • . , • , • 

Tobacco 

TobaciH> 

ToDgUMi. ..••«« 
Tri|io ..••••«..< 

Typo...** 

Varniih.......' 

Veneering 

Ware 

Ware 

Wine 

Wtne 

Wheat 

Wool 

Wool 

Wuoden ware... 
Oiirrlers' blocks. 

tlandiplkes 

Oars 

Oam 

Oari »••• 

Waffon woods, .. 



190,401 



11,424 



162,669 bushels. 



9,760,140 
142,721 



113,868 
42,816 



Total pounds 



226,422,241 



Toni of 2,000 pounds. 



113,211,241 



2,089,663 



OOLONUX AMD LAXB TRASB. 



115 



STATEMENT— Continued. 



AitklM. 


Aggrcfata qiiantitiei 
receiTed tt Buffalo, 
Dunkirk, and Ton* 
awanda. 


each article re- 
ceiTed at Bul&lo. 
Dunkirk, and 
Tonawaoda. 


Aj^^M 


Pounds, 

7,536,350 

19,3SW 

284,040 

7,997,184 

33,849,150 

]3,900 

7,817,559 

45,050 

S3,800 

1,104,1UO 

105,300 

5,240 

3,100 

3,136,617 

100 

1,600 

123,220 

263,200 

123,500 

2,600 

4,200 

195,860 

106,770 

1,230 

121,800 

97,800 

156,300 

3,877,123 

28,500 

11,400 

35,550,(100 

1,312,500 

5,400 

344,568,096 

633,960 

139,500 

285,580 

130,480 

("3,000 

15,814,766 

17,270 

10,570 

3,180,340 

48,GU5,000 

1,341,907 

691,120 

319,880,104 

233,560 

539,479 

53,931 

353,500 

33,090 

196,550 

543,580 

29,100 

977,650 

3,939,900 

9,600 

109,900 

9,666,560 


1315,548 

388 

16,569 

116,626 

616,993 

645 

488.078 


jljy 7/;.:: ':;::::::;.:::.7.:::' 


»^^^ 


9,010 
3,430 
66,379 
8,900 
3 590 


gl«"^- ;;:::::r;::::::::::::::: 


SI^.'irfVi;;i'"":: :::r*;".';v,':::' 


j^^^^^^ 


84 


Iha* ■^■■^ ...a ■••■ 


313,340 
10 


?^CmiC ;.. 


24 


BttJilvtek - 

Bnefc ^ 


814 
330 

1,830 
400 

1,480 
163.850 


^^BUBB •••••••••••»•••••••••••••••••••••••••• 


r^^lag 


91.354 




1.8U0 


<««mcH^. 1 •...•....•••.... ••^...•.••..^... 


8,700 
858 


'■^w " * ** ' V '! ! '. 7. V, '. ! .'* !f .**, '. * ' * ]\ \'1\ ! ! ! 


1,049 

371,348 

285 


( ifin 

liZT:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ••• 


8,850 

71,100 

269,500 

540 

9,757,658 

5,870 

13,950 

11,739 

46,600 


^ nra — 1 ^ 

ffl^OTTMS - 


f2L;;:;r///.:::r.r//-:::::::::::;:::: 

r^ 


8,268 

102,390 

69,080 

63,613 


^iiHMnp 


33,540 
46,994 


rr««,maa ^ ^ 

rf«i,2m4 


99,664 

5,069,815 

9,944 

15,773 


^jjjj^..,.^...*-..,^.....y. ...... ....... 


69,500 

953,300 

6,084 

7,869 




35,098 


c;j«» 


4,365 




18,390 


c^^^^^ 


30,784 




4,800 


Hi» 


1,099 




197,700 



116 



ANDBBWS EEPORT OW 



STATEMENT— Conlinued. 



Articles. 



High wines 

Hogs .«•• 

Horned c&ttle 

Horses 

Hops 

Horns and hoofi 

Hardwsre 

Iron • 

Nails 

Lard 

Lead 

Lead pipe 

Leather 

Lumber, black walnut 

Oak timber 

Ship plank 

Lumber > 

Shingle bolls , 

Laths 

Shingles .•.. 

Malt 

Machines 

Mattresses 

Merchandise • .. . 

Medicines 

NuU 

OaU 

Oil 

Oil-cloth 

Oil-cako.. 

Oil-stones 

Paint (clay) 

Paint (lead) 

Paper 

Pianos.. 

Plaster 

Peas and beans 

Poultry 

Railroad ties 

Pork 

Potatoes , 

Rags 

Reapers 

Roots 

Rope 

Rye 

Saleratus 

Sausages 

Sheepskins 

Sheep 

Seed 

Stone I 

Soap «.... 

Starch 

Staves 

Stave bolls •• .. . 

Sundries 

Tallow 

Tea..... 

Tin 



Aggregate quantities 
received at BufiaJo, 
Dunkirk, and Ton- 
awanda. 



Pounds. 
22,882, 
11,244, 

6,029. 

2,432, 

204, 

211 

15,412, 

410, 

4,759, 

1,622, 

3, 

962, 
3,706, 
12,159, 
851 
290,948, 
465, 
510, 
1,331 
26: 
161 

5, 

929, 

33, 

162, 

36,637, 

2,074, 

11 

4,004; 

3, 

1,940, 

291 
11 

194. 

3,546, 
11,790, 
821 
2,130, 
232, 
30, 
2] 
1,068, 
198, 
]1 
1,490, 
1,697 
615^ 
4,71! 
26, 
140, 
162,06] 
94 
3,100, 
690, 

5, 
6, 



Aggregate value of 
each article re- 
ceived at Bufiklo, 
Dunkirk, and 
Tonawanda. 



,700 


1631,637 


,000 


730,840 


.400 


301,470 


,000 


162,400 


,100 


784 


,750 


4,400 


,030 


19,173 


,260 


301,436 


,900 


16,317 


,997 


387,419 


,160 


81,110 


,600 


180 


,406 


786,880 


,500 


14,000 


,600 


225,082 


,000 


15,780 


,000 


1,066,972 


,750 


3,105 


,720 


4,153 


,200 


16,627 


,880 


806 


,253 


11,718 


,460 


1,092 


,900 


170,000 


,700 


1,388 


,220 


3,471 


,760 


343,478 


,860 


173,657 


,400 


2,380 


,412 


30,177 


,120 


156 


,500 


22,976 


,200 


66,784 


,000 


2,100 


,000 


552 


,780 


2,930 


,050 


814 


,800 


4,202 


,240 


445,188 


,040 


8,213 


,900 


53,272 


,200 


58,000 


,300 


1 ,010 


,800 


3,860 


,360 


11,661 


,210 


13,715 


,500 


552 


,600 


188,075 


,480 


49,920 


,178 


54,596 


,390 


9,475 


,850 


1,074 


,700 


8,236 


,459 


522,750 


,500 


126 


,235 


569,480 


,150 


48,729 


,580 


2,232 


,600 


660 



GOLOiriAL AND LAKB TBADB. 



117 



STATEMENT— Continued. 



Artidat. 



T 
T. 



V 
Wftf* 



Woo4m 
CurmfB* 
Haaa 



Total ipovads 

Tom of 9,000 ponado 



Aggregate qaantities 
received at Buffalo, 
Dunkirk, and Ton- 
awanda. 



Pavmdt. 

3,142,001 

73,320 

70,080 

11,300 

4,000 

7,600 

68,400 

8,380 

250,045,200 

13,166,221 

480,510 

33,000 

14,800 

2,346,520 

119,152 



1,718,720,366 



859,360,366 



Aggregate value of 
each article re- 
cetved at Buffalo, 
Dunkirk, and 
Tonawanda. 



1237,900 

3,390 

3,286 

1,017 

300 

780 

2,547 

2,170 

2,952,416 

3,949,866 

14,477 

82& 

171 

63,840 

1,637 



34,939,471 



RtcafUMlafion Aowing the total value and quaniiiy of all property teemed 
Jrom amd shipped to the weetward^ in the district of Buffalo Creeks during 
the year emdmg December 31, 1851. 



Tona of 2,000 
poonda. 



ValM. 



Dnkirk 
Tom 

I 

T 



731,462 

57,138 

113,211 



901,811 



204,536 

15,867 

5,037 



225,440 



1,127,251 



131,889,951 

4,000,000 
2,089,663 



37,979,614 



44,201,720 
5,394,780 
1,692,423 



51,288,923 
89,268,537 



WM K£TCHUM, Mkdmr. 



BwtALo Cftus, N. T., OitTOH-aoctB, BorraLo, 

JUnury 19, 1858. 



118 



ANDREWS' REPORT ON 



An account of the principal articles qfforeyrn produce^ growth^ and manu* 
facfurcj exported to the British North American coloniess in British and 
American vessels, from the district of Buffalo Creeks for the year ending 
December 31, 1851. 



Articlas. 



Tea • • .pounds. . 

Coffee do. . . . 

Dry goods • ••........ 

Medicines • 

Crockery 

Toys 

Tin plate • .boxes.. . 

Raisins pounds. . 

Lemons boxes.. . 

Nuts pounds. . 

Pepper • . . . . .do. . . . 

Oranges.. ...boxes... 

Pimento • pounds. . 

Logwood • do ... . 

xyiirrants ...•••••.•••.•.•.•.•• .oo • • . . 

Cassia • do. . . . 

Indigo .do. • . . 

Figs do. . . . 



Madder do. . . . 

Ginger • . • • do. • . . 

Bonnets, Leghorn No. . . , 

Sundries 



Quantity. 



143,457 
46,849 



73 

10,175 

155 

4,897 

3,140 

83 

2,122 

4,496 

2,400 

73 

149 

501 

715 

799 

285 



AMERICAN 
TE88BL8. 



Value. 



140,422 

2,604 

7,920 

3,701 

1,013 

474 

179 

193 

280 

357 

119 

271 

115 

31 

105 

11 

58 

41 

35 

32 



445 



58,406 



BRITISH 
▼BISBLB. 



Value. 



123,458 

1,866 

5,439 

1,690 

672 

787 

672 

865 

463 

116 

183 

72 

110 

220 

74 

12 

83 

9 

41 

35 

355 

1,331 



38,543 



TOTAf.. 



Value. 



#63,880 

4,470 

13,350 

5,391 

1,685 

1,261 

851 

l,05d 

743 

473 

302 

343 

225 

251 

179 

23 

141 

50 

76 

67 

355 

1,766 



96,949 



CusTOM-HODSB, Bi^ffolo, JiTew York, Janwary 1, 1852. 



WM. KETCHUM, CoUsefer. 



OaLQBOAL AND LAKB TBABB. 



119 



jIm meemuU of the vrincvpal articles of the growth^ proivce^ and manvfac* 
iurt oftlu UtiUea Stales^ exported from the district of Buffalo Crrek^ New 
Yorkf to the Briiiah North American colonies^ in British and American 
u/ar the year ending December 31| 1851. 






«»«tt<artttfw of ifOQ, . 
Maoii&ctarea of wood. 

rorsttaro 

Bco^ ukd fftit k yrwfT • • 

Oimiii 

mmMh aad 110110 

Dv^fv and madiciaM • . 

<;: 

Hi 




Qoaatitj. 



ANEftlCAN 
VBtlKLt. 



7,921 faJlons*. 

8,743 busheb.. 

44,565 pounds.. 

30, 391. • .do. • • . 

190 bftrrob.. 

4,450 ga.noiit.. 

57,062 poands.. 

7,998. .pairs.. 

2,182 b«rrelt.. 

14,917 pounds.. 

61 ,164. • .do. • • . 

9, 638... do.... 

620 barreb. . 

49,259 pounds. . 

76, 197. . .do. . . . 

50* .tons ... 

450. • .do. • • . 

10,400 pounds.. 

25 number. . 

] ,129. • .do. . . . 

139,274 pounds.. 



Value. 



151,991 

25,511 

43,875 

47,900 

12,860 

8,063 

9,889 

2,059 

1,746 

3,082 

4,557 

1,047 

4,523 

1,191 

600 

546 

2,260 

4,804 

7,736 

1,597 

1,070 

4,321 

322 

2,763 

6,084 

2,820 

158 

1,637 

703 

1,325 

2,334 

3,931 



263,305 



BlITItH 
VBttBLt. 



Value. 



ei55,563 

26,891 

22,970 

46,345 

9,884 

5,724 

7,278 

871 

2,511 

7,311 

5,362 

1,239 

876 

1,305 

296 

237 

2,115 

5,987 

4,499 

675 

129 

6,871 

161 

4,194 

4,093 

1,768 

1,650 

1,156 

796 

480 

567 

5,732 



TOTAL. 



Value. 



235,536 



1107,554 

52,409 

66,845 

94,245 

22,744 

1>,7S7 

17,167 

2,930 

4,257 

10,393 

9,919 

2,286 

5,399 

2,496 

896 

783 

4,375 

10,791 

12,235 

2,272 

1,199 

11,192 

483 

6,957 

10,177 

4,588 

1,808 

2,793 

1,499 

1,805 

2,901 

9,663 



498,841 



C^ sf ■ ♦gt«» A#ils, Mw Tmrkf Jmntmji 1, 1859. 



WM. KETCHUM, CMicUrr. 



120 



ANDREWS' REPORT OK 



An account of the principal articles of foreign produce and manufacture^ 
with the values and amounts of duty, entitled to drawback, exported to the 
British North American colonies, in British and American vessels, during 
the year ending December 31, 1851. 



Articles. 



Diygoodi .. 
Siurar ...... 

Wine 

Brandy 

Dry hidee. . . 
Caff-flikini . . 
Machinery . . 
Boiler plates 



Quantity. 



219,080 pounds.. 
20 qr. casks. 
Shlf.pipes. 
2,000 

20 dozen . . . 
7 cases .... 
105 
100 boxes... 



AMERICAN TKS' 
■ELI. 



Value. 



Duty. 



13,280 

3,674 

152 

127 

1,126 

151 



BRITISH TBS- 
■BL>. 



Value. 



|884 70 

1,081 83 

59 28 

127 00 

54 89 

30 20 



$2,335 



3,449 



3,404 
327 
133 



Duty. 



«688 72 



166 14 



1,021 20 
95 65 
53 20 



8,5102,237 90 9,6482,0:26 91 



ToUl 
value. 



#3,280 

6,009 

152 

127 

4,575 

151 

3,404 

327 

133 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



Total 
duty. 



#884 70 

1,770 55 

59 28 

127 00 

223 03 

30 20 

1,021 20 

95 65 

53 20 



18,158 004,264 81 



OjiTOM-BOOiB, Bufffilo, Jfew York, January 1, 1652. 



WM. KETCHUM. ColUdm'. 



OOUmiAI. AMD LAKB TKADB. 



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122 



AKJ0RBW8 HSFORT OSf 



StatemetU of Canadian produce imported into the district of Buffalo Creekf 
New YorJc^for warehouse and for transportation in bond to the port cf 
New York, for exportation to foreign countries, during the year ending 
December 31, 1851. 



Articlei. 



Wheat bushels. . 

Flour ••••• ••• barrels. . 

Barley • bushels. . 

Butter pounds . . 

Ashes .barrels. . 

Wool pounds. . 

Canvass* yards.. 

Furs • • barrels. . 

Port wine* hogsheads. . 

Shernr wine* casks. . 

Brandy* • • 



Quantity. 



88,316 
10,763 
9871 
11, 725 J 
300 
9,017 
3,170 
2 
2 
9 
3 hhds. & 1 cask 



Valtto. 



156,901 93 

34,007 95 

354 25 

964 49 

5,283 65 

1,848 48 

326 03 

180 40 

133 42 

179 68 

309 46 



100,489 74 



* Imported for consumption. 



CiriTOM-HousB, B^ffalo, A*. F., Mmreh 18. 1852. 



WM. KETCHUM, Cottesfsr. 



Statement of Canadian produce imported into the district of Buffalo Creekf 
New York, during the year ending December 31, 1851« {being free qf 
duty.) 



Articles. 



Horses • .number. . 

Homed cattle • do. . • '. 

Sheep •••••••■•••••••• ••••• do. • • . 

Grass seeds. • .bushels. . 

Personal effects ••• • •••••• 




Value. 



#3,158 

155 

342 

6,873 

9,744 



20,273 



CoiTOM-HOuiB, B^ffah, A*. F., March 18, 1852. 



WM. KETGHUM, Cotteetor. 



OOLOMIAL AND LAMM TBADB. 



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124 



ANDREWS' REPORT OK 



A Statement of the vessels and tonnage which entered into^ and dented fromy 
the British North American colames, at the district of Buffalo Creek, Ntw 
York, for the year ending December 31, 1851, distinguishing British 
from American, and steam from sailing vessels* 



INWARD. 



AMERICAN. 


BRITISH. 


Steam. 


Sailing. 


Steam. 


Sailing. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


72 


18,493 


98 


11,705 


295 


48,456 


306 


23,755 



OUTWARD. 



AMERICAN. 


BRITItH. 


Steam. 


Sailing. 


Steam. 


Sailing. 


No. 


Tom. 


No. 


Tom. 


No. 


Toni. 


No. 


Tons. 


71 


18,152 


134 


13,774 


296 


48,672 


297 


22,568 



District or Buffalo Creek, New Tore, 

Bt^ffalo, January 3, 1852. 



WILLIAM KETCHUM, Collector. 



No. 10. — District of Presque Isle. 

Port of entry, Erie, Pennsylvania ; latitude 42^ 08*, longitude 80° 
06'; population in 1830, 1,465; in 1840, 3,412; in 1850, 6,858. 

This district embraces the whole coast line of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania on Lake Erie ; it contains about forty miles of shore, and has 
three shipping points — Erie, the port of entry, North East, and Elk 
Creek ; the two latter being principally engaged in the shipment of 
staves and lumber. Erie is a beautiful town of three thousand inhabit- 
ants or upward, finely situated on Presque Isle bay, on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie. It is distant from Buffalo 80 miles SSW. ; from 
Cleaveland 100, E. ; from Harrisburg 270, NW. ; from Washington, 
D. C, 343 NW. The town stands on a bluff commanding the harbor, 
formed by the projection of the peninsula of Presque Isle, the mouth of 
which was formerly closed by a difficult sand-bar. This has been, 
however, partially removed, and piers constructed by the United States 
government, by which means the channel has been so far deepened 
that most of the larger steamboats and vessels which navigate the lake 
now readily enter it. 

The peninsula of Presque Isle has been gradually converted into a& 



COUmiAL AMD LAMM TBADB. 125 

Mbodt tbe wash of the lake currents having severed the isthmus ; andi 
the barbfir having two entrancesi it is expected that it will be perma- 
Denlly deepened« and the bar at its mouth by degrees swept away* 
The depth of water on it, at present, is from eight to ten feet, and withm 
the haroor much more. 

It was in this harbor that Perry's fleet was built, within seventy 
days &um the time when the trees, of which it was constructed, were 
v«t ftandini^ in the Ibrcft* Thence he sailed to give battle, and thither 
Le bnnjght back the piizes of Lake Erie, the relics of which may be 
yet seen rotting and half submerged, near the navy yard. 

The naval clepot is stili kept up at this place, and here the one or 
two small vessels which represent that :irm of our service on the lakes 
are accustomed to go into winter quarters. But tlie commerce of the 
port is very limit<»<K 

A caoal from Erie to Beaver connects it with one of the finest coal 
rreions of the State, Pennsylvania, and this coal, being bituminous 
aiMl of fine quidity, is used by nearly all the lake steamers. This causes 
miQV of them to put in here, when they would otherwise continue on 
the <iirert route ; tor Erie is ninety-seven miles, more or less, from 
Buffalo, and, lying stt the southern end of Presque Isle bay, is from 
fitii r Q to twenty miles oflTthe direct course from Bufl^lo to Cleveland* 
The acriruhural resources of the country circumjacent and inland are 
not yet fully developed, and of consequence contribute but little to the 
rtimroerce of the place. It will be seen that last year the supplies of 
Amr far ctinsumption here were received from other lake districts ; but 
a is certain that this state of things cannot long continue in such form, 
uusanich na the mineral and manufacturing resources of the district are 
n rapid progress of development ; and the agricultural productions must 
rapidly mature under such stimulus as that ^iven by hberal prices and 
a constant home demand. It cannot be douoted that, before long — the 
demand fi>r agi icultural produce in the mining and manufacturing dis- 
truns already lx*ing considerably in advance of the production of many 
articles — attention will be so strongly attracted to tne resources of the 
•r»il as to insure not only an adecjuatc supply for home use, but an 
.imple surplus fiir exportation. 

The tiuportutions tor 1851, consisting principally of assorted mer- 
rhaodise, flour, fish, and manufactures of iron, amounted to^ 

Im|»rts cfmstwise *. $1,979,913 

•• foreign 3,455 

Total importation 1,98 3,368 

The exports consist of wool, lumber, wood, bark, glass, stoves, bar- 
imii« rf^il, and m(Tchandise n*ceived by canal, with a small quantity oi 
{^Tvjo-— the whiile amounting to the Ibllowing aggregate : 

Exp^rt.^ coastwise $2,207,582 

•• CiriMgn 15,415 

Toul exportation 2 222,997 



126 



AimRBWS' RBPORT ON 



The entire commerce of the port amounts to a total valae of $4,206|483* 
The character and quantity of some of the chief articles of export, and 
their comparative increase and decrease are exhibited in the annexed 
tables for the series of years as named : 



Articles. 



Goal toDB.. . 

Leather poundi . . 

Wool do.... 

Butter ......do.... 

Cheese do. . . . 

Stoves do. . . . 

Railroad and bar iron tons. • . 

Glass pounds. . 

Hemp • .....tons.. . 

Pig-iron • •• do. • . . 

Iron and nails. do. . . . 

SUyes M . . . . 

Lumber do. . . . 

Tallow • .pounds. . 

Tobacco do.... 

Beef • • .barrels. . 

Barley bushels. . 

Gastings • tons.. . 

Corn • bushels. . 

Cotton .••• .pounds. . 

••• .barrels. . 

lour • • . • .do. . . . 

Feathers • pounds. . 

Ginseng do. . . . 

Pork and bacon do. . . . 

Oats. bushels. . 

Whiskey barrels. . 

Ashes casks... 




1845. 



! 



8,507 
46,661 
65,435 

1,041,000 



S250 
18,500 



150 

63 

1,168 

3,324 



550 

4,448 
550 
853 



25 

550 
250 



520 
4,800 

115 
2,184 



1846. 



21,534 
123,370 
476,922 

1,257,000 1 



2,052 

521,500 

409 

800 

612 

1,056 

3,901 

36,200 

333,602 

882 

7,581 

555 

10,107 

5,679 

541 

14,563 

56,760 

14,075 

2,546 

16,300 

35 

2,272 



185L 



86,000 

19,396 

466,303 

989,063 

1,416,695 

1,071,694 

360 

573,499 

15 

944 

661 

1,493 

12,899 

31,700 



11,802 
14*389 



2,050 



• ••«■• 



110 

54,041 

3,088 

323 



The Erie extension canal has been in operation since 1845, and the 
effect is seen in the increase of business. It is worthy of note, that 
during some seasons produce goes southward, and at others northward. 

The licensed and enrolled tonnage of this port is 7,882 tons. 

The tables following this report exhibit the commerce of the district 
in detail, with value, tonnage, entrances and clearances, complete. 

CANADIAN TRADE IN 1851. 

Imports. Duty collected. 

In American vessels $419 00 J84 00 

InBriiidh vessels 16 00 4 00 



435 00 



88 00 



Free goods — plaster in stone. 

Tons. Vmlna. 

In American vessels 671 $1,342 

In British vessels 839 1,678 

3,020 
Total im ports $3,455 



OOI/miAIi AHB I.AKB TRAOB. 



127 



Ex port s dametlic produce and manv/aetmre* 

In American vessels $12,385 

la British vessels 3.080 



15,465 



Toul imports in American vessels $14,146 

ToCal imports in British vessels 4,724 

18,870 



Tonnage 

No. Tbni. 

American, steam 2 680 

saU 14 1,039 

British^sail 6 721 

Outward. 

American^ sail 33 3,205 

British, sail 6 721 



Lofe receipU cooitwise at the port of Eritj Pennsylvania^ in 1851. 



Artielet* 



r«^. 



Totel. 



QaantitiM. 



6,689,600 ponndi.. 
9,839 barrvb.. 

•k54« • aflO* • • • 

4,645* • •do* • • • 
31, 246... do.... 

10,900 baft 

1,816 tons.... 

664 Kflsi. ... 

340 cords . . . 

66,533 pooiids.. 

570 



Value. 



#1,800,000 

34,436 

1,430 

97,876 

91,946 

1,975 

81,700 

1,699 

1,610 

6,653 

1,995 

1,979,911 



128 



ANDREWS REPORT ON 



Shipments coastwise at the part of Erie^ Pennsylvaniai in 1851* 



Articles. 



Wool 

Butter 

Cheese 

•Leather 

SUrch 

Stoves and hollow ware .. 

Iron, bar, &c 

Merchandise and sundries. 
Glass 



Glassware. 
Oil'cake.., 
Oil-cloth.. , 
Saleratus . 
Flax 



Malt 

Tallow... 
Fire-brick 
Shingles.. 
Com 



OaU 

Barley ... 
Dried fruit, 
Rye 



Coal 

Pig iron 

Railroad spikes. 
Pork 



Cider 

^ggB 

Rye flour 

Flour, "fancy" 
Whiskey....... 

^PPi~: 

fiiffh wines .... 

A-shes 

Nails 

Lumber 

Oars 

Bark 



Quantities. 



Paper 

Sheep pelts. 

SUves 

Hoop-poles. , 



ToUl 



486,303 pounds 

989,062... do.... 

l,416,695...do. ... 

19, 396... do... 

102,706... do.... 

1,071, 694... do.... 

720,672... do.... 

2,876, 000... do... 

351, 985... do.... 

221, 514... do.... 

116, 000... do 

37, 450... do.... 
9,6^. . .do. • . • 
30, 959... do.... 
77,800. ..do. . . . 
31,700. • .do. . . . 

•II . . •BnL . • • . 

621. . .do. . . • 

14,389 bushels.. 

54, 041... do.... 

11,822. ..do. . .. 

894. . .do. • . . 

10, 442... do.... 

82,000. .tons.... 

944. . .do. . . • 

356. • .do. . . • 

110 bairels.. 

206. . .do. « « • 

110. . .do. • . . 

812. ..do. . . • 

1,237... do.... 

1,430. . .do. • • . 

1,018... do... 

658. . .do. • • • 

323. .casks . . 

6, 097. .kegs... 

12,899, 762.. .feet... 

831,220... do.... 

262 cords • . . 

4,500 reams ., 

705 bundles . 

1,492,728 pieces... 

758,500... do,... 



Value. 



4145,890 

123,633 

85,001 

4,849 

6,162 

37,539 

21,620 

1,100,000 

12,319 

51,206 
exkc 

fKfO 

7,490 

483 

1,857 

3,112 

3,536 

620 

1,552 

7,194 

16,213 

5,911 

1,788 

5,221 

228,000 

23,6U0 

31,360 

1,100 

618 

1,760 

3,436 

5,566 

6,580 

8,036 

3,948 

13,920 

24,388 

128,997 

33,248 

524 

11,250 

16,920 

89,854 

7,585 



2,307,583 



Clearances coastwise 1,561 

Entrances coastwise 1,561 



312,200 tons. 
312,200 



cc 



No. 11. — ^District of Cuyahoga. 



Port of entry, Cleveland, Ohio ; latitude 41© 30^, longitude SI® 40^; 
population in 1830, 1,076 ; in 1840, 6,071 ; in 1«50, 17,034. 

This is a most important district, second in the value of its commerce 
to none west of Buffalo. It embraces all that portion of the south 
coast of Lake Erie which lies between the western State line of Penn- 
sylvania and the Black river, a distance of one hundred miles. 

It contains, beside Cleveland, the port of entry, many minor ports of 



OOLOVIAL AMB LAKB TBADB. 129 

considerable importance, such as Conneaat, Ashlabala, Cunningham's 
Harbor, Bladison Dock* Fairport, and Black River. 

This district has for its back country one of the finest and most varied 
agricahnral districts of the whole lake-shore region. The face of the 
l;uid IS soft and rolling, the soil in great part warm and ferlile, and es- 
pecially adapted to the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, and to the 
t^rowtb of all the cereal crops. 

AmoQg its most important and valuable exports are wheat, com, and 
floor ; large quantities of fruit, both green and dry, are sent off annually, 
ttufgeihn with pork, beef, butter, cheese, and vegetables, in all directions, 
but chiefly eastward by the lake, with the exception of butter and 
cherae, large quantities of which go southward by the Ohio canal, des- 
tined for Cincinnati, and thence for New Orleans and other southern cities* 

A railway passing through the entire length of the district on the 
Like shore is nearly completed, which is destined eventually to become 
a portion of the continuous chain from Buffalo to Chicago. One rail- 
way, connecting Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati, and another 
lijrming a communication with Pittsburg, are already comnleted ; and 
many branches of importance, scarcely second to the mam lines, are 
Mr advanced already m construction. 

Of canals, Cleveland has two of great value, one connecting her with 
Portsmouth, on the Ohio, and anoUier uniting the line at Akron with 
Beaver, on the Ohio — virtually a canal from Cleveland to Pittsburg, 
inasmuch as loaded canal boats are continually towed by small steamers 
Crom the ooouth of Beaver river to the latter city. 

With three diflerent lines of internal communication direct to the 
harbors on the coast, most of them among the best on the lakes, and 
these ffom the centre of the richest of the western States, it will readily 
be perceived that the district of Cuyahoga must be the theatre of com- 
mercial transactions which have no small influence upon exchanges 
fif pmdoce and merchandise in the c^reat marts of the seaboard. Con- 
:j#*aist, the easternmost port of the district, is about twenty miles west 
frncn Erie, situated upon a river of the same name, which affords a 
l^iod harbor. No returns exhibiting the commerce of this port, sepa- 
rately, have been received; but it is very considerable, as Conneaut is 
':if* entrepot for the landing of supplies and the shipping of produce 
i< a larire and fertile agricultural region, not only of tne adjacent coun- 
uy in Ohio, but of on important section of Pennsylvania. 

Tbr* next port to the westward is Ashtabula, similarly situated on a 
<mall stream bearing its own name, fi>rming a good harbor, with facili- 
';' « equal tfi the rec]uiremcnts of the place. The town stands back 
mtme two or three miles from the port, upon a rise of ground, forming 
s «ingularly eligible site. 

Tl»e commerce of this port for the year 1851 consisted principally of 
botler, cheese, wool, leattier, beef, pork, ashes, fruit, lumber, staves, 

ftr., for exports, amounting to the value of. $450,291 

And of merchandise, agricultural implements, furniture, hides, 

and a little wheat and flour, for imports 504,211 

Makii^ a loisd declared value of the tradeof this port 961,502 

9 



130 ANDSBVa' BKPO&T Qir 

The tonnage owned at Ashtabula consists of two brigs, of 280 tons 
each, several schooners and one scow, making an aggregate of 1,741 
tons, employing seventy- six men in their navigation. 

Cunningham's Harbor is a port at present of small moment, except 
ibr the shipment of staves ana lumber. 

Madison Dock is a pier built out into the lake, in front of the town of 
Madison, about eighteen miles west from Ashtabula, and twelve east 
from Fairport, for the accommodation of the neighborhood in shipping 
staves, lumber, and produce. No separate estimates of its commerce 
have been kept for tiie past year. 

Fairport stands on the Grand river, which furnishes one of the most 
eligible harbors in the West, and is quite sufficiently capacious for the 
tr^c of any western port. It is thirty miles west fjx>m Ashtabula^ 
and thirty east from Cleveland, and is merely a shipping and receiv- 
ing port — ^Painesviile, on the ridge, three miles inland from the lake, 
being the principal mart and place of business, as well as the county 
seat of Lake county. It is to be regretted that no particular returns 
have been received from this place, indicating the amount of its com- 
merce, tonna^, &c., as it is a port of no little consideration, and holds 
the key to a fertile agricultural district, inhabited by an industrious and 
enterprising population. 

Black River, the only remaining minor port of this district, lies about 
twenty-eight miles west of Cleveland, on the river from which it takes 
its name. Its commerce is of no great importance at present. It 
enjoys good harbor facilities for the shipment of staves and lumber, 
which are its principal exports, and for the receipt of such supplies as 
are in demand. 

The city of Cleveland, port of entry of this district, and capital of 
Cuyahoga county, is situated 130 miles NW. from Pittsburg; 14o NNE. 
rom Columbus ; 200 by water from Buffalo ; 130 from Detroit ; and 
359 firom Washington. 

The history of the growth of this city is one of the marvels of a mar^ 
vellous age and region. 

Its population in 1799 consisted of a single family. In 1825, it had 
risen to 500; in 1830, to 1,000; in 1834, to 3,400; in 1840, to 6,071; and 
at this moment there are 25,000 souls in the city proper, and at least 
7,000 more in Ohio City, across the harbor — ^virtually one city with 
itself, thoueh under a different corporate government. 

It is at this day one of the most beautiful cities, not in the West only, 
but in the United States ; built, for the most part, on an elevated plain, 
above the Cuyahoga, commanding a fine view of the lake and nver ; 
planted with groves of forest trees, and interspersed with fine squal'es 
and public places. 

As a place of business it is of high importance, and its future growth 
can scarce &il to be commensurate to its unparalleled rise ; nor are iCs 
inducements as a residence inferior to its commercial advantages. 

Its harbor is one of the best on Lake Erie, spacious and safe when 
once entered, but, like all the lake harbors, liable to the formation of 
obstacles by the accumulation of sand at the mouth of the river which 
forms it. This bar can be kept down only by continual dredging, and 
hence the constant demand on Congress for appropriations to this end. 



OOUmZAL AND LiJOB TBADB. 131 

The harbor has depth, for a coosiderable distance, suflScient to ac- 
cooimodate the largest vessels which navigate the lake ; it is formed bj 
the DTOjectioo of two piers, one on each side of the river, for twelve 
hnodred feet into the laJcc, which are two hunflh^d feet apart, faced with 
whulanfial masonry. There is a light-house on the high bank on the 
ibocc of Lake Eric, and a lower one near the end of one of the piers 
at the harbor's mouth. 

The commerce of Cleveland, apart from the rest of the district, is 
ooC shown by the returns received ; and in such returns as have been 
in — showing the business of the district — the valuation of the very 
articles is set at a rate so much lower than in the other districts, 
as greatly to undervalue the real commerce of Cuyahoga, and to exhibt 
it at the greatest possible disadvantage. 

It has consequently been judged best to raise the valuation of articles 
tt> the same rate adopted in the other districts, so as to produce and ex- 
hibit a uniformity of values in all the districts ; since, whichever be the 
correct valuation, the higher rate is favored and adopted by the ma- 
jivity ; and it can prejudice no one district or port of entry to the 
wroDgfiil advancement of another, if a uniform rate be adopted. 

The necessary alterations being* therefore, made in the fieures, the 
cofninerce of Cuyahoga district, as represented by Clevelana, its port 
of entry, is as foUows : 

Imports, coastwise $22,804,159 

Exports, ...do 12,026,497 

Total coastwise $34,830,656 



Imports, foreign 360,634 

Exports, do 284,937 

Total foreign 645,671 

Total commerce, for 1851, of Cuyahoga district 35,476,327 

Whole nomber of vessels from foreign ports — 

in 1851 322 

in 1850. 292 

^—difference : gain, 30. 

ClMmlbl851 247 

Cleared in 1850 215 

^—difference : gain, 32. 

The fallowing table will show the comparative business of Cleveland 
m mmm leading articles of its trade for a series of years, as named. 
▲11 these are exports : 



132 



ANDREWS' RBPORT ON 



Articles. 



Klouf .* barrels. . 

Wheat bushels. . 

Com do. . . . 

Oate do. . . . 

Pork barrels. . 

Beef. do.... 

Butter pounds. . 

Lard do. . . . 

Coal • • tons. . . 

Ashes barrels. . 

Whiskey do. . . . 

Tallow pounds. . 

Bacon do. . . . 

SUves M 

Wool pounds. . 



1847. 



697,553 

9,366,263 

1,400,332 

32,000 

27,289 

8,246 

917,090 

480,160 

8,242 

2,052 

12,067 

140,000 

840,900 

1,378 

575,933 



1848. 



472,999 

1,267,620 

690,162 

254,707 

28,338 

10,321 

1,927,300 

1,140,500 

11,461 

440 

28,450 



773 



1851. 



656,040 

2,141,913 

906,653 

68,464 

13,580 

26,944 

1,550,900 

1,730,700 

81,500 

1,830 

38,774 

198,000 

1,164,600 

789 

3,939,100 



To this table may be added an export for the year 1851, unknown 
to former years, of live hogs, 80,000. 

It will be remembered that 1847 was the memorable year of unpre- 
cedented demand for produce, arising out of the famine in Europe, which 
caused the exportation of nearly all the produce held in the country, so 
that any difference and apparent diminution on the subsequent years 
must be ascribed to no falling off for 1848 and 1851, but to the excess 
of demand for 1847. 

The valuation of the commerce of Cleveland for the three years 
above named, is thus stated : 



Imports 
Exports 



ToUl 



1847. 



14)518,997 
9,728,399 



14,247,369 



1848. 



17,003,388 
6,713,244 



13,716,632 



1851. 



$22,804,159 
12,026,497 



34,830,65S 



Whole number of entrances coastwise — 

For 1851 1,981 

For 1850 1,381 



Increase 600 



Whole number of clearances coastwise — 

For 1851 1,963 

For 1850 1,378 



Increase 581 



Total foreign trade — 

For 1851 $645,671 

For 1850 549,549 



Increase 96,122 



OOLONIAI. AND VAMM TBADB. 133 

It iboold be remarked, however, that this increase is more than 
orerbalaiiced by the quantity of railroad iron imported from Enffland 
by the 8t. Lawrance via Canada. So that, in fact, as regards airect 
trade with Canada, in lieu of an increase, there is actually a considera- 
ble decrease, more especially in the exports of domestic produce. 

Below wiU be found full details of the trade of this district, by the 
returns so far as received. 

The licensed and enrolled tonnage of this district for 1851 was 
36,070 toQ»— 11,355 steam, and 24,615 sail. 

Canadian trade in 1851. 

Daty eoUectod. 

loDDOfts- — ^In American vessels $220,538 $52,444 

In British vessels 140,096 42,164 

360,634 94,598 

Karoorts domestic produce and manufacture — 

b American vessels $151,758 

In British vessels 133,179 

284.937 

ToCml imports and exports — 

Id American vessels $372,296 

lo British vesseU 273,276 

645,671 

Jtb$iraci of imtiei reewsedfrom impord or merchandiie vi Jtnerican and 

foreign veeteb during 1850. 

1850^— Amount of duties received from imports in Amer- 

lean vessels. $25,960 24 

Amount of duties received from imports in foreign 
vessels .V. 41,664 01 

Total amount received in 1850 67,514 26 



134 



ANDREWS* RBPORT OIT 



Statement of the foreign trade of the district <f Cuyahoga^ showing the 
number of veesdsy tonnage^ and number of crew j engaged during the yean 
1850-'5L 



Tears. 


Nnmber of 
▼esBelfl. 


Tonnage. 


Gnw. 


1850. 
AmffrirAn vwfl^lf f^nti^rad ■•.••.«. 


192 
100 


25,484.75 
11,832.00 


1,150 


Foreim venols entered ••••••..••... 


587 








292 


37,316.75 


1,737 


Americnii vefupel* cleared *t«.. ..*«.. .....«.*« 


125 
90 


14,881.25 
10,327,00 


719 


Foreiini Tomolii cleared .••••••••••••........ 


541 








215 


25,208.25 


1,200 


1851. 
AmArifian TeMelfl entered ..■•■••*••■••.••••• 


230 

102 


38,813.67 
11,770,00 


1,431 
707 


Foreim Teiiels entered. •..••••...•••■•••••• 








322 


40,583.67 


3,138 


American Tenele cleared •. .,■••••••••.•*••«« 


153 
94 


17,760.69 
10,545,00 


943 


Foreiffn yetwli cleared .••••*• ••••••••• 


639 








247 


28,305.69 


1,581 



Entrances and clearances in 1850-'51. — Coasting trade. 

1850. — ^Number of vessels entered l^SSl 

Do do . .cleared 1,378 

1851. — ^Number of vessels entered 1,981 

Do do . .cleared 1,963 



An exhibit of the coasting trade of the district of Cuyahoga^ Ohioj during 

the year 1851. 



EXPORTS. 



Species of merchandise. 



Wheat • • bushels. . 

Com •••.. •••••••••■... .do. • • . 

Oats .do. . . . 

Flour. barrels. . 

Pork do. . . . 

Beef tierces.. . 

Beef • ..•• barrels. . 

Lard do. . . . 

Lard •.■•....••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••. Jie^.. . 

Butter • do.... 

Butter • • barrels. . 



Quantities. 



2,141,913 

906,653 

68,464 

656,040 

13,580 

15,011 

4,428 

4,314 

8,731 

13,575 

967 



Value. 



#1,499,339 10 

362,661 90 

17,800 64 

2,132,130 00 

190,190 00 

165,121 00 

26,568 00 

69,034 00 

69,848 00 

123,175 00 

17,406 00 



COUmiAL AMD ULEM TBADB. 



135 



EXPORTS-^Tontinnad. 



8p«d« of owrahaiidiM 




a 



• • •••••••••••••••••*•••••••••••• • • ado • • • • 

^........••^ .do.... 



.do. 
.do. 



.do* • • • 



•01 loOl. * 

I • •do. . . • 
. .roUt... 




aad Ibnutiifo 



.gallons.. 
. .nelu... 
» .piecefl. . . 
• •balei... 
...M.... 



paper. 



•No.. . • 
.do . • . . 
.do.... 



. .do* .. . 

. mAO* • « ■ 

• .do. . . • 
..do.... 

.balm... 
..do.... 



ToUlvmlao 



<)aaatitiw. 



94,606 

13,969 

9,996 

9,768 

660 
7,131 
1,455 
1,963 
5,686 
6,960 

944 

1,630 

96,961 

99,930 

6,775 

461 

40,069 

3,397 

1,176 

97,694 

616 
9,350 

195 

149 
1,000 

603 

650 
9,681 
1,515 
9,674 
1,956 
61,500 

101 

160 
1,994 
1,116 

165 

789 
9,613 

644 
155,148 

990 
4,447 

WW 

150 

7,616 

80,000 

6,604 

630 
9,HH9 
6,220 
5,300 

169 

357 



3,6H1 



Value. 



#910 

111 

4 



9 

7 
10 
37 
34 
74 

7 

45 
1,969 
45 
96 
13 
190 
10 

9 
97 

1 
14 

1 

9 
19 
96 

7 

160 

45 

13 

5 

36 

1 
64 
10 

9 
14 
78 

3 
19 
39 
13 
99 

3 
96 
400 
69 
50 
86 
19 

9 

5 

HO 

9,944 



,649 50 
,659 00 
,059 00 
,104 00 
,900 00 
,131 00 
,165 00 
,690 00 
,116 00 
,590 00 
,559 00 
,750 00 
,675 00 
,660 00 
,936 00 
,530 00 
,907 00 
,191 00 
,359 00 
,364 00 
,613 00 
,100 00 
,500 00 
,985 00 
,000 00 
,105 00 
,600 00 
,600 00 
,450 00 
,370 00 
,677 00 
,135 00 
,360 00 
,990 00 
,760 00 
,044 00 
,310 00 
,909 00 
,390 00 
,864 00 
,411 00 
,900 00 
,341 00 
,150 00 
,300 00 
,656 00 
,000 00 
,349 00 
,400 00 
,670 00 
,440 00 
530 00 
.535 00 
,335 00 
.0()0 00 
,800 00 



19,096,497 00 



136 



ANDRBWS* RBPOBT OH 



IMPORTS. 



Species of merchandiae. 



Qoantitti 



Value. 



Salt 

Water-lime ....•..•• i 

Liake fish 

Lumber. , 

Shingrle-wood 

Shin^rles 

Railroad iron • . 

Railroad spikes • . 

Stoves 

T'lg'iron 

Bar-iron 

Castings •• . • 

Crude plaster 

Bloom iron. .•...••••. 

Lehigh coal 

Copper ore. 

Marole •,, 

Molasses 

Sugar 

Sugar..**. 

Powder 

If ails • . • 

White lead 

Leather 

Leather 

Dairy salt ...•.• 

Coarse salt 

Shoes 

Hops 

Green apples 

Cranberries 

Siseawit oil 

PoUtoes 

Oysters 

Casters •«.••• 

Patent pails 

Burr-blocks 

LocomotiTes < 

Limestone 

Fire-wood 

Laths 

Merchandise, sundries. 



•barrels.. 
...do.... 
...do.... 



.M feet. . 
.cords. • • 
...M.... 



>.tons... 
JcQgs.. . 
■ .No. • • » 
..tons... 
..do.... 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.barrels.. 
...do.... 
..hhds... 
■ .kegs.. • 
...do.... 



...do.... 

..sides... 
..rolls... 
I .sacjcs. . . 
.barrels., 
.boxes... 
•bales... 
•barrels. . 
...do.... 



...do.... 
•bushels. . 
.barrels. . 
..boxes... 
. .doxtm. • • 
.pieces... 
I . .No. • • . 
. .cords ... 
...do.... 



.M . • • . 
•tons . . . 



90,607 

8,383 

33,294 

13,263 

929 

3,988 

7,383 

4,666 

540 

706 

498 

161 

1,412 

313 

514 

815 

1,213 

884 

5,083 

775 

9,535 

3,980 

7,050 

4,550 

1,130 

50,947 

1,663 

394 

159 

8,377 

545 

100 

11,000 

607 

3,066 

358 

1,148 

32 

784 

424 

1,991 

25,083 



10, 
144, 
123, 

i; 

366, 

27, 

3, 

19, 

20, 
9, 

.J; 

385, 

43, 

14, 
86. 

so, 

98, 

13, 
13, 
33, 

i; 
I 

16, 

3' 
5' 

3; 
37, 

176', 
4, 

9, 
30,066, 



607 00 
478 75 
911 00 
630 00 
361 00 
975 50 
650 00 
866 00 
310 00 
766 00 
990 00 
660 00 
336 00 
600 00 
168 00 
350 00 
455 00 
144 00 
394 00 
375 00 
635 00 
430 00 
354 00 
650 00 
600 00 
194 70 
078 75 
700 00 
720 00 
554 00 
270 00 
000 00 
500 00 
642 00 
188 00 
718 00 
435 00 
000 00 
704 00 
848 00 
986 50 
400 00 



Total Talue 



23,804,159 00 



OOMUILU* ARD LAKB TBADB. 137 

No. 12^ — ^District of Samduskt, Ohio. 

Poft or entry, Sandusky city ; latitude 41^ 22", longitude 80<^ 42 ; 
popolatioQ in 1860, 5,087. 

The district of Sandusky extends from Black river westward, in- 
doding the ports of Vermillion, Huron, Milan, Sandusky, Venice, Fre- 
mont, Portage Plaster Bed, and Port Clinton, being a distance of fifty 
miles lake coast, and some fifty more of bay and river. In natural 
advantages for commercial progress, probably this district is surpassed 
by DO ouer on Lake Erie west of Buffalo Creek. Within its borders 
tfe several navigable rivers and one of the finest bays in the west, ca- 
pable of famishing anchorage to any number of vessels, at which they 

J safely ride during the most severe gales, and to which they gain 
daring the prevalence of almost any wind. The whole of the 
back country on which it rests is fertile and rich in agricultural resources, 
and sends forth annually large quantities of surplus produce over the 
diflerent railwavs and canals by which it is penetrated. 

Vermillion, the easternmost of all the ports in this district, is situated 
on the lake shore at the mouth of the Vermillion river, about ten miles 
diaUDt from Black river, and as many more from Huron. It has no re- 
markable features which require particular notice, but is simply a place 
for excbanae of produce against merchandise, ibr its shipments to other 
kets. This statement exhibits the commerce of the port as follows : 



Imports $116,295 

Exports 196,712 

Total 313,007 

In 1847, the valuation was $377,000 

HuroD, the next port in course to the westward, is situated on Huron 
river, about ten miles east from Sandusky, and has a good harbor, with 
this exception — that in some seasons there are accumulations on the bar 
at its mouth, which require removal in order to make access to it easy. 

A sfaip^canal has been constructed firom this point to Milan, a dis^ 
taooe of eight miles, by which vessels ascend, and load at the latter 
point* A railway was pr6jected from this point to intersect with the 
SmodoMky and Mansfield railroad ; but is not yet in progress. The com- 
merce of Huron is valued as fellows : 

Exporu $581,676 

Imporu r 877,156 

Total 1,458,831 

In 1847, the valuatioo anooonted to nearly $3,000,000 

MBan as ooC, to speak with exactitude,a lake port; bat an accotmtof 
ks bosioess is necessary to a fell computation of the lake trade as no 



138 .- AITDRBWS' RBPORT OK 

returns of it8 business are supposed to be taken by the collector at 
Huron, through which port all vessels pass in going up and returning 
from Milan. This commerce, according to the canal-collector, amounted 
last year to— 

E xports $435 ,816 

Imports 690,185 

Total 1,126,901 

As no separate accounts of this trade appear to have been kept in 
1847, it is probable that they were includea with those of Huron. 

Sandusky, the port of entry, lies on the south shore of a most beau- 
tiful bay of the same name, about five miles from its mouth, and con- 
tains about 8,000 inhabitants. This bay is about twenty miles in length 
and five in width, forming a shelter large enough to give anchorage to 
the whole lake marine, with an average depth of twelve feet water. 
The bar at the mouth of the bay is sometimes enlarged, or its shape 
changed, by the spring-currents. A straight channel has, however, 
been dredged through it, at the expense of the city, in which there is 
about eleven feet of water. 

Sandusky city is the capital of Erie county, Ohio, and lies 60 miles 
west from Cleveland, 110 miles north from Columbus, 414 fix>m 
Washington— directly facing the outlet of the bay into Lake Erie, at 
three miles distance, of which it commands a fine view. The city is 
situated on an inexhaustible quarry of fine-building stone, of which 
many of the best buildings are erected. 

The Mad river and Lake Erie raiboad connects this city with Cin- 
cinnati and the Ohio, the passage from city to city occupying about ten 
hours. This road runs through one of the most beautiful and opulent 
agricultural regions in all the West, literally overflowing with the cereal 

S reduce of a young and productive soil. The Sandusky, Mansfield, and 
fewark railway connects it with Newark, passing likewise through a 
rich portion of the State, and crossing the Cleveland and Columbus 
road, by means of which it has communication with both those cities. 
Tne advantageous relations of this city in regard to the central por- 
tions of the State, together with its superior harbor facilities give it 
an active commercial aspect. 

The deputy collector has furnished returns showing the imports 
coastwise to amount — 

In 1851, to $15,985,357 

Exports same year, to .\ 6,469,659 

Total trade coastwise • 22,445,016 

Canadian imports, 1851 ' 272,844 

Canadian exports, 1851 99,088 

Total commerce in 1851 22,816,948 



OOLOHIAL AHD LAKS TRADB. 



139 



Tntalin 1851 $22,816,982 

Tnulin 1850 12,111,034 

locrease 10,705,948 

Namber of arrivals in 1851 1,998 

Number of departures in 1851 1,990 

,«foo 



The tocal quantity of wheat shipped from Sandusky to Canadian 
ptttM amounted — 

In 1851, to 121,672 bushels. 

Coastwise 1,800.000 " 

Also, 147,951 barrels flour, reduced to bushels. . . • 739,735 *' 

« 

Makinga total equal to 2,661,407 " 

The following comparative table will show the principal exports from 
Sandusky for the following consecutive years : 



Afticwtf cc. 



M baihels. . 

• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Jmiisai* • 

run ^ ^ buthelfl.. 

iH»B « do.... 

Pott .• .barreli. . 

•..•••••••.•••••M pounds. • 

• •■•••••••^■•••••••. ••••••••• .do* • • • 

^ ^ do.... 

,^ do.... 

• casks. . 

• ■••••»•«••••••••••••••••••• .bftmls. • 

ll^wuM...^....- - do.... 

W«o| pounds.. 

■ •^Mtfv.* •»••.••.•«•«•.••...*•••••.••.. .do. • • . 

f ■•• •••.••••••.•^••••••.•.••••••. •••• UIO. « • • 

H«f». jiumber. . 

tmmt%ta0 .« pounds. . 

Affivmli...... ...••••« 

fW^nncM .*••••- 

eoOocted ^ thIuo.. 



1849. 



899,210 

56,686 

98,486 

9,881 

15,781 

10,800 

610,951 

3,660 

695,881 

374,713 

1,908 

3,553 

2,491 

1,435,360 

183,259 

42,800 

11,707 

11,000 

1,168 

11,136 

#11,052 



18S0. 


1851. 


1,552,699 


1,922,069 


78,902 


147,951 


288,742 


712,121 


18,634 


84,198 


8,073 


5,564 


287,187 


175,900 


754,588 


30,340 


545,6H5 


8,100 


860,798 


289,719 


176,379 


115,397 


1,568 


2,082 


2,778 


3,978 


5,278 


11,916 


1,669,677 


1,690,557 


316,000 


549,046 


61,126 


109,125 


34,751 


105,096 


30,000 


90,156 


1,610 


*'S5 


1,546 


*'2? 


|20,bO6 


133,834 



Fremonu fi>nnerly called Lower Sandusky, is situated on Sandusky 
nwrtf abrmt thirty miles from Sandusky city, and is accessible to ves- 
irU of light draught. Its commerce is gradually on the increase, aa 
vtll he 9een by the accompanying statements furnished by the deputy 
n4iector : 



140 ANDREWS' BBPORT OH 

Imports $359,419 

Exports 3 14 , 530 

Total for 1851 673,949 

Total for 1850 217,843 

Increase 456,106 



Venicey at the mouth of Cold creek, on Sandusky bay, three miles 
above the city, is the place of shipment for the products of two large 
flouring mills ; the shipments in 1851 were 34,771 barrels, valued at 
$121,698. 

Another shipping point on the opposite side of the bay is at the 
plaster quarry, known as the Portage Plaster Bed, and its business 
consists for the most part of shipments of plaster, both ground and 
crude. In 1851 there were shipped of the ground article from this port 

4,051 barrels, valued at $5,265 

Crude, 4,414 tons, valued at 13,242 

Total 18,507 



Port Clinton, the only port in this district not already noticed, is sit- 
uated on the lake about ten miles west from Sandusky, and having but 
a narrow peninsula of land back of it, is not a place of extensive trade. 
The statement of the deputy collector fixes the value of 

imports for 1851 at $59,049 

Exports for the same year 67,235 

Total 126,284 



Besides the above-mentioned regular ports, there 3x6 numerous 
islands included within the limits of this district, among which are 
Kelly's, Cunningham's, Put-in Bay, and others, some of themafibrding 
the best shelter to disabled vessels, in severe gales, to be found any* 
where on the lakes. It was in die immediate vicinity of this group, 
and in fact in the midst of it, that Perry's enfi[agement was fought, and 
the killed found a burying place on the island last named. 

The commerce of these islands is not large. Wood, fish, with some 
vegetable food, are exported and supplied to vessels, and supplies for 
the inhabitants are imported ; but no definite returns on which to esti- 
mate the value of their trade have been received. 

The following tables will exhibit the trade of the district in detail, 
by which it will be seen that the total commerce 



In 1851 $22,511,570 

In 1850 14,907,788 

Increase 7,603,782 



OOLORULL AMD LAKE TBADB. 



141 



Tern. 


Entimiieee. 


Tone. 


Men. 


1 

Clearmnoae. 


Tone. 


Men* 


I-i5l 

I^ISD .^ 


3,843 
9,647 


540,171 
479,690 


19,565 ; 9,840 
18,459 ll 9,590 


537,979 
464,807 


19,433 
18,095 




196 


67,551 


1.106 > <>^ 7!l 17Q 


1,388 






1 



The following table will exhibit a few of the principal articles of 
«-xpDrt fimcn the important ports in the district during the years 1847 



I flenHneky. 

I 



1847. 



f\ 



«^le 

rwftk 



. • • 
• • » 

» m m < 



1, £118.754 

163,965 

113,066 

150,000 

10,150 

610 

1,817 

9^15 



^^••■e • • aSio., 67,B39 



1851. 



1,800397 

719,191 

147351 

84,198 

5364 

1.084 

9,068 

1,978 

966,000 

1,079,099 



Huron. 



1847. 



1388,866 

11,114 

7,089 

100,000 

99,789 

9,644 

9,653 

1355 

100,000 

1313,058 



1851. 



344,784 

966,223 

1,973 

65,493 

948 

1390 

499 

1374 

698,574 

1364,000 



Milan. 


Vermillion. 


1847. 


1851. 

958,778 

220364 

1.763 

56,033 

439 

997 

535 

1,409 

718,000 

1,456,500 


1847. 


1851. 


Included in Huron for 
the jeer 1847. 


40,000 

1,000 

9,000 

90,000 

1,000 

500 

900 


37363 

39,895 

6364 

6360 

394 

107 

101 


700,000 
700,000 


75,000 
1.133,000 



Tbrre are enrolled b the Sandusky district 73 tons of steam, 

and 4»785 tons of sailing vessels; total 3,858 

Fir 1847. total 4,322 



Increase, 



536 



Mtirmei €f mlwe of domestic txportt of the dtsirict of Sa$iduth/f Ohio^ It 

Canada^ during thefolkwing year«, tiz : 

1849^ — In American vessels $24 00 

In British vesseU 2.960 00 



Total 3,074 00 



X850. — In American vessels $39,435 00 

In British vesseU 43.236 00 



Total 82.671 00 



142 ANDREWS* BSFORT OH 

Canadian trade in 1851. 

Datiec collected. 

Imports— In American vessels $56,859 $2,244 

In British vessels 18,769 3,515 



Total •75,628 5,759 



[• In this is included 2,286 tons of railroad iron imported via Que- 
bec ; duty paid on 758 tons, $5,076 ; balance, l,52o tons, in bond. 
There was imported into the district of Sackett's Harbor, in British 
vessels, not included in the returns, 2,045 tons 6 cwt* 1 qr. 19 lbs. rail- 
road iron ; value $49,476 31 ; duty $14,842 90.] 

Exports — ^In American vessels $33,239 

In British vessels « 65,849 



99,088 



121,672 bushels of wheat included in the above ; the whole amount 
principally provisions. 

Total imports and exports — ^In American vessels $90,098 

In British vessels 84,618 



Total 174,716 



Tannage. 

Inwaid. Outward. 

American vessels 4 steam 1,494 ... .10 sail. . $1,396 

53 sail. . 4,760 3 steam 336 

British vessels 2 steam 280 9 sail.. 1,300 

35 sail.. 746 

Total 74 22 



OOLOMlAIi JkJfD LAXB TBADB. 



143 



Mtfo the dittnci of SandutlMf Ohiojdunng the year 
December 31, l&l. 



8pMM of import. 



Quantity. 



Valae. 





f>f iroa 



Naik. 
Tm plato. 



wmI boilen, 



Salt. 



WatarluM 








31,011 
900. 
17,486. 
460. 
35UI 
1,341. 
193. 
449. 
73 
716 
81 
3. 
3. 
40 
13. 
3,745 
53,738 
4,334 
7,538 
3,058. 
1,503. 
1,099. 
6,809 
11,075 
440 
4,587. 
383,889 
10. 
6,140 
913. 
8,690 
74,900 
603 
314. 
11,384 
90. 
379 
363. 
75 
85. 
3,976 
70,000 
330,000 
9,000. 
44 
356 
359 
950. 
306 
196 



tona 

..do 

. aOO. .•••••. 

• a CIO ..•..••• 

• .flO. «••.•«. 
. .00. «...•«. 

• « QO •.•••••• 

a .flO. ....•• . 

bundlea • • . • 
koga 



tona 



tona .••••« 
bamlf.... 
baga..«*.« 
barreli.... 

• • .do.*.*.. 

• ■ .do.. • • • t 
• . .no .•••••• 

Mfaat.... 

M 

oorda 

• .00. ••.«••. 



galkma.. 



baneb. 
ponnda. 
bamla. 



banab. 

. . .do.. ■ 

kaga... 



M piacaa... 
iaot....««« 



tona • 

boAala...* 

•y 



60 banak, 



ML 

340 

1. 

90,000. 

354 

6n 



aiticlaa 



«10,505,500 

3,900,000 

699,440 

38,400 

38,360 

198,560 

7,680 

44,900 

383 

3,506 

889 

700 

3,800 

400 

96,000 

11,100 

55,903 

530 

53,766 

13,348 

3,355 

6,594 

68,090 

37,687 

5,338 

10,330 

33,039 

800 

614 

114 

4,040 

7,490 

4,894 

8,513 

33,568 

317 

3,790 

73,400 

1,350 

17,000 

7,953 

1,400 

17,600 

90 

3,535 

119 

3,154 

3,000 

99 

4,800 

1,930 



180 
185 
180 
1,069 
984 

15,865,957 



144 



ANDREWS' RBPOBT Oil 



Exports coattwisefrom the district of Sandusky ^ Ohio^ during the year endr 
ing December 31, 1851 — destined mostly for the eastern markets 



Species of export. 



Wheat 
Corn.. 
Oats.. 



CloYer seed 

Timothy seed . . . 

Flax seed 

Hickory nuts..... 
Express packa|fes, 
Flour 



Beef. 

Pork 

Whiskej . . 
High wines 
Alcohol .... 
Beans 



Cranberries . • • . 
Ground plaster. 
Crude . • • .do • • • 
Sweet potatoes. 
Ashes, pot.... 
Apples, green., 
jDo. • • dried . , 
Peaches, dried.. 

Butter 

Lard 



Tallow 

Feathers 

Wool --. 

Beeswax 

Ginseng 

Leather Cm rolls).. • . 
Do. . .(unfinished). 

Furniture 

Merchandise > 

Rag*. 



Cheese 

Oil-cake... . < 
Candles.. . . 
Corn-meal . 
Tobacco... 

Hams 

Broom-corn 
Furs 



Live hogs 

Dressed hogs. . . • • 

Flaxseed ou . . . . • 

Black-walnut lumber 

Staves (pipe, hhd., and butt) 

Hides 

Sheep-pelts • 

Deer-skins • 

Empty casks... •• 

PoUtoes 

SaleratuB. 

Bristles 

Railroad iron , 

Railroad chain 

ig iron • 

Lard oil • 

Beef-tongues. < 

Lumber • .. . , 

Ship-plank 



Quantity. 



2,621,224 
1,262,509. 
239,936. 
203 
740. 
1,859. 
643. 
250,000 
194,682 
3,038. 
7,196. 
5,552. 
12,598. 
do9. 
U. 
2,962. 
4. 
4,146. 
4,414 
93 
3,214 
190 
86,452 
16,408. 
382,340. 
267,337. 
157,127. 
36,351. 
2,340,771. 
3,295. 
3 
51 
106,768 
188,700. 
810,093. 
656,101. 
8,100. 
247,026. 
17,807. 
113 
549,046 
187,100. 
21,565. 
128,425. 
72,399. 
32,627. 
1,331 
425 
5,947 
2,256. 
1,035 
54. 
1,084. 
411 
20,156 
6 
42 
197. 
11. 
3 

33. 
2,046 
252. 



bushels .... 
. . .do.. . • • « 

. . .QO ••••••• 

barrels.. .. 
• . .do.. . • • • 

. . .OO ..••••• 
• . .00 ..••••• 

pounds. . . . 
barrels.. .. 



. • .do ..•••« 

. . .00.« • • • a • 

. . .do • . • • . 1 

. . .GO*. • • • • a 

• . .do., a a a • 
. . .00 a . . a a • a 

• a .do.. . a • < 
. . .do • a a a a a 
. . .QO . a a a a a a 

tons 

bushels. . a , 
casks * • • a < 
barrels.... 
pounds. . a . 

a a ado .a • • a . 

.. .do 

. . .UO a a • a • • • 
. • ado. a a a • I 
a a adOaa m»* i 

• a ado m»9 • •t 

. . .QO a ... a ■ a 

barrels «... 

rolls 

pounds... . 

• . .do • a a a a < 
a a .do.. . • • I 
. a .do ...••< 
. . .OO . • a a a a . 
a a ado . a a a • i 

• . .do • .... I 

barrels.... 
pounds.... 

. . .do . a • a a < 
a a aClO • . a a a • • 

a • .Go ..•.•■• 



barrels. 
M feet. 
M 



Value. 



bundles .... 

a . .GO*. » m • m * 



bushels, 
pounds, 
barrels., 
tons. . . . 

. .do. aa. 

..do.... 
barrels. 



11,806,645 

513,004 

71,981 

2,842 

2,810 

6,971 

964 

500,000 

681,386 

21,266 

86,359 

36,068 

91,326 

12,958 

38 

14,810 

24 

6,219 

132,420 

93 

67,494 



a . .Go., a • a • a 

M feet 



a aQOa a a a a a a a 



3,458 

1,969 

3,823 

18,714 

13,370 

10,905 

795,861 

824 

100 

2,550 

21,353 

18,870 

162,019 

14,963 

486 

2,470 

1,780 

175 

54,905 

11,236 

1,078 

128,425 

434,394 

295,443 

42,592 

5,375 

148,675 

6,204 

36,225 

2,700 

613 

205 

90T 

42 

1,680 

15,760 

880 

108 

495 

20,460 

3,588 



COLONIAL AND LARB TRADB. 



145 



Exports cocuiuise — Continued. 



Species of export. 



Quantity. 




iUilfoed tifl» 



• • • 



BMfll 



r«e end fomitafe 

GkMwmrr 

\%ctam 



T^. 




leeu, 



T. 



OlJ. 

lUneoofl. 



ToUl value. 



530 
1,068 
60. 
2,400. 
9. 
50 
1,000 
150. 
5 
1 
2,877 
1,494 
139,000. 
35 
5 

10. 
423,765 



M.. 

tone. 



M feet, 
tone ... 
. .do... 
boxes. . 
box... 
cords... 
barrels. 



slicks. . 

barrels. 

• • .do.. • 

pounds. 



Value. 



il,325 

19,224 

60 

480 

175 

3,000 

8,000 

10,500 

50 

30 

3,409 

8,735 

1,390 

175 

90 

350 

58,765 



6,459,659 



CtsToit-BeriB, Smnd}ukfft Okio^ Jsnuory 7, 1852. 



No. 13. — District of Miami, Ohio. 

Port of entns Toledo; latitude 41^ 38', longitude 83° 35'; popula- 
tion in 1^40, i;222; in 1850, 3,829. 

Thi'S district has a shore-line of fifty miles in extent, comprising that 
porticm of the Iak<: und river coast lying between Port Clinton and the 
divi<]in|; line betwe<'n Michigan and Ohio, and includes the ports of 
Manhattan, Toledo, Maumee, and Perrj'sburgh. The former is a port 
of but little ini{K)rtancc, furnishing no nturns. Maumee city and rer- 
rii'»burgh are both situated on the Maumee river, within a few miles of 
Tf »led<i, and might, jwrhaps, be considered with more propriety suburbs 
of that place, Uiau indep<*ndent ports of entry. The commerce of Per- 
ry^burgh is returned by the colleclor as ft)llows : 

Iniprxru $264,755 

£x{>i»rt4 4 1,055 

Total 305,81C 

Tbat «f Maumee city is ascertained from the same* source to l>e— 

ImiKJftii $16,207 

Export* 30,567 

46,764 



Toledo is« in one respect, more advantageously situated fbi an cx*^ 
10 



146 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

tensive lake commerce than perhaps any other western port^ from the 
fact that it has two canals, both connecting it with the Ohio, terminating 
in its port : one the Miami and Erie canal to Cincinnati, and the other 
the Erie and Wabash canal, intercommunicating with Evansville, Indi- 
ana, and traversing the entire Wabash valley, which thereby renders 
the richest portion of the entire State of Indiana tributary to its traffic. 
This circumstance, when taken in connexion with the fact that rail- 
way transportation has hitherto been unable to compete on equal terms 
with water for the inland carriage of heavy freight, such as agricul- 
tural produce, renders it absolutely certain that, at no very distant 
date, Toledo must become the grand depot for the lake trade of the 
valleys of the Miami and Wabash ; and, inasmuch as the course of 
trade for productions of that sort is annually tending more and more to 
the northward, this is almost tantamount to saying that it must needs be 
ultimately the great meeting-place and mart for the immense products 
of all northwestern Ohio and of all northeastern Indiana, these valleys 
being beyond all doubt the very richest and most fertile portions of the 
respective States, which cannot be surpassed, if equalled, by any in the 
Union for tbeir agricultural wealth. 

Toledo is well situated on the west side of the Mauinee river, at a 
short distance from the head of Maumee bay, in Lucas county, Ohio, 
134 miles NNW. from Columbus and 464 from Washington. Its 
present population is estimated at about 5,000 individuals, and is con- 
stantly on the increase. 

One line of railroad is already completed, connecting Toledo with 
Chicago, known as the Southern Michigan ; and another — the lake shore 
road, which will form an intercommunication with Buffalo, Clevelandt 
Sandusky, and the other eastern marts and harbors on the lake — ^is in 
rapid progress ; and will, it may be confidently expected, be finished 
within a twelve-month, or a little over, which will of course add a new 
stimulus to the business of Toledo. A third road is also projected through 
the Miami valley, in the direction of Cincinnati. 

These advantages, together with the possession of an excellpnt harbor 
jand good arrangements for freighting on the lakes, have already so far 
'developed the commerce of this port, as to give the most gratifying 
assurances in regard to its future progress and prosperity. 

The commerce of Toledo, so far as can be fiscertained from the 
scanty returns which have been sent in by the collector, are as ihllows 
for the years 18e51 and 1847; no comparative statement concerning 
other years being attainable, from the absence of reports : 

Imports coastwise for 1851 $22,987,772 

Exports coastwise for 1851 7,847,808 

Total coastwise for 1851 30,835,580 

Imports, foreign, for 1 851 $33,007 

Exports, foreign, for 1851 66,304 

99,311 

Total commerce, 1851 30,934,891 



COLONIAL AND LAXS TRADB. 147 

Entnuices 1,603 tons 418,892 

Clrarances 1,609 " 419,942 



Toul 3,212 a38,834 



Tb^ total commerce of the district, including all the ports, for 1851, 



ImpyfU $23,301,741 

Exports 7,985,724 

Total 31,285,465 



Tlie same for the year 1847 amounted only to— 

Imports $4,033,985 

Exprjrts 4,034,824 

8,068,809 



Commerce of 1^51 $31,285,465 

Commerce of 1847 8,068,809 



Increase on four years 23,216,656 

4 

The total enrolled and licensed tonnage for 1851, is 3,286 tons. 

Entrances for 1851 in the whole district 1,710 tons 437,996 

Ckaraoces do do 1,714 " 438,449 



Totals 3,424 876,445 



CANADIAN TRADE IN 1851. 
Imi)orts* 

In American vessels $8,441 duty $2,129 

In BritUh vessels 18,028 do 5,390 



Totals 26,469 7,519 



Ejr[)or(M. 

In American vessels $2,940 

In British vess<'U 63,364 



Total exporu 66.304 



148 



ANDREWS' REPOUT ON 



Total imports and exports — 

In American vessels $11,381 

In British vessels." 81,392 

Total Canadian trade 92,773' 



Tonnage inward* 

American, sail 12 ] ,742 tcms. 

British,sail 7 934 ** 

British, steam 2 404 " 



2,080 



Tonnage oulvnrd. 

American, sail 1 150 tons* 

British, steam 2 404" 

British, sail 7 934 " 



1,488 



Statement nhowing the principal articles^ their quantity and value^ imported 
coastwise into the port cf Toledo during the year ending December 31, 
1851. 



Articles. 



Assorted merchandise tons. 

Iron, bar and bundle do.. 

Iron, railroad do. . 

Iron, pig ..do.. 

Steel pounds.. 

Nails. ..kegs, 

Spikes do.. 

Castings, iron • pounds. 

Tin boxes. 

Axes do. . 

Stoves .number. 

Stove trimmings pounds. 

Hardware tons. 

Hollow ware pieces, 

Scales packages. 

Machinery do. .< 

' Stoneware • gallons, 

Glass boxes. 

Cheese do.. 

Cofiee bags. 

Sugar • barrels. 

Molasses • gallons. 

Tobacco • pounds. 

Hides, Spanish .number, 

Hops , . .bales. 

Powder ke^s. 

Spiri ts barrels. 

Oil do... 



Quantity. 


Value. 


23,260 


118,608,000 


273 


18,200 


9,415 


423,675 


113 


4,520 


18,928 


2,082 


6,067 


19,354 


10,099 


50,499 


187,558 


7,502 


2,176 


20,760 


720 


7,990 


4,199 


50,38S 


20,292 


13,190 


557 


389,900 


3,619 


7,238 


420 


27,300 


583 


52,470 


16,650 


1,665 


3,249 


6,498 


2,898 


7,249 


647 


9,058 


3,900 


70,200 


13,380 


47,888 


33,810 


5,071 


16,380 


2,293 


23 


2,760 


20,242 


80,968 


481 


26,455 


139 


3,960 



OOBONIAL AND hAEB TRAOB. 



149 



STATEMENT— Continued. 



Artkli 



Qu&ntityT 



Value. 



AVii 
W«l« 



WhiCA fiih and troot. 

MtckMl 

9^x 



. .boiea. . 
•barrels., 
.buhehi. . 

• • .do- • • • 

• • .do . « • . 
J)arrels.. 
...do.... 
...do.... 
. . .do. . . . 
...do.... 
...do.... 



lyt bair*.. 

Laatiwr .roiJa. . 

Bi«ouasd alunea • .caies. . 

Wkilc laad • ••. Jiegi. . 

CuaJ. brtniiMnom tons. . 

CVAl.Uhifli ^...... tons.. 

Fiaaoa •- .«•.••. number. . 

W«««Ba. do... 

CafnaftMyA^ • ....ulo... 

lUiImad lie— ringer can do... 

Do. • . .locomoUfee. do. . . 

Do. ...freifht can.... • do.. . 

TVwhi^ machlnee •••••• do. . . 

K^apen •■•••••••••••••••..••••....•••••••• .do ... 

IniB tairv M*. do... 

HoQwbold foods packft|ree. . 

Maitle .••••.. •••• M.*.* tons . * 

CnndslooaB .. • • .number. .1 

f iiiybii feet. .! 

S^btnglei.. ••.•••M • ••••..«•• M. .' 

IaiIml ..•••••... number. . 

f'ae lop feet. . 

liorw*.. •••..«••• head. . 

(*«itle. . . - do. . . 

>*S'«p. ..••.••••••••• ••.. do.. . 

Fiprvn guud*. .pack.ig09. . 

SuaiSrire.. •.••»•.••.•••.• ••... 



677 
6,364 
1,215 

37,505 

3,672 

1,554 

1,828 

467 

10,499 

150 

102,032 

79,080 

1,110 

6,098 

1,837 

1,829 

770 

220 

43 

33 

10 

20 

150 

61 

75 

22 

1,528 

1,777 

1,054 

11,837,747 

6,277 

2,569,715 

1,000,000 

101 

29 

221 



|2,031 

12,728 
1,823 

13,752 

2,295 

9,424 

2,742 

467 

73,493 

1,800 

107,033 

9,885 

33,300 

943,920 

6,429 

7,316 

5,775 

44,000 
2,580 
6,600 

20,000 
160,000 

71,250 

16,775 

15,000 
2,750 

12,224 

63,972 

697 

142,052 

15,693 
6,423 
7,000 
6,060 
5,075 
4,4.>0 
1,910.000 

17,755 



Total raltt«. 



22,9«7,772 



S:/ifanint nf the principal articles^ their quantity and ralnf^ cxfHyrtcd coast' 
/ram the port of ToUdo during the year ending December 31, 1851. 



Articlr*. 



I 



I 



Quantity. 



C *n buchrU.. 2,775,149 

\N jr^ do...' 1,G:W,744 

fV,-^ barroU..; *J42,677 

Ba^iD ».••.•». rtixks. .' 14,150 

H\9m number. .1 4.0% 

P»f% barrels. .1 .l«.f>:H 

Urd • uio... 27,16:i 

LinJ i I do... 6.07H 

l.'v* hnfv M....». nuiii(x*r. . 23,547 

l.'verjltlt do...' 744 

l^ve t-'fic* ...........•••. do.. .| 30I 

\jw •h«ep do.. . 1.7ri9 

^ " barrels.. 7.iKHJ 

r...... •••• .•••••.do... l,bo4 



Value. 



$1,110,017 
l.OrJ.XU 

7UG.yi« 
5.*<H 
502,:C>4 
434 . 640 
lh-».3»U 
117.7:i5 

3,518 
69,312 
28,260 



150 



ANDREWS* REPORT ON 



STATEMENT— Continned. 



Articles. 



Grease • • pounds. 

Linseed oil barrels. 

Oil-cake tons. 

Hides number. 

Sheep-pelts • • bales. 

Furs (estimated) 

Oats • • bushels . 

Beans • • •.•• .do.. 

Barley do.. 

Corn-meal • .baffs. 

Seed barrels. 

Potatoes.. .bushels. 

Cranberries • • barrels. 

Cheese , « boxes. 

Butter i kegs. , 

Candles boxes. 

•••..... • pounds. 

.•••....•.••......•...•••. .barrels. 



fSP. 



.do. 



Sugar ....•....« ..•••••.. .hogsheads. 

Molasses barrels. 

Nuts • bushels. 

Tobacco .hogsheads. 

Tobacco boxes. 

Spirits casks. 

lather • rolls. 

Wool bales. 

Feathers do.. 

Cotton .do*. 

Broom-eom •. do . . 

.■•• •.•••«... «... .do.. . 



Hemp. - •• 

Ashes casks . 

Lumber. > • • • M feet. 

Staves , M. 

Rags pounds. 

Roofing paper. • rolls. 

Carriages number. 

Varnish ....barrels. 

Peppermint, oil of. .pounds. 

Merchandise .do. • 

Express goods packages. 

Sundries • .do. . 

Wash-boards .dozen. 



Total value 



Quantity. 



396,400 

147 

3,026 

7,125 

193 



64,441 

199 

675 

814 

4,856 

17,796 

678 

768 

3,119 

2,454 

36,200 

568 

325 

758 

388 

130 

1,216 

1,953 

21,934 

2,642 

2,839 

1,090 

394 

156 

725 

4,847 

2,134 

2,504 

31,453 

1,669 

23 

56 

400 

403,513 



9,081 

785 



Va&ie, 



119,820 

3,822 

45,390 

21,375 

5,190 

105,000 

19,332 

398 

337 

1,221 

29,136 

8,105 

4,068 

2,304 

37,428 

12,270 

9,050 

3,408 

S,275 

56,850 

5,432 

97 

42,560 

23,436 

186,439 

79,260 

212,925 

38,150 

3,940 

1,872 

10,675 

121,175 

32,011 

62,621 

943 

5,841 

2,300 

4,368 

500 

161,405 

917,500 

302,800 

2,355 



7,847,808 



No. 14. — ^District of Detroit. 



Port of entry, city of Detroit; latitude 42° 20', longitude 83© 02*? 
population in 1830, 2,222; in 1840, 9,102; in 1860, 21,019. 

The district of Detroit has the most extensive coast-line of any lake 
district not bordering on Lake Superior, and embraces all that portion 
of Michigan known as the Southern Peninsula. Commencing at the 
western line of Ohio, it extends thence northerly along Lake Erie, up 
the Detroit river, Lake St. Clair and St. Clair river, to Lake Huron, up 
that lake northwestwardly to the island and straits of Mackinaw, ana 
southwardly, with a little westing, to the Indiana linei not far from the 



COLONIAL' Jiko LAKB TRADE. 151 

bead of Lake Bfichigan — a distance, following the sinuosities of the 
chores, which do<'s not fall very far short of a thousand miles. 

It has fifteen portSvnone of which have any preset importance, with 
the exception of Detroit and Monroe ; although it is more than probable 
that within a frw 5*ear8 several of them may rival the most promising 
bnrbor.'« and ports in the West, There is, probably, no Stale in the 
Uniiin which surpasses Michigan in its commercial ad vantages, or which, 
if pmperly fnsttred and developed to the extent of its vast internal re- 
snurtt?#» it will not ultimately enwil or exceed in all the actual realities 
of profH'ess and prosperity. She has more natural harbors, involving 
but little exncns4> or labor to render them available in all seasons to all 
classic of snipping, than any other State bordering on the lakes. The 
extent of country enclosed within her extensive coast-line comprises 
39,JS5<3 square miles, some of it the best and most fertile land of the 
West, watered by numerous lakes and streams — many of the latter 
navigable, and very extensively used for lumbering purposes, which is 
tbe principal <x*cupation and interest of the inhabitants of the northern 
section of the State. 

Anaong these rivers are the Raisin, Huron, Rouge, Clinton, Black, 
Saginaw, Thunder Bay, Manistee, White, Maskegon, Grand, Kalama- 
aoiN and St« Joseph's — ^the six last named flowmg into Lake Michigan, 
moii tlie rest into Lake Erie, St. Clair, and Huron, and the Detroit and 
Si. Clair rivers. 

Altliough scarcelj' one third of the above area is under successful cul- 
tivati<rn, yet Michigan is already known, throughout the country, as a 
largf fxportcT of the choicest wheat and flour. It may indeed be said, 
without frar of contradiction, that for two seasons past the quality of 
Miobigrm wheat and flour has been, on the average, equal if not supe- 
ricw to that of any other State ; her exports of flour amountmg to 500,000 
barrel*, and of wheat to 1,000,000 bushels, in round numbers. 

Monnie, tbe easternmost of her ports, is a terminus of the southern 
Michigan railway on Lake Erie, about 40 miles south of Detroit, and is 
Mtualfd at the lower fidlsof the river Raisin, with a population of about 
5,< KNJ souls. There is a daily line of steamers connecting it with Buf- 
tilo, and the harbor is accessible for vessels of the larg(*st class. 

Unfortunately, no special returns, showing the commerce of Monroe, 
arr at hand. It is, however, a point rapidly increasing in importance, 
and must be eventually the depot for a very large amount of trade. 
The returns from the district of Detroit, which have bt»en received, show 
the coastwisi* business only of that port; so that Gibraltar and Trenton, 
OQ the Detroit river; Mount Clemens, on the Clinton river; Algonac, 
NVw^port, St- Clair, and Port Huron, on the river St. Clair; Sapinaw, 
<jn Saginaw bay ; Thunder Bay islands, in Lake Huron ; Grand Haven, 
8t. J«^»pbV, and New BuHido, on Lake Michigan, are all of them un- 
rvpn*«euted. 

Thi« is a circumstance deeply to be regretted on several accounts. 
Tbf;.v? arc the outlets of the pinncinal lumber regions of the wtslern 
Scme«, and supply the prairies of Illinois, as also St. Louis, and other 
iouthr-m cities, with nearly all their lumber and shingles. Ix^sidrs s<*nd- 
iDft vast quantities to Detroit, Sandusky, and Bufitdo. The St. Clair, 
SmadoAjf and Maskegoa lumber is as extensively kno^-n in the West 



152 ' ANBBBWS' RBTOkftT ON 

as being of superior qusdity, as is the pine of Canada to the eastward* 
Again, these portions of the district are so very rapidly increasing in im- 
portance that their influence will ere long cause itself to be most sensibly 
felt in the commercial cities of the West. Lastly^ there is still ^ very 
large tract of public land in various psuts of this district, in the hands of 
the government, for the most part well watered and well timbered* 
which sooner or later will become of immense value. 

In past years these government lands have been trespassed on, by 
persons engaged in the lumber trade, ,to a very ffreat extent ; but the 
confiscation of several vessels, with their cargoes, has, it is to be hoped, 
effectually put an end to these depredations. 

There is a very valuable business also carried on in the ports of Gib- 
raltar and Trenton, in the shipment of staves ; and at Port Huron, 
Newport, and St. Clair, on the St. Clair river, ship-building is prose- 
cutea to a considerable extent and to very decided advantage ; one of the 
largest steamers whidi navigates the laJces, of 1,600 tons burden, with 
an engine of 1,000 horse power, having been constructed on these waters. 

In this district are situated the St. Clair flats, the greatest natural 
obstacles to the free navigation of the great lakes, with the exception 
of the rapids on the lower St. Lawrence, the Falls of Niagara, and the 
Sault Ste. Marie. These shallows lie nearly at the head of Lake St. 
Clair, about twenty-five miles above the city of Detroit. The bottom 
is of soft mud, bearing a lofty and dense growth of wild rice, witli a 
very intricate, tortuous, and difficult channel winding over them, in 
many places so narrow that two vessels cannot pass them abreast ; nor 
is it possible to navigate them at night. 

There would be no difficulty whatever, and but a most trivial ex- 
pense, as compared with the advantages which would accrue from 
removing this barrier, in dredging out a straight channel of sufficient 
depth to admit vessels of the largest draught. Nor is there any work 
more urgently and reasonably solicited from Congress by tlie men of 
the West, nor any more entirely justified by every consideration of 
sound economy and political wisdom, or more certain to produce returns 
incalculable, than the opening the flats of the St. Clair, and carrying 
a canal around the Sault Ste. Marie. These improvements would at 
once perfect the most splendid and longest chain of internal navigation 
. in the world, extending above two thousand miles in length fi-ora Fond 
du Lac, at the head of Lake Superior, N. latitude 46^^ SC, W. longi- 
tude 920 20', to the mouth of the St. LawTence river, in 46^ 20^ N. lat- 
itude, 65o 35' W. longitude. 

It is not, in fact, loo much to say — so imperatively are these im- 
provements demanded by the increase of commerce, and the ahnost 
mcalculable mineral resources of northern Michigan — that within a few 
years they must and will be carried into effect, at whatever cost and 
expense of labor. 

Above St. Clair river the first port is Saginaw, situated at the outlet 
of a river of the same name into the great bay of Saginaw, largCT 
itself than a large European lake, setting up into the land southwesterly 
from Lake Huron. This baj, with the exception of Green bay, is the 
largest in all the West, but is rarely visited by any vessels except 
those trading directly thither, unless driven in by stress of weather, 



COUINIAL AND LAKB TBAJ>B. * 153 

finer it lies some coasiderable distance oiF the direct line from Buffido 
Ui Chicago. 

The port* boweveri imports all the supplies necessary for the lum* 
(taring popuiatino, and exports what may be stated, on a rough calcu- 
latKKit at 10,OUO,OUO feet of lumber annually. 

At the Thunder Bay islands little business is done beyond the ship- 
ment €»f ihe produce of the fisheries; and to what extent these are car- 
ried on in tnat locality, owing to the total absence of all returns, it is 
imp«»$:»ible even to hazard a conjecture. 

On Lake Michigan, the ports of Grand Haven, St. Joseph's, and 
Xrw Buflalo, are places of shipment of producct and importation of 
«uppU«>i( to a reasonable extent; while Grand Haven, Maskegon, and 
Manistee, are all great exporters of lumber. The commerce of the dis- 
trict, independent of Detroit, which is the principal depot for the com- 
nwtve of Michigan, cannot fall sliort of $8,000,000, and may exceed it, 
tiiough it is noc possible to state it with precision, for want of the need- 
ful retoms. 

Detroit, the port of entry of this district, and capital of the county, 
if a finely built and beautiful town, laid out with streets and buildings 
^bieh would lie considered worthy of note in any city, partly on an 
a<«>'ndiog slope from the river Detroit, partly on the level plateau some 
eighty tet above it. The city now contains about 27,000 inhabitants 
vbi> lack na luxury, convenience, comfort, or even display, which can 
!*• atiained in the oldest of the seaboard cities, thouah itself the growth 
\»tii of ye«*terday. It is situate 302 miles west 'of Buffalo, 322 east- 
r.«.rthf:i*t of Mackinaw, 687 west, by land, of New York, and 524 
r.'.lhwf?.! of Washington. 

Thf riv< r Detroit is, at this point, about three quarters of a mile in 
width, dott< d with Ix^'iutiful islands, and of depth sufficient for vessels 

• ■: .1 hiTizr dr:juj;hl of water. The shon^s on both sides are in a state 
« : i:nrden-hke cultivation; and, from the outlet of the river into Lake 
Er>i% to its oriirin at Lake Huron, resemble a continuous villnps with 
!.:!•• f»mi<, plfri-i.inl villus, groves, and gardens, and excellent roads, as 
i-i ih^ oIdt>t >cillenients. The soil is rich and fertile; the air salu- 
^'i»>4i<, ;ifjd thr climate far more ecjuable and pleasant at all seasons 
**. in t»n the s4*:il)oard. The regions around are particularly suited for 
•'•• rultivniion of grain, vciTciable^, and all kinds of fruit; many va- 
r.- •.}• .'i of the latter, which can be ruised only with creat care to the 
f I'Xw.iT'l^ as ih«» aprictit (nt example, and some of the finest plums, 
*:- 'Uif.;! h.-n» almost spontaneously. The waters teem with fish, and 
t •■ \\<Kifi<« antl wa-ites with game, which have recently become an 
:i:'..'i'- of iratfic to the ea-^tern cities in such enormous numbers as to 

• r. .it* n the i-xtinelion of the raee^and to call for the attention of the 
« • /.' fis tM lli«» due reirulation of the ira<le, as ref^ards tinu* and seas«)ti. 

li* rt'j iimI only the ohlrsl but the laryest town in the State, oeeupy- 
-' ^ it ( t'ti.m indirii; situation, enjoyinu all the advantaues which arise 
! .»ru a < I ntral ]K»«*ition, a mapnticent river, and a harbor of un>ur- 
|-.--. .J i-aiKu-llv and z^reuritv, Detroit has arrived at a stand of coin- 
a.- n il rfninrnce trom which it can now never be di>lodiied. 

Tr.<* Michigan Central Uailroad extinds to Chicago, via New Butfalo 



154 • AKDBBWS' RBPOBT ON 

• • 

and Michigan city, a distance of 258 miles ; and the Pontiac Railroad 
some 20 miles to Pontiac. There are also about 120 miles of plank 
roads running (rq/f. the city to several flourishinc towns, in various rich 
portions of the State, as Ypsilanti, Utica, and other thriving places. 

The commercial returns from Detroit are of the most conflicting 
character; but the following results are believed to approximate as 
nearly to a true estimate of the actual commerce of ihe port as can be 
attained: 

Imports, coastwise $15,416,377 

Exports, do 3,961,430 

Total 19,377,807 

Imports, foreign $98,541 

Exports, do 116,034 

Total J 213,665 



^591,482 
Add the estimated value of the commerce of the other 

ports of the district — say 8,000,000 

Total commerce of the district 27,591,482 



The tonnage of the port of Detroit alone was — 

Clearances, for 1851 2,611 tons 920,690 men 41,931 

Entrances, " " 2,682 " 905,646 " 41,546 



Total for 1861 6,193 " 1,826,336 " 83,477 

" " 1850 4,420 " 1,439,883 " 64,098 



Increase, 1851 773 " 386,453 « 19,379 



The entrances and clearances from the other ports cannot be reached* 
owing to the usual deficiency of returns from this region. 

In 1847, however, the business of the district was represented as 
follows, in the various ports, and by these some idea may be formed 
of their comparative value : 



OOLOmAI. AND LAKE TRASB. 



155 



PUm or port. 




Value of exports. 



|3,883 

1,139 

8 

12 

838 

265 

100 

58 

45 

159 

59 

14 

37 

168 



,318 
,476 
,425 
,000 
,917 
,068 
,738 
,250 
,702 
,400 
,320 
,772 
,820 
,711 



Value of importi. 



6,786,957 
6,991,827 



13,778,784 



14,020,559 

817,012 

66,000 



517,056 

220,000 
60,000 
45,000 
18,000 

100,000 
30,000 
20,000 
15,000 

123,200 



5,991,827 
1,000,000 



6,991,827 



AiK>tber great advantage will shortly accrue to Detroit from the 
• Tt^ninff of the Great Western railway, about to be constructed through 
C ruiada* which will bring it into direct communication with the New 
Y'Tk and other eastern routes; as well as from the completion of the 
Like ^^hore road. These will bring the city within twenty-four hours' 
/ umey of New York and the Atlantic ocean. 

*Surh are the giant strides with which the fortunes of the West, 
i: r«»uph energy and enterprise, are pressing on to the ascendant. 

TIm* enmUed and licensed tonnage of the Detroit district for 1851 
u .1* 40,320 tons, of which 21,944 were steam and 18,376 sail. 

Canadian trade in 1851. 

Duty collcrtcd. 

Imports* — In American vessels $35,855 $6,215 

In British vessc Is 62,685 16,819 

98'540 23,034 

Exports. — In American vessels 874,072 

In British vessels 40,960 

115,032 

Total imports and exports. — In American vessels 8109,927 

In British vessels 103,645 



213,572 



156 



AKDBBWS' BBPOET ON 



Tonnage. 

Inward — ^American, 2 steamers 389 tons. 

9sail 1,544 « 

1,923 

British, 294 steamers 49,081 " 

68san 7,300 " 

66,381 

Total tonnage 58,304 

Outward — ^American, 14 steamers 2,086 tcois. 

17 saU 1,668 " 

3,754 

British, 315 steamers 51,727 « 

67 sail ^. 5,546 « 

57,273 

• Total tonnage 59,027 

Imports coastwise into the port of Detroit during the year 1851, vnth their 

value. 



Articles. 



Merchandise ...••• tons* • • . 

Coal do.... 

Pi^ iron • .do. . . . 

High wines barrels. . . . 

Hogs .•••.. number. .. . 

Wool bales. . . . 

Barley bushels. . . . 

Marble pairs. .. . 

Fish barrels. . . . 

Flour do 



Water-lime. ••.... do. . . 

Starch •«.. boxes. 

Powder .1 barrels. 

Whiskej do. . . 

Salt do. . . 



Lard • .kegs. 

Cut stone feet. 

Building stone cords. 

Glass boxes. 

Staves • .thousand. 

Lumber thousand feet. 

Horses .number. 

Paper ., .reams. 

Sheep .number. 

Hides do... 

Wheat bushels. 

Fruit trees bundles. 

Plaster • . .barrels. 

Do. .(crude) tons. 

Sugar hogsheads. 

Castings pounds. 

Iron bars and bundles. 

Molasses \ barrels. 

Oil do... 



. . . 
. . . 
. . . 
. . . 
. . . 
. * • 

. . . 



. . « 

. . . 

• a . 

. . . 

* . . 



Quantity. 



18,000 

30,106 

1,130 

800 

220 

81 

2,120 

831 
4,119 
1,827 
2,117 

101 

721 

2,301 

40,207 

3,180 

2,000 

421 
5,011 

331 
1,190 

237 
1,831 

913 
1,141 
3,753 

900 
7,900 
1,340 

350 

910,000 

24,304 

403 

500 



Value. 



il4,500,00O 
150,530 

28,000 
8,000 
1,320 
4,050 
848 
8,310 

20,594 

5,938 

2,117 

250 

14,840 
8,408 

40,207 

15,582 

800 

4,210 

10,023 
6,620 

11,900 
9,480 
3,663 
2,393 
2,283 
2,450 

18,000 
7,900 
6,700 

35,000 

36,400 

121,530 

6,045 

15,000 



COLONIAL AKD LAKB TSADB. 



157 



tmporU uUo the port qf^ Detroit during the year 1851 — Continued* 



Artlc]«f. 



rolls. 

Pork ••... barrels* 

Codfish pounds. 

lUHi • • cords. 






FTsili. 



iron. 



>..keffs. 
.barrels, 
. . .ban. 
.bags. 



.pounds, 
•barrels. 



80l - 

Ksrsa 

( c^ 

r«.dM ••••••• ban. 

To/^^tro ...M.. hotheads. 

T«« • chests. 

i>u&e potash tons. 

Vr^m ,. •• bushels. 

F'- vflSL .•••-• number. 



W 



!rs ...thousands. 

• number. 

.••.•••.• .gallons. 



• « 

. a 



. « 



ToUl. 



Quantity. 



1,100 

620 

7,110 

900 

18,300 

1,100 

8,340 

18,700 

10,000 

100 

1,140 

61 

610 

211 

4,500 

3,300 

240 

43 

58,480 



Value. 



422,000 

9,300 

264 

2,700 
73,200> 

2,200 
93,074 

2,500 

700 

300 

14,592 

6,100 
12,200 
12,661 

1,800 

33,000 

240 

4,300 

5,848 



15,416,377 



Ejjforts coastwise Jram the port of Detroit during the year 1851, tvith their 

estimated value. 



Articles. 



I Quantity. 



r j^r • barrels. 

1 .»brr ••. • ••••.thousand feet. 

\% 'ii-at... ••• •••• bushels. 

h" ngl#«. ..•• thousands. 

I.ttiis do. . . 



.1 



.1 



W irj .. • bales. 

Purk. •••••. •• barrels. 

y ."IB. ••••••.••••• •.*•••• .bales. 

) -a •-..••- half barrels. 

fl .«€ .••••••••••- number. 

«»•!«....•-•••••••••••• •••••••• bunhcl 



:i 
.1 



s. 



hw^ ..•••• ••••••- •• barrels. 

^*./«'h. ••• •••••••• caskn. 

lia<B« •• •••• pouiidtf. 

l.^*ibrr .« • rolls. 

Ra^. ..••- ••..••••••••• tons. 

i^i vratos ••.••••-.••••.••••«. boxes. 

i- \l - tons. 

^t !«.•••••••••••• • • k rfTB . 

hij ••• ., • ..bundles. . 

S-.««ipp -••••- ••• •.nuiiilwr. 

f < inm - ton*. 

<M • • barrelt. 

1-%MAtrr>^ .do..^ 

Wat#r-liflM •••••• barrels. 

' of*. •••••••••••.•• •••••••••.*••••..•. .buNhrlt. 

^ «'r»-tMaaJ • ••••••• barrels. 

s^^wmm «.,••• • •• tbou«and. 

%«1m« • •••••••••• ••••••• xanks. 



.1 




460,325 

30,717 

^^7,719 

1:2,944 

H,445 

2,977 

1,7U4 

420 

4,150 

1,4^4 

4H,.S46 

5fW 

24 S 

e,(HK) 

5*J9 

61 

51 

96U 

34 

1,231 

413 

343 

l.'i.S 

1,479 

170 

378,070 

1.667 

10.856 

2.207 

2,783 

7,336 

693 



Value. 



11,453,596 

245,736 

618,403 

25, hHH 

21,102 

178,620 

20,448 

42,000 

I2,4jO 

2,9«i8 

14,5G3 

4,544 

12,400 

640 

26,4.'i0 

3,CU» 

4, MM) 

136 

3,693 

.MK) 

10,290 

3,240 

4,437 

170 

151. 2:w 

4.9t^ 

217,120 

55,175 

27,830 

43,996 

4,a51 



156 



Inwar<i Amcric; 



British, 



loXXTT. 



Total to: 
British, ' 



r • -I I I 

:: i\-2 



Impcyrts 



Total I 



coastvxisc r 



Ck>a.l • - -•-••' 

Pigr irori 

HigK -whines . 
Hog-si .-••••• 

"VVool- • • • • •• 

Ba.rlov- - • ••« 
]VlsLX*l>le • . . • • 
Fisli- . - 



'^V o-^e r-lime. 

StetircH 

F^o'W'cler. ... 

Sa.lt: 



(t.one 

;^«jLil<iuig Btonc 
la,8S.. 

(S 

.nnber 

Ho»-»os 



• • • • • ■ 



lHi<ies 

"VNTlicat 

uiit; trees. 
la.8tcr. . . . 

iu£rsi.r 

irigs.. . 
X 7*0 in. « •>.... 
.^^olasses.. . 



^ • a • • • I 



COLONIAL AND LAXB TSADB. 



159 



'#«v%/ 4H freight carried aver the Michiffan Central Railroad during the 
yritr ending December 31, 1851, in tons and thousandths. 




■I »• »«^M 17 

i< 

• >« ptr ^mM 14.&1& 

. VMIita.9*rM4 , M 

.-a.a^WVA 9,N» 



1,04«.S1«18, 

T.TT» 
W.2h» 
17.&1S 

6.4M)0 

1.7V»» 

47.708 
14.490 

9.8M, 
1«H.«60 

8.M9 

81S e»s 

69.218 

9,ft7».000. 

157.518 

n.MM» 

S4.(iOi) 

85.A4)i) 

3.775 



14.090 

.9*^9 

18.589 

94.597 

17.686 

91.»$<i 

96.4^ 

11.474 

146.999 

S.948 

810.611 

109.931 

VS4.5H*i 

688.868 

9.086 

445.41t) 

8.065 

48.125 

22.87H 

658.449 

87H.876 

054.4.32 

MM. 491 

289. Kmh 

19.541 

407.450 

7.779 

149.971 

199.888 

99.176 

1«5 

12.8fN) 

48.028 

.5<Mi 

416.176 

180.750 

8.519 

821.646 

527. NHs 

STO.wm 

162.916 

96 MiO 

62.Nn> 

85.5tK> 

87.850 



914.066 

949.100 

886.966 

184.817 

16.66T 

85.960 

750.418 

917.758 

148.417 

7,809.881 

48.686 

148.797 

110.438 

Sll.lU 

121.661 

50,068.794 

9,2S9.948 

16.8ti 

818.048 

58.648 

1,898.775 

111.609 

1,679.891 

846.000 

4,069.461 

850.607 

979.806 

19.511 

15,169.489 

1,109.410 

910.091 

1,258.466 

888.686 

108.579 

819.800 

1,868.749 

9,480.940 

441.800 

588.100 

601.808 

17,598 946 

660.868 

9,870.000 

8.761.141 

462.500 

161.500 

669 900 

87.675 



H,041.8n{ 7, 104.8^9 91, 145. 766 92. t»26. 754 15,415.262 8^,949. 016 



129, 807. 789 



168 



ANDREWS REPORT ON 



Exports from the port of Detroit during the year 1851 — Continued. 



Articles. 



Salt barrels. 

Potatoes • . • .bushels. 

Whiskey barrels. 

Beans r do... 



• * 



Hogs • mumber. 

Merchandise packages. 

Ale ••..... barrels. 

Brick •••..•.•••.•...••••• thousand. 

Clover seed.. barrels. 

Malt bushels. 

Copper .• ••••• .tons. 

Cattle • head. 

Butter • • • .kegs. 

Horses .head. 

Bark • • cords. 

Wash-boards #• • dozen. 

Ice • tons. 

JBroom-com. • •••• .bales. 

Apples.. . • barrels. 

Total • 









Quantity. 



281 

3,518 

1,359 

179 

2,375 

12,090 

70 

893 

129' 

150 

277 

256 

1,106 

85 

135 

50 

1,510 

135 

4,888 



Value. 



#281 

1,055 

10,872 

358 

23,750 

453,300 

420 

1,179 

2,580 

172 

110,800 

7,680 

13,212 

5,100 

405 

300 

7,550 

1,350 

4,888 

3,961,430 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TBADE. 



159 



&fiumrni of frt\g)it carried over the Michigan Central Railroad during the 
%jf:ar ending December 31, 1851, tn tons and thousandths. 



An*'!**. 



"S 

V 

o 



* - 

• ♦• • * ;*r b^thrl 

I \ • • *• f cr 

!•.••• • i«r Imsitrl. ... , 






1.27.^! 
1W> 7. 



T 

29 



91ft 
475 



. ' • . * < prr t4;< 

I* --» ••• •« ^r bu*h^l 

• t "s.* *,' r*» !>•« per »>M 

• ••• I 

• 'Au ■Tntt,\»tlt* pcfbbl...: 1««.9.^% 

• 4, , I 

:- J*'.- *..*.*!!..*!!!..*.*.' 9 (^\ 

f ' :.• »• ^.^f »-*.| 4f,1*^.* W4 

» .-' »f>» *F irwTtrr { t>'i '»4'» 

• •*•»-! ". Tcr »*<*I ft S»'f| 

■ •' ♦.-•. ' . f. »i*l j*,uiof«..., >ri4 fxi'i; 
» . . t ' ^•- -. I r^i.T*! 

i« » #^. ..i-. .U. per bbl.. .. l.^TC.W.'i 

- • I i »> ** « I 

1.176 
«B7.&M 



:• .«^ji.&.u 

'-►• ts •**•• P** 'o*»* 






. .. -.• •.« tMrtuf.fj j l,W97 6771 

r. ♦.»• I I 

. . .r«b ; W.ltfll 

'. -. I « Wl' 

• -* It. ►*.• , !!•■» IM. per bbl .1 J»"l »%»| 
■1 ■ t ' i/i** 'n| 

^. • r^..« prr bbl T.O«»»j 

• '■• I ?►""'* 

• T « t* ttw perM n.t-«t 

% ; 4«v^ 44't 

« .» 4i>i »- p#T l.a»h«>l ... I4,f i^ 117 
» >«'f .'• **<• p«r »>^4 . . , M.776 

» •■ i ••■*<•• «I»* r f«»r(l, 

r '^ •• 1 *• ' ►r.k . . .. 8..V«* •-"» 
^ .!'••• • •■'»►• |*T J.<»J, 4:^6 .>"»; 

M r«^. ■ •••it- |«r*«»il I •« 'Wfi 

M /. ,- - »• j-"»-*'l , 44«» •'"» 

r , 1» »• ;*r ►-%.! .*•", 



86 
1 

85 

9 

4Si 
6 
1 



9 

8f. 
8^7 

18 

2 

8 

18 

9i> 

67 

1,877 

4€ 

94 



a 

« 

3 



O 



a 

2 



. 



I a 

^4 



3 

o 
H 



19 

aw 

12<) 

« 

6M 

lil 

7,7T5 

82 

1 

107 

11 



M6 

670 

816 
187 
M9 

HM 
72^ 

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836.966 

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759.418 

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110.43 

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60,061.794 

9,2s2.948 

16.869 

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58.648 

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111.609 

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846.04IO 

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19 541 

15,152.489 

1,109.410 

910.091 

1,25H 465 

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8,761.141 

462 500 

161.500 

5«2 21 ^) 

87 675 



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' I 'I 



160 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

No. I5.-7-D1STRICT OP MlCHILIMACKINAC. 

Port of entry, Mackinaw ; latitude 45^ 51', longitude 84° 35' ; popu- 
lation in 1850, 3,598. 

This, which is the most northerly of the lake districts, as well as the 
most extensive of them all, embraces that portion of the American 
coast on the western shore of Lake Michigan, from Sheboy^n, Wis- 
consin, 430 41' north latitude, 88° 01' west longitude, northward, uieluding 
Manitowoc, Two Rivers, Green Bay, Lake Winnebago, with all its ports, 
in Wisconsin — embraces Little Bay Noquet, Big Bay Noquet ; the Fox, 
Manitou, and Beaver islands; the coast on the straits of Mackinaw; the 
St. Mary's river to the Sault ; thence west along the south shore of 
Lake Superior to Montreal river — all in the State of Michigan — ^and 
continues thence along the Wisconsin shore to the western extremity of 
the lake at Fond du Lac; whence it proceeds northeasterly along the 
shore of the Minnesota Territory to Port Charlotte, on the dividing line 
between the United States and the British possessions. The entire 
length of this coast-line (considerably exceeds 1,300 miles, following the 
sinuosities of the shore ; and from the isolated situation of many portions 
of the district, it has been found impossible to obtain full or satisfactory 
returns. 

The country bordering upon the great length of coast in this district 
was partially explored, and even mapped, with sufficient accuracy, 
more than two centuries ago, by the French Jesuits — ^those indefatigable 
discoverers and civilizers, and pioneer colonists of the mighty West ; 
and from that period it has been at all times more or less frequently 
visited by missionaries, traders, trappers and hunters, until the pro* 
sent day, when a systematic and steady colonization may be said to 
be fairly established, together with a practical and successful develop- 
ment of its resources, by the cultivation of its productive lands, the 
prosecution of its fisheries, and the exploitation of its forests and its 
mines. Notwithstanding all this, there is much ground for the belief 
that the influence which it is one day destined to exercise on the com- 
mercial affairs of this continent, though it may be appreciated by a few 
far-reaching ihinds, is little forseen or understood oy the people at 
large. 

The grounds existing for this confident expectation are to be found 
in the following peculiar, and in some degree singular, features of this 
district : 

First, the unequalled facilities which it possesses for navigation, 
afforded by its numerous lakes, bays and rivers, through which, and 
their artificial improvements, it has ready access to both the St. Lawrence 
and Mississippi, from which, by the various internal chains of canal 
and railroad, it has easy communications to almost every important 
market along the vast seaboard stretching from the Balize to the straits 
of Bellcisle. 

Secondly, the unbounded productiveness of its fisheries, which may 
be, and are, it might be said, advantageously prosecuted through the 
entire length of its waters. 

Thirdly, the immense resources it possesses in the magnificent forests 
of pine which border all the southern portions of its coasts, and are 



COLONIAL AND LAKE TRADE. 161 

capable of supplying lumber for the entire consumption of the North- 
west 

And, fourthly, the incalculable wealth of the mineral regions of Lake 
SujKTior. 

Thrse fimr influences — apart from any agricultural resources, which, 
un<kT tho stimulus of demand arising from the development of the 
turnjfr, arc constantly and steadily on the increase — are already felt 
surrly to a degree which has commanded the attention of those engaged 
ill (ommercial pursuits, and in fact of the government itself. 

E\ery succet*ding year fresh ports are springing into existence at 
difll'rcnt points — all imperativelj' demanding aid lor the construction of 
light-hou«(*s, and piers, and other facilities for navigation ; and all as 
imperatively demande<l by the requirements of a commerce growing 
5:*inlaiii*ously — not forced into life by any fictitious stimuhinls of specu- 
bti«»n — with a rapidity and steadiness hitherto unknown in the com- 
tnrrcial history of the world. 

At the southern extremity of this district is Manitowoc, alK)ut thirty- 
Eve niile> north from Sheboygan, on the Michigan shore — a port which, 
almost unknown three years ago, has now, including the country in 
which it stands, a population of 5,000 inhabitants, and a trade, though 
htihertd almost entirely overlooked, already exceeding that of Chicago 
fi>r liSJ9, as n*gards exports, although th(* imports are necessarily 
sncnelhing inferior, owing to the smaller extent of country at pn^sent 
I<ir»king lf> Manitowoc for its supplies. 
The exports are principally lumber, laths, pickets, ashes, 

*hingh s, furs, wood, white-fish, &c., &c., to the value of $77,122 

The ifnjKirts consist of merchandise, as salt, flour, pork, beef, 

rrje;.l, butter, lard, &c., to the value <if 106,721 



Making a total of - 183,843 

Entrances, 788 ; tonnage, 227,940. 

A few miles north of Manitowoc is the? port of Two Rivers — also in 
Wi«.-onsin — well situated for lake trade. 

Both these new ports re(|uire appropriations tor light-houses imd 
pif-r*. 

Th« country adjacent to Two Rivers is finely timbered, and furnishes 
larffe <|uantities of lumber for ex()ort, lis also shingles, ashes, furs, &c. ; 
but, wbeiMver the land shall be cleared, its t»xporis will consist of grain, 
m^iril, animals, and other agricultural produce, such us is fuinished by the 
Uofl of Wisconsin generally. So th:it, in a few years, the conmierce 
of* i\a'M* two p>rts may be exjK'cted to und«Tgo an entire revolution— 
U'couim^, from exporters of lumlx r niul importers of ngricultural sup- 
pVi* -», rx(Mirters of the produce of the soil, and imjM>rlers of assorted 
ttiit u haudise and luxuries. 

Tr»f busine>s of Two Rivers will be confined to the |>enin>ula east of 
(fftttk Uay« and Lake Winnebago, and Fox river ; since that route, 
bvififf more direct, and aflording extraordinary facililit*s ll)r wnter trans- 
partutmn, will undoubtedly prevent any trade* west of it fiom pa^sing 
to the Lake shore eastward. The local busini ss, however, necessarily 

11 



162 ANDREWS' REPORT ON 

flowing to these points on the shore, will keep up, for all time, an active 
and advantageous trade at them. 

The port of Two Rivers has never before reported its commerce fully, 
but the following results show an excellent commencement : 

Imports in 1851 $115,000 

Exports in 1851 112,763 

Total 227,763 

Of the imports there were for local purposes $42,585 

Ditto for home consumption L 72,424 

Total 115,009 

In 1847, the imports at this port were valued at $53,747. 

Of the exports there were — Products of the forest $90,072 

Fisheries 16,198 

Domestic manufactures 6,493 



112,763 



Entrances, 822 steani; 192 sail; making a total of 1,014 arrivals 
during the season. 

The next port claiming the attention of the commercial classes is 
in fact the most important in the district — Green Bay — situated at the 
southwestern extremity or head of the great basin of the same name, 
and the outlet of the Fox river. 

This port, indeed, bids fair to rival Chicago, as the lake depot for all 
that most important branch of the lake trade, which has its origin on the 
borders of the upper Mississippi. The work known as the Fox river 
improvement is now nearly completed, connecting the Mississippi with 
the great lakes, by steam navigation. This work has so greatly iai- 
proved the navigation of the Fox river, flowing from Lake Winnebago 
into Green Bay, as to admit the ascent of small steamers to the for- 
mer ; whence, by a further improvement of the Fox river, and a canal 
connecting it with the Wisconsin river, the passage is free to the Mis- 
sissippi, entrance to which is had about two miles below Fort Craw- 
ford. From this point steamers can navigate the Mississippi upward or 
downward, at option, as occasions may require. 

This is the first water route which has been opened connedting the 
lake, with the Mississippi, navigable by steam power; and what the 
practical result of its operation may be, is yet in the bosom of the 
tuture. 

Fort Crawford is situated 487 miles above St. Louis ; 257 above 
Burlington, Iowa ; 80 above Galena, Illinois ; 60 above Dubuque, 
Iowa ; 5 below Prairie du Chien ; 243 below St. Paul's, Minnesota 
Territory ; and 255 below the Falls of St. Anthony. 

The distance from Green Bay to the mouth of the Wisconsin is about 
220 miles, through the richest valley of Wisconsin ; by this route, there- 
ore there is an uninterrupted steam communication from Buffalo, 



COLONIAL AND LAKE TRADE. 163 

Oflwrsvn aiul Ogdensburg, or the Canadian cities, and the mouth of the 
St. LawTonce, to St. Louis, New Orleans, and the Balize. 

Thii is certainly indicative of a new era in the practice of inland 
st«*:ini navigation ; as it will open at once an easy and direct commu- 
nicati<»n btUween New York and the new States of Wisconsin, Iowa, 
and tl*e Minn(*sota Territory, rendering any of the above-named points 
oci iIm* Mississippi easier of access by way of the hikes than St. Louis 
it5»*lil This is a fact which cannot be overlooked by immigrants, and 
wiU, llierelore, bring the public lands of those new States and Terri- 
lonVs advantagrously into the market at no distant day. This line of 
ci>mmunication also brings the lead mines of Galena nearer by a hun- 
dred miles to the lakes, tlian to St. Louis ; and to it ultimately all the 
i idtii*u wealth of the upper Mississippi valley, incalculable in its amount 
ar-d apparently inexhaustible, must become tributary — inasmuch as for 
the transmission of heavy freight and produce this is the easiest and 
m»>:il diriH.'t, and therefore, of course, the cheapest channel. Along the 
euAlem portion of this route across the State of Wisconsin, there have 
aln.*ady sprung up several promising ports on Lake Winnebago and Fox 
river ; among them Oshkosh, Neenah, Menasha, Du Pere, and Fond 
du Lac, all well situated* with good harbor facilities, and rich agri- 
cultural regions circumjacent. The public lands are in rapid progress 
ot M lection and settlement, whether oy warrants or regular entry in the 
land offices, while plank roads are traversing tl^ country in all direc- 
ti«ins« 

Green Bay, which has for several years been a great depot for fish 
and lumber, is now rapidly becoming the great commercial depot for 
llie internal trade of Wisconsin, and during the season of 1851 there 
was a line of steamers regularly plying between this point and BufTalo. 
The a>mpletion of the Fox river improvement will, tiowevcr, demand 
OQOch greater facilities, henceforth, than have ever before been brought 
into requisition. No details of the business at Green Bay for the season 
c#f ls5I have been received, but it is notorious that the commerce of 
this place has advanced incalculably withir) the year ; and in the ab* 
«rocr of accurate iutbrmation, it may be fairly assumed as follows : 

Imports $2,000,000 

Exports 1,000,000 

Total 3,000,000 

This estimate of imports may , at first view, appear too large; but, 
when it is remembered that the country, in thereairand around, iscora- 
pamtively new, and unable, as yet, to export anything very material, 
and that tbc tide of emigration, constantly and regularly (K)uring in, de- 
nuinds a great quantity of supplies of all kinds tor subsistence, l()r which 
it mu»l be temporarily in arrear utitil the land shall l)e cleared, culti- 
vatrd, and bmught up to the standard which shall constitute it an ex- 
pcming in lieu of an importing region, this opinion will Im* revet sed. 

In oinsideratioii of tne great and still growing im|M>rtaiice of Green 
Bay, and the* remoteness of its situation firoin Michiliniackinac, it 
migfat properly be* mndv n port of entry, with the shores of Winnebago, 



164 Andrews' report on* 

Green Bay, and the lake coast, from the straits of Mackinaw to Mani* 
towoc, constituting a new district. 

Debouching into Green Bay, flow from the northward the rivers 
Oconto, Peshtego, and Menomonee — the latter a large stream, and for- 
merly, for some distance, the frontier line between the States of Michigan 
and Wisconsin. On it are situated several saw-mills for the cutimg of 
lumber for the Chicago market. The source of this river is bul a tew 
miles distant from the shore of Lake Superior, on the southern water- 
shed of the northern peninsula of Michigan. Its course is about two 
hundred miles in length to its outlet, in which space it has a descent of 
1,049 feet, and is emphatically a river of cataracts and rapids, bring- 
ing down a vast volume of water, and occasionally spreading to a 
width of 600 feet. It can, therefore, be made available lo any extent 
for water-power / though its navigation will be, in all times, limited to 
canoeing. 

The lower course of the Menomonee, toward its mouth, is bordered 
by tracts of heavily timbered pine-lands, the produce of which is now 
growing into brisk demand in the neighboring lumber markets. 

Below the Menomonee, to the northeast, the White Fish, Escanaba, 
and Fort rivers, discharge their waters into the Little Bay dc Noquet. 
They are also fringed along their skirts by extensive pine forests, from 
which much lumber is annually manufactured. 

The Monistique falls i§|to Elizabeth bay, farther to the north. The 

{)rincipal business carried on upon the islands of Lake Michigan, be- 
onging to this district, is fishing and wood-chopping ; steamers and 
propellers frequently stopping at them to wood, and obtain supplies of 
fish, for the latter of wtnch groceries, fruit, &c., are given in direct 
barter. The climate is genial and the soil productive ; but the present 
inhabitants — being principally Indians and half-breeds, or fishermen, 
who have few tastes except for fishing and hunting — contrive lo subsist 
themselves principally by those employments, and the cultivation of 
small patches of corn and potatoes. 

The North and South Manitous have good harbors for the shelter of 
vessels, as well as the Foxes and Beavers. On the latter group there 
is a settlement of Mormons ; but so far as civilization, refinement, and 
the tilling ot the soil are concerned, they .are in no wise superior to the 
neighboring tribes of savages. 

Mackinac island, in the straits of Mackinac, which connect Lakes 
Huron and Michigan, is an old missionary settlement and military post, 
first established above two centuries ago by the French Jesuits, with 
that admirable forecast and political wisdom which they displayed in 
the selection of all their posts. It is, in fact, as to natural military 
strength, the Gibraltar of the lakes, and might easily be rendered almost 
impregnable. The present fort, however, is a blunder, and could not 
be defended for half an hour, being commanded by an almost unassail- 
able height within half a mile in its rear, from which, in effect, at the 
commencement of the war of 1812, it was threatened with two or three 
light guns, dragged up the reverse during the night, by a handful of 
Indians and British, and, being unable to offer any resistance, was re- 
duced^ to an immediate surrender. 

It was for a long time an important depot of the American Fur Com- 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 165 

panVf and U still maintained as a military station by the United States^ 
and u»<h1 as the* rendezvous of the various Indian tribes, which resor^ 
thillier annually to rereive their government payments. 

Mackinac is now a place of considerable traffic, the principal ex- 
p<#rt5 l»cin>; fish and furs, the latter becoming anntkallv more and more 
scarce; and the imports, blankets, ready-made clotliing, fishermen's 
supplies, and trinkets lor the Indians, who rarely carry away much of 
llifir re-ceipts in money. 

Tiji.'i (M)mt is distant from Chicago 340 miles ; from Buffalo al)Out 
7UU by wat(*r ; and from the Sault tSte. Marie 120. 

No returns lor its coastwise commerce are at hand fi)r 1851. 

lu Cana<lian imports for 1851 were $3,967 

Do. do. 1850 3,261 

Increase on 1851 ^ 706 

Duties collected in 1851 *818 

Do. dcK 1850 663 

Increase on 1851 165 



Sault Str. Marie is situated on St. Mary's river, the outlet of Lake 
Superior, at al)out 120 miles from Mackinac, 405 from Detroit, and 
921 from Washington. It is pleasandy situated on the west side of the 
•traits, and at the i<)ot of the rapids, whence its name. These rapids 
are abrnit three quarters of a mdc long, at about twenty miles below 
Lake Superior, with a fall of about twenty-one feet. The river St» 
Manx's is, in all, from Lake SupcTic^^ to Huron, about sixty miles in 
leni;th, flowing first a few degrees north of east, then liending abruptly 
and flowing a few degrees east of south. " Through its whole course 
it occupies the Une of junction between the igneous and detrital rocks, 
forcibly illustrating to what extent the physical features of a country 
are influenced by its geological structure." Between Mackinac and the 
Sault Su'. Marie there are innum'erable gn)ups of small islnnds, prin- 
cipally near the northern shore of Lake Huron and the mouth of the 
Sc, Mary's, their number having been estimated at thirty thousand. 

Nrme of these are as yet of any commercial importiuice, unless it be 
St. Josi'ph's, which is beginning to export grain and live-stock. 

Hitherto the Sault Ste. Marie has In-vn the he«'id of lake Utivigation, 
in cunsequence of the interru|)tion caused by the rapids at this iM>iiit. 

When it is considered that the distance to Ik* overcome d(K*s not ex- 
ceed our mile, with a lift 22 leet, and that the banks of the river nowhere 
riM' to aliove twenty feet above the water line, and are eonipc»scd of 
•fifU friable nnrk, imlx^dded in easy soil, it is astonishins; tliat a ship 
canal has not lic<*n o|M'ued long ag(» across this trivial |>ortauL — trivial 
in regard to the labor and expanse of rendering it passable ; the cost 
dcjC twiog estimated as likely to jro beyond a few nundred thousand 
doUafi — which would open to the American lake marine* th(* navi^a- 
tioQ of the finest lake in the worUl, furnishing and re(|uirini{ all articles 
necessary to buihl up and maintain a lari^e and pros|H*rous tradt\ 

111 w) fitber respect, however, is this obstacle slight or trivial ; for 



166 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

everything required for the facilitation of the vast, numerous and wealthy- 
iron and copper mines of Superior, including machinery of enormous 
weight, and supplies and forage for the men and live-stock employed — 
nor this only, but the huge blocks of native copper and heavy ore re- 
turning down this route — must all be transported overland at extraordi- 
nary aifficulty and expense. Even large vessels, several in number 
annually, are transported over this portage by means of ways and horse- 
power ; nor is it m the least extravagant to say, that the aggregate 
amount of money thus unnecessarily expended year after year, without 
any permanent result, would, if collected for a few seasons, defray not 
only the interest, but the prime cost of this most necessary work. 

" Efforts have been made, and will doubtless be renewed," says the 
report of Messrs. Foster and Whitney, on the copper regions of Lake 
Superior, **to induce the government to construct a canal around these 
rapids, and thus connect the con»merce of Lake Superior with those of 
the lower lakes. The mere construction of locks is not, however, all 
that is required. It will be necessary to extend a pier into the river 
above the rapids, to protect the work and insure an entrance to the 
locks. This pier will be exposed to heavy currents, and at times to 
large accumulations of ice, and must be constructed of the firmest 
materials and strongly protefcted." 

Materials of the best quality can be easily obtained, as the report 
ffoes to show, from Scovill's Point, on the Isle Royale, or the Huron 
islands, for the completion of the works, which would not, it is believed, 
at any rate exceed half a million of dollars. 

The effect of the removal of this untoward obstacle — which deters a 
large, useful, and healthy population from settling in this region — 
keeps the mineral lands out of the market, and in a very great measure 
debars the itxflux of mineral wealth, which could not be otherwise shut 
out — ^would be to give a general stimulus to trade, and an infusion of 
vigor, activity and spirit to the whole movement of the country, with 
a general increase to the national wealth, entirely beyond the reach of 
calculation. 

It were, therefore, undoubtedlj'' a wise and prudent policy, founded 
on the experience of all ages, and in nowise sfivoring of rash or specu- 
lative legislation, to disburse the small comparative amount necessary 
at once to render this vast addition to the national wealth, commerce, 
and maririe, available. 

It is clejuly impossible that young and necessarily poor States — as 
all new States unavoidably must be, until their lands are rendered 
capable of producing, jtnd their mines ready for exploitation— can con- 
struct such works at their own expense ; and they must necessarily be 
raised by aid from government, or be left undone, from want of aid, to 
the great detriment of the community. 

Another though inferior consideration is this — that in case nothing is 
done by the United States government, a canal will undoubtedly be 
cut, even with the disadvantage of a ten-fold expense, through the hard 
igneous rocks on the British shore, by the Canadian government, which 
never lacks energy or enterprise when channels of commercial ad- 
vantage are to be opened or secured to itself. And the result of this 
would be the diversion from the citizens of the United States of the 



COXX>NIAL AND LAKE TRADE. 167 

lar^r sums payable, ia the way of tolls, on a work ten times more ex- 
pensive than would be requisite on the American side. 

The biHiness of the Lake Superior country for 1851 is estimated as 
fiilltiws, for ihe articles which crossed the portage at the Sault : 

Im|M>rts, 100,000 barrels bulk ; in which are included 2,000 bundles 
prr^sfd hay ; 20,000 bushels of oats and other kinds of grain ; provi- 
5i^*fi«, <lry gfK)ds, groceries, general supplies, and five mining engines ; 
fi)fnung an agp:regate estimated value ot $1,000,000. ^ 

Thf exjK>ris passipg around the rapids, for the same season, are as 
iillow s : 

l.HM) tons of copper, at »350 3630,000 

54H) tons of iron blcx)m3, at $50 25,000 

4Mn\ barrels fish, at $5 20,000 

The imports arc about 40,000 barrels bulk in excess of the imports 
of 1850. The cost of transportation on the above one hundred 
ttjousaiid barrels bulk was an average of absut nine shillings a barrel 
from Detroit, or a gross sum of $112,000 for the transportation of 
l(K.h<KK> barrels for a distance of 500 miles, all by water, with the 
exc«*ption of one mile. The opening of a ship canal at this point 
would undoubtedly reduce this cost by two-thirds within three years ; 
sod within six years the actual savings would defray the whole a>st of 
cufii^t ruction. 

Above the Sault is the whole coast of Lake Superior, awaiting only 
free CDmmuuication with the lakes below to send forth the rich mineral 
trea^un^s of that region in exchange for the manufactures and merchan- 
dij(^ of the east* 

The lake is 355 miles in length, having an American coast to the 
rxtf-nl of not much less than 900 miles. The area of the lake is 
32,<MX) square miles ; its greatest breadth from Grand Islund to Nee- 
pigiiii b'ly is 160 miles, and its mean depth of water 900 feet, with 
an i-lfvalion of 627 (vri above the level of the sea, and 49 feet above 
tbr* wat<Ts of Huron and Michigan. The water is beautifully clear and 
transparent, and alxmnds with the most delicious fresh-water fish, the 
Savor an<l richness of which infinitelv exceed those of the lower lakes, 
fr> that ihf*y will sdways command a hi*;her price in the market. One 
»|K*cifH, the siskawit, has only to be known in the New York and east- 
eni mirkets in order to surn^rsede all varieties of sea-fish, for uncjues- 
tiocuibly none approach it m succulence and flavor. 

Thi» lak#» is led by alK)ut ei^htv streams, none of ihetn naviijable, 
cxcTpt for eaniK's, owing to the falls and rapids with which they 
aliouud. Tlu'more prominent of these rivers, nowirjir thnnmh Amen* 
can It rriiory, are the Montreal, Bla(*k, Pres(]ue Isle, Oiit(>iiai;«>n, Eagle, 
Little Montreal, Stursieon, Huron, Dead, Carp, Chcxolate, La Prairie, 
Tw<>-lK»:irted, and Tequamen(»n. The Ontonagon and Sturgi-on are 
iIk' Iargf!»t and most im[)ortant rivers, which, by the remo\al of some 
obururtiims at their mouths and the construction of piers to prevent the 
frirmati<in of bars, might b<» converted into excellent and spacious hjir- 
burs, in tbt* immediate vicinity of somi* of the most valuable mines, 
where ihc want of safe anchorage is now severely felt. 



168 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

The mouth of the Ontonagon is already a place of some growiag 
business, as is La Pointe, at the Apostle islands, where is a good 
harbor. Eagle and Copper harbors are also places of commerce for 
the importation of supplies and the shipment of inineral produce. Ance, 
at the head of Keweenaw bay, Marquette, Isle Royale, where there 
is a good harbor, are all places rapidly growing into importance. It 
would seem that the whole lake coast, from the Sault Ste. Marie to the 
Isle Royale, is rich in iron and copper ore, and it is scarcely possible 
to conceive the results which may be expected, when the present 
mines shall have been developed to their highest standard of produc- 
tiveness, aud others, as unquestionably there will be, discovered and 
prepared for exploitation. 

There are at present two steamers, four propellers, and a considerable 
number of smaller sailing craft, all of which have been dragged over- 
land, by man and horse, across the portage, m constant employment 
carrying up supplies and bringing back returns of ore and metal. All 
these articles have necessarily to be transhipped and carried over the 
isthmus ; and yet, under all these disadvantages and drawbacks, the 
traflSc is profitable and progressive. This consideration only is sufficient 
to establish the possitive certainty of success which would follow the 
construction of an adequate and well-protected ship canal. 

Indeed it may be asserted, without hesitation, that a well-concerted 
system of public works, river, lake, and harbor improvements, are 
only wanted to render the great lake regions, and this district not the 
least, the most valuable and most important, as they are now the most 
beautiful and most interesting portion* of the United States. 

The enrolled tonnage for the Mackinac district, according to the 
official reports of June 30, 1851, is stated at 1,409 tons, all sail. This 
is evidently inaccurate, as there were several steamers and propellers 
plying, at that very date, on the lake above the Sault, and several 
small steamers running regularly on the waters of Green bay. Lake 
Winnebago, and the Fox river. 

The extreme inaccuracy, looseness, and brevity of the returns kept, 
and reports made from most of the lake ports of entry, can hardly be 
too much deprecated or deplored, rendering it, as they do, impossible 
to compile a complete reportof the lake commerce sufficiently explicit, 
and with details sufficiently full, to the perfect understanding of a sub- 
ject at once so intricate and so important. 

. Canada trade in 1851. 

Imports $3,967 Duty collected $818 

No. 16. — ^District of Milwaukib. 

Port of entry, Mil waukie'; latitude 43° 3' 45*, longitude 87° 57; 
population in 1840, 1,712 ; in 1850, 20,061. 

This district, which formerly was attached to that of Chicago, was 
erected in 1850, and the returns embraced in this report, being the first 
that have been made of its lake commerce, give little opporiunity for 
comparison. 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE* 169 

Tbo cnaai extends from Sheboygan, Wisconsin, southward to the 
oortbrm line of the State of Illinois, a distance of about a hundred 
mtles, embracing the ports of Sheboygan, Port Washington, Kenosha, 
tif Soutliport, Racine, and Milwaukie. These ports are all situated in 
ilie Slate of Wisconsin, on the western shore of Lake Michigan. She- 
liriygnn is imnnediateiy adjoining the district of Mackinac ; has a good 
5ttu3tioti fi>r business, though the harbor needs sonne improvement. 
The State legislature has autliorized a loan for thi3purp)se of 810,000. 
Tber»' is an excellent farming country in the rear, of Sheboygan, the 
.wiiJ of which ordinarily produces good returns of the first quality of 
;:rain ; in the last two years, however, the wheat crop has been almost 
a total lailure. 

The imports of this port for 1851, were $1,304,961 

Kxportfi, do. do. do. 121,705 

Total.--. 1,426,666 

Entrances, 730. 

Pan Washington, twenty-five miles north of Milwaukie, is a port of 
a growing and important trade, its harbor being formed by the projec- 
tjfjQ of a pier into the lake. The town is situated on a high bluff, which 
<»}uckis the pier from westerly winds. The country circumjacent is 
wrll adnptea for agriculture, grazing, and wool-growing. The trade 
''f this port is steadily on the increase. 

Imports of Port Washington for 1851 $904,400 

Exports, ^ do. do 139,450 

Total 1,043,850 

S<nithport, the name of which has been recently changed, with good 
*.i3ti\ to the old Indian appellation of Kenosha, is a flourishing place 
v-tuatc^d on the blufls, 35 miles south of Milwaukie, and sixty north of 
C'hicagtK Under the protection of the blufls upon which the town 
ftaod^, piers have l>een extended into the lake, alongside which vessels 
may li^ and load or discharge cargoes, except during the prevalence of 
«iruffi0 easterly g^les, during the height of which the seas sonietinies 
axr l)t'a{M>d on the piers, and break with such violence as to compel the 
«!i«pping to stand off into the lake for sea-r(K)m. Like the rest of this 
;«>rtjun of the State of Wisconsin, the soil alxmt Southport is of a nature 
:•» «-ntiriunige agricultural pursuits ; and in consequence the back c(nin- 
try U increasing very rapidly in population, and the prairi(*s Ix^ginning 
:• • sport their rich and varied [)rodiice, the result of which is a growth 
•f llif aimmerce of ihe port beyond the anticipations of the most san- 
ruin*'. 

Tiw returns show the imports for 1851 to have been $1,306,856 

Do. ilu exports lor 1851 661,228 

Total l,968.()»t 

Eocmncet, 856. 



170 Andrews' report on 

Racine lies ten miles north from Kenosha, on a beautiful stream of 
the same name, which forms a harbor in all respects excellent, except 
for the wonted drawback of an awkward bar at its mouth. The popu- 
lation of Racine in 1840 was about 1,500 ; in 1850 it was 5,111. The 
principal business, however, is done on piers, which project from its 
mouth, as at Kenosha. The city is on a height, and is, without doubt, 
the most beautiful site for a lake city west of Cleveland. The back 
country, depending on the city for supplies and a market, is very simi- 
lar to that already described in other parts of the district. 

Its imports for 1851, were $1,473,125 

Exports for do. 1,034,590 



. 



Total 2,607,715 

r — _ 

Entrances, 1,462. 

Milwaukie, the port of entry and principal port. in the district, is 
situated on Milwaukie river, which forms a good harbor for vessels 
and steamers of light draught, but it needs some improvement to make 
it easy of access to larger craft. The harbor of Milwaukie is in one 
respect very favorably situated, as there is a sort of bay, or bayou, 
running in behind the north point, making a fair shelter against all but 
easterly winds. 

The city stands partly on the river, and partly on the bluffs, which 
are very high and overlook the lake for many miles. It is ninety miles 
north from Chicago, and contains 25,000 inhabitants. It is the terminus 
of the Milwaukie and Mississippi railway, which-is finished some fifty 
miles west, and is intended eventually to communicate with the Mis- 
sissippi at Dubuque, or Prairie du Chien. This road runs through one 
of the most fertile districts of Wisconsin, and will bring immense traffic 
to this port. Of late, owing mainly to the partial failure of the wheat 
crop during the two successive years of 1849 and 1850, the commerce 
of this district has not augmented so rapidly as for several years pre- 
viously, or as it probably would have done in the event of good or 
average crops. 

The city of Milwaukie increased in population from 1,712 inhabit- 
ants in 1840, to 20,061 in 1850, being a ratio of 1,072 per cent, greater 
than that of any other city during the same perigid- * It is situated §05 
miles northwest from Washington.. 

The commerce in 1851 Is estimated for the city as follows : 

Imports $14,571,371 

Exports 2,607,824 

Total : 17,179,195 

Entrances, 1,351. 

The commerce of the whole district for the same year was : 

Imports $19,560,713 

Exports 4,564,779 

Total.. 24,125,510 

Total entrances, 5,000. 



COLONIAL AND LAKE TRADE. 



171 



The. enrolled and licensed tonnage, on the 30th *June, 1851, was set 
d«*wn in the official report at 2,946 tons, of which 287 tons were steam, 
and 2,659 tons sail. The official report of the collector, however, pub- 
L'-lif-d at the end of the season, makes the tonnage of the district 
:aij(»uQl to 6,526 tons, giving employment to 325 men. Therefore there 
iiiiif^t U* an error 8c»mc where, as it is not possible that the tonnage of 
iL** dUtrict should have more than doubled itself within a few months. 
Such incfinsiiiencies, howerer, seem to he the rule, not the exception, 
in t\f* re{v>rt$ of the lake districts. 

The following table will show the business in a few prominent arti- 

• • -i of trade, in this district, lor export from the s(*veral ports ; and the 

• '»mparaiive trade of the port of entiy lor the years 1850 And 1851, 
.!• cordinp to the returns. 



Milwaukie. 



Affticlr* 



Racine. ' Kenosha. | Sheboygan PortWaah- 

' ington. 



1H51. 



1(^. 



1851. 



1851. 



1851. 



t 



r'<.or •bamli...l 

• 'a**a««**« •QO. • • • • , 

I'^f do 

H :j»mt. .... buaheU. . 
' ^ttf .•••••« *oo •••••« 
lianeY. • • . • « .oo ••«•••' 
' m ...do 

^shA .pQIUMU... 

Hi>* .,.do 

Ijtrd .\do 

\*Im« tons...' 

l.#»4 pounds .... 

....Mfeet.... 



113,233 100,017 . 22,977 2,651 

3,b32 476 M12 56 

2,331 1,426 1,712 

181,904 ■ 297,758 272.678 

47,098 2,100 80^898 

175,723 15,270 40,908 

22,233 5,000 18,941 

226,256 < 126,595 106,471 

3n5,M0 112,000 

29,120 22,400 

262 276 55 ! .» 

987,840 1,050,000 * 



163 



233,052 
59,769 
55,169 
31,168 
30,731 
20,160 



3,650 I 
1,000 j 




201 






M. 

do. 

harrelf. 



1 



1,K30 
247 
1,199 
3,384 i 



1851. 



3,000 



^,000 
1,500 



900 



200 



The imf>orts consist principally of assort(*d merchandise necessary 
: r the owisumplion of a new country — salt, ancl the household prup- 
»::y of emigrants. This district repirts no trade wiih Canada. 



172 



ANDREWS' REPORT ON 



Statement showing the principal articles of export and import, coastwisCf in 

the district of Milwaukie, during the year 1851. 



IMPORTS. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Merchandise 
Sundries . . . . 

Salt 

Salt 

Fruit 

Fish 

Lumber «... 

Laths 

Shingles.. . . 
Cedar posts. 
Whiskey . . • 

Coal 

Fif iron . . . • 
Water lime. 



30,594 tons 

6, 980... do 

'31,985 ' bagps « 

34,881 barrels 

1 / • dX I • . ■ .GO. •••*••. 

1 , 206 * . > .do. . . • • • 
40,401 Mfbet 

4,556 M 

13,125 M 

12,788 

6,517 
2,177 



barrels . 

tons . . . 

507... do.... 

2,329 barrels. 

Cut stone 3.50 tons. . . 

Cheese ! 124,240 pounds. 

Tan-bark ! 1,375 cords.. 

Railroad iron, &c i 556 

Fruit trees ; 11,150. 

Locomotives •- 4, 

Potter's clay 



tons 



150 tons 



Value. 



^15,297, 000 
3,502,287 

4,698 
43,601 
26,275 

4,832 

404,010 

45,560 

26,250 

2,556 
65,170 
15,239 
12,400 

3,494 

1,750 

7,454 
27,500 
27,800 

2,787 

40,000 

450 



19,560,713 



EXPORTS. 



Articles. 




Flour 

Pork 

Beef. 

Wheat 

Oats ^ 

Barley 

Wool 

Hides , 

Ashes , 

Lard .• 

Broom-corn 

Com . • 

Merchandise 

Lead..: y. 

Lime 

Brick *. 

Haj ; 

Ship-knees 

Lumber • 

Laths ^ 

Shinffles 

Fish : 

Wood 

Staves 

Hops 

Hoop-poles 

Potatoes 

Sundries.. '...-... 



142,015 barrels 

5,000. ...du 

4, 043.... do 

687,634 bushels 

193,405 do 

137,163 do 

1372,708 pounds 

504 , 500 ... .do ••■•••••. 

1,418 tonSi.^..... 

46,000 pounds 

643 tons 

72,342 bushels 

1,535 tons 

987,840 pounds 

2,500 barrels 

853,900 

250 tons 

279 

1,833 'Mfeet!'.'!.! 

247 M 

1,199 M 

3,564 barrels 

10,000 cords 

200 M 

10 tons 

50 M 

25,000 bushels 

4,534 tons., 



#426,045 

70,000 

28,301 

412,580 

38,681 

274,327 

111,812 

20,180 

141,800 

3,280 

8,430 

28,936 

767,000 

49,392 

3,700 

4,265 

2,500 

5,580 

18,330 

2,470 

2,997 

14,336 

20,000 

4,000 

4,000 

500 

7,500 

2,093,855 

4,564,797 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 173 

No. 17. — ^District op Chicago. 

ViiTt of entry, Chicago; latitude 42^ OC, longitude 87o 35'; popu- 
.iti.fi in l»4O;4.470; in 1830, 29,963. 

Thift dif4nct is about eighty miles in extent of coast-line from Michi- 
^ ill Cily. in Indiana, to Waukegan, Illinois, embracing that portion of 
:• <- omk of Lake Michigan bordering on the States of Indiana and 
I..;!K»i.«. Michigan CitVj Waukegan, and Chicago are the only ports. 
Tlw oommerce of Michigan City is comparatively small ; but having 

• • <if-lintte returns from that point, it may be roughly estimated at 
io<)0,lNNI. It is the only lake port of Indiana, and is al)out forty miles 
» t-t fnmj Chicago, and on the opposite side of the lake to that city. 
Tiif Michigan Central railway passes through this place en route for 
r..waeo, and most of the supplies of merchandise are received by it. 
T^*" exports of flour, wheat, corn, and oats irom this place are worthy 
'•t'^iime consideration. 

Waukegan is situated forty miles north from Chicago, on the western 
.* *:v of Lake Michigan, and is a thriving place of business, though its 
' rlH>r consists only of piers, extending into the lake, similar to those at 
K unnr, Sheboygan, and other places in the district of Mil waukie. The 

• untr^' circumjacent to it is becoming rapidly populous, and the land 
:- :• rtiUs and adapted amply and abundantly to repay all the expenses 

• * t'*il and time annuall}' bestowed upon it. 

It c-:innoi, therefore, be reasonably doubted that its annual increase 
••• .1. ni4 fall short of the general progress of its own and the neigbbor- 
4 J Stall's. 

Ti.*- acx*ount of the tonnage of this place is as follows : 

Tit/* entrances at Waukegan during the year 1851 weie 1,058; being 

• '^ 't'^amerei, 244 prop<*llei s, 14 brigs, 105 schooners, 2 barques, and 
i • ■ i»p^ 

TtMc lollciwing is a concise statement of the commerce of Waukegan, 
"- III iIk* names of some of the leading articles both of import and cx- 
]■ n : 

IMPORTS. 



Artidet. j Quantity. < Value. 



I 



*•'' simmAmm .^ ton« '. 1,110 |555,«K)0 

: -mt M ■ 4,368 43. 6-^0 

- f »• ^ ^ do I HU9 t> , ir>2 

• .-. do 475 4,75t) 

- • berreU a,Ha4 4,*MHi 

» ^ - do 37 1 1,113 

' -.;*• do [ BUS ■ 1.213 

** Orr ^ do I 451 • 4,510 

- /. ^o ; S21U . 315 

balen ' 108 IG** 

' I a,757 



K" 



T«tolunporto - ' J 6I9.H34 



I I 



174 



ANDREWS' RBPORT ON 



EXPORTS. 



Articles. 



Wheat bushels. .. . 

Oats do 

Cora do 

Barley do 

Seed do 



Flour • barrels . . . . 

Pork do 

£j7g8 • do 

^ool pounds. . . . 

Sundries unenumemted • 



Total exports. 
Total imports. 



Total commerce of Waukegan , 



Quantity. 



173,129 

64,090 

29,874 

6,943 

1,480 

3,340 

250 

.62 

35,800 



Value. 



1103,977 

12,918 

11,949 

4,471 

1,480 

10,020 

3,500 

372 

10,740 

35,391 



194,818 
619,834 



614,652 



The city of Chicago stands at the mouth of the Chicago river, with a 
population of about 40,000, and, as the river debouches into the head 
of Lake Michigan, is therefore the innaost port of the lake, and the far- 
thest advanced into the country, which supplies its export and consumes 
its import trade. It is, on this account, most favorably situated for a 
commercial depot- The river within a mile of its mouth being made up 
into two affluents, the northern and south^rui the city lies on both banks 
of the main river, and to the w^est of both the tributaries, with floating 
bridges whereby to facilitate easy communication for the citizens. Four 
miles south of the (iity, the Illinois and Michigan canal falls into the 
south branch at a place called Bridgeport, and up to this point this 
stream is navigable for the largest lake craft. Tne first lev^l of the 
canal is fed from this stream by means of huge steam-pumps, which are 
constantly employed in forcing water to the height of about eight feet. 
On entering the canal, therefore, the boats first ascend a lock of about 
eight-feet lift, and thence, on their way to the Illinois, continually lock 
downward till they reach the lower level of that valley. Tliis canal 
is ninety-eight miles in length from Bridgeport to Peru, on the Illinois, 
and by means of it the waters of the Mississippi and the lakes are united, 
so that canal boats can readily pass from Chicago to St. Louis, and vice 
versa, as indeed to any point of the Illinois river, without detention or 
transhipment of cargo. . 

The Galena and Chicago Union railway is open from Chicago to Roch- 
ford, a distance of eighty miles, and will soon be finished to Freeport, 
where it will effect a junction with the Galena branch of the Ilhnois 
Central railway. The Chicago and Rock Island road is completed to 
Juliet, forty miles' distance from Chicago, which is eventually to con- 
nect Chicago with Rock island, and which is expected to be completed 
and opened, within the space of one year, to the Mississippi. 

It is proposed to intersect Illinois with a net-work of railways, by 
which Chicago shall be connected with every portion of (he State; and 
beside these lines, two or three others are projected with the intent of 
connecting that city with Green Bay, Milwaukie, Beloit, and Janes- 



OOLOBTIAL >IND LAKE TRADB. 



175 



\iUr, Wiscoosifiy by railway, but it is still problematical whether they 
vill be wnmghl to a successful termination. 

It i? owing, doubtless, to the advantageous situation above described, 
ih'M Chirac owes her rapid growth during the past few years, her en- 
\ lahle commercial position for the present, and her brilliant prospects 
lof the future. 

In 1^40 Chicago had a population of less than 5,000; in 1850 it num- 
lurod upward of 28,000, having increased in one year, as shown by the 
n lums i>f the city census of 1849, over 5,200; aiKl the lowest estimate 
put upon the population in January, 1852, is 35,000 souls, while more 
L-'-neraily it is rated at nearly 40,000 individuals. No parallel for so 
;rreat an increase exists. 

The toilowing tables will give some idea of the details of the com- 
rnt-fcr of Chicago, which will be Tound interesting as showing the pro- 
irrt-^Mve business of the city, during a long series of successive years, 
:i^ wtll as the alteration of the character ot that business, as afiected by 
iIm nicitioua] pn>gression of the country, from an earlier and more im- 
f^-rftvi to a full<T and better developecl system of cultivation. 

The progressive value of the imports and exports of Chicago is ex* 
hibitetl durmg a series of fourteen years, which will be found to give 
:'tf* best idea of the actual progression of the place. 



Yean. 




la 1 

!•«. 
I'M!. 

IMS. 
1M& 
IM7. 



1335,903 

373,677 

579,174 

630,960 

569,106 

564,347 

664,347 

971,849 

1,686,416 

2,043,445 

9,037,150 

9,641,859 

94,410,400 



Ezpoili. 



' li»ooo 

10,065 

16,044 

38,843 

398,635 

348,869 

659,305 

689,910 

785,504 

1,543,519 

1.813,468 

9,296,999 

5,395,471 



From 1842 to 1847 the leading articles of export were wheat, flour, 
!»▼ f. pork, aod wooL The quantities exported in those years were as 



.>/»'s: 



I4<}. 
IM3. 
1«M. 

1< 



;^7. 



«••*.• 



1 



Wheat. 



BmtkeU. 
586.907 
698,967 
891,894 
956,^60 
1,459.594 
1,974,304 



! 
Flour. 'Beef a pork. 



BmrrtU. 

9,9-iO 
10.786 

6,320 
13.759 
^,045 
39,538 



BmrrtU. 
16,209 
91,499 
14.938 
13.268 
31.994 
48.990 



Wool. 



1.500 

29.050 

96,635 

916,616 

981,999 

411,4^ 



Fnmi 1848 to 1851 no valuation was made of the importations or 



176 



ANDREWS REPOHT ON 



€xportations ; and the valuation of 1848 is deemed 80 utterly incorrect 
as to be valueless and unworthy of citation ; for the valuation for that 
year included, under the head of exports, every small bill of sale, 
whether sent into the circumjacent country for domestic consumption, 
or shipped, coastwise or foreign, by the lake, for actual exportation. 
It is therefore set aside. 

The following table shows the importations of lumber during the 
years mentioned: 



Articles. 


1847. 


1848. 


1849. 


1850. 


, 1851. 


Boards • .feet. . 

Laths No.. 

Shingles . • • do . . 


38,188,225 

5,655,700 

12,148,500 


60,009,250. 

10,025,109 

20,000,000 


73,259,553 
19,281,733 
39,057,750 


100,364,791 
19,890,700 
55,423,750 


125,056,437 
27,583,475 
60,338,250 



The table below exhibits some of the leading articles of export 
from Chicago during the same series of years, and shows the nature 
and increase or decrease of the trade in various articles : 



Articles. 



Wheat bushels. 

Flour barrels. 

Corn ..bushels. 

Oats ..do. .. 

Beef barrels. 

Pork do... 

Tallow do . • • 

M-AT(1 ..•••••••• .CIO ... 

Bacon •■ .do. • ■ 

Tobacco • ■ .do. . ■ 

Wool pounds. 

Hides.. No .. 



1847. 



1,974,304 

32,598 

67,315 

38,892 

26,504 

22,416 

203,435 

139,009 

47,248 

28,243 

411,088 

8,774 



1848. 



2,160,000 
45,200 

550,460 
65,280 
19,733 
34,467 

513,005 



209,078 
500,000 



1849. 



1,936,264 
51,309 
644,848 
26,849 
48,436 
17,940 



684,600 
850,709 



520,242 



1850. 



788,451 

66,433 

262,013 

158,054 

40,870 

16,598 

719,100 

734,500 

909,910 

85,409 

913,862 



1851. 



427,820 

71,832 

3,221,317 

605,827 

53,685 

19,990 

1,084,377 

2,996,747 

1,524,600 

182,758 

1,086,944 

1,617 



CANADIAN TRADE IN 1851. 



Exports of domestic produce and manufactures. 

In American vessels . . . : $93,008 

In British vessels 23,117 



Imports. 

In American vessels .. . \ $4,935 

In British vessels 876 

' , 5,811 

Tonnage inward. — American vessels — ^steam 2 

sail \V. 2 

British vessels — ^saiL* 2 



116,185 



Duty coUectod. 

81,204 
182 



• 1.386 

652 tons. 
290 " 
428 " 



OOLONIAL AND LAKB THADS* 177 

Tuoaage outward. — ^AtncricaD vessels— steam 5 2,183 tons. 

sail 7 1,628 " 

British vessels 2 428 •• 

The roantry round the city for miles is a level prairie, the soil of 
which b vf^ry (c*rtile ; which has given Chicago its great agricultural 
•tart, and laid the permanent (bundalion for its increase. 

The Illinois and Michigan canal, which comes into the southern 
•tream at Bridgeport^ passes through one of the finest agricultural 
districts in the State, embracing the valleys of the Au Plaine, de 
Pljine, Fox, Kankakee, and Illinois rivers, and finally, by means of 
ih^ lattfT, o|)ens up to a northern m.'u-krt the great corn valley of the 
West. This canal was first opened for business in May, 1848, and . 
has, then*fore, been but four seasons in operation. 

Owinsr* bowever, to a partial failure oi the wheat crop in this portion 
of ll«' 8tite, during those three years, the returns of tolls are much 
smaller than they would otherwise have been. The effect of the 
watt-r connexion of Chicago with St. Louis may, however, be seen in 
tb'* impetufi given to the population and commerce of the city at or 
orar that p^rtod. 

The rimnl tolls in 1848 amounted to»83,773; in 1849, to $118,787; 
in 1^50, in »121,972; and in 1851, to $173,390. 

Acorirding to Judge Thomas's report, made in compliance with a reso> 
latifm of the river and harbor convention, in 1847, the first shipment ot 
beef was made from Chicago in 1833; but that shipment must have 
been very triflincr^ since, in 1836, the whole exports from the port were 
▼alurtl at $1.(K)9; in 1837 they rose to $11,065; in 1838 to $16,044; 
in li<^9 to <iver $:i2,(HM); and in 1840 to $228,635. In 1810 the im- 
pNln were valued at $562,106. Since that year the increase in every 
■rtii'ie of export has In^en rapid, exce[>t wheat, which, for the three 
jmrs la^t past, exhibits a decrease. 

The commerce of the port of Chicago in 1851 amounts to the sum 
of «29>05,871, consisting of $5,395,471 exports, and $24,410,400 
impt>tu. A* first view there appears in this statement a far greater 
di»cri'pnncy iKtween the value ol the imports and exports than is usual 
even m m w countries. The difference may, however, be accounted 
far OQ thi.s consideration : that, beside large quantities of rich and costly 
ipod^ all 9<»rts of ready-made clothing, hats, caps, lxx>ts, and shoes, 
liir tb** St. Louis market, are imported through Chicago, and by canal 
end rivcT to their d'^stination, all going to swell the im{>ortation returns 
(u€ the* extensive and growing trad(! of this place ; whcre;is, the g(Mxis 
•re, firom St. Louis, distributed to all sections of the country, as yet 
loo poor and mrw to remit artich^s of produce for exportation by the 
HMitf*. To this it must bt* ailded that casual fluctuations in the 
f-t pricf»s at Chicago or St. Louis frequently determine the course 
bj wbirli inland domestic produce is shipped to the seaboard, whether 
bj the Iak4*s or the Mississippi, so that ttierc may be an apparent bal* 
wocr of tnult* against Chicago, when there is none such in reality. 

In 1851, Chicago received— mostly from the Illinois — and exported, 
DO leM than 3,221,317 bushels of corn ; also received by lake, mostlj 
from the lumber districts of Michigan and Wisconsin, 125,000,000 feet 

12 



178 AMDRBWS' RBFOaX ON 

of lumber, 60,000,000 of shingles, and 27,000,000 pieces of lath, of 
which, according to the Chicago Tribune — esteemed the commercial 
journal of that place most worthy of confidence — 54,000,000 feet of 
lumber were shipped by canal, and 44,000,000 of these reached the 
Illinois river ; 51,000,000 of shingles were shipped by canal, and 
47,000,000 of these reached the Illinois ; while of lath 12,000,000 left 
Chicago for the south, of which 11,000,000 passed beyond the termi- 
nus of the canal. 

The continued failure of the wheat crop in northern Illinois has turned 
the attention of farmers to grazing and wool growing, for which the 
prairie lands are admirably adapted, and of this the results are par- 
tially seen in the returns. 

In 1851 there were slaughtered and packed, for American and Eng- 
lish markets, in Chicago, 21,806 head of cattle. The shipments of 
beef during the same year were 52,856 barrels; and it is hardly neces- 
sary to say that this beef is of the finest quality, for Chicago beef is at 
this day as well known, both in the American and English markets, for 
its succulence and tenderness, as if it had been an established article 
in the provision trade for centuries, instead of years. 

The growth of wool in Illinois is not yet, by any means, developed, 
the trade in this article not having been ten years in existence, at the 
utmost, yet the exports of 1851 amounted to 1,086,944 pounds. 

Over and above these shipments, increased by the addition of 20,000 
barrels of pork, there were exported during the year great numbers of 
cattle, hogs, and sheep, driven, or transported by railway and steamer, 
from the prairies of Illinois to the markets of Buffalo, Albany, and New 
York, alive. If these be taken as the results of the first few years of 
the grazing business, what may not be expected of the great resources 
of these prairie States, when they shall be fully developed and brought 
nearer to market by the railway facilities which are already contem- 
plated, and perfected by the complete stocking of the grazing lands ¥ 

Hemp and tobacco are also large products of thisr State. 

The arrivals at Chicago for 3851 are as follows: steamers, 662; 

Propellers, 183; schooners, 1,182; brigs, 239; barques, 13; total, 2,279* 
'onnage of the season, inward, 958,600. 
The enrolled tonnage of the district on the 30th of June, 1851, waa 
23,105, being 707 tons steam, and 22,397 tons sail. 

The following table will exhibit the quantity and value of the prin- 
cipal articles of export and import cosistwise, at the port of Chicago^ 
during the year 1851 : 



OQLONIAX. AMD LAMM TRADE* 



179 



EXPORTS. 



Aitidw. 



.••••«•••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••• •bftfroM • • • •, 

WWial. • • buibeif . . • . 

do 



B«H«7. 



.do. 
.do. 



%Um^, 



»undB . • . . 



M.« poi 

Bc«f.'. •• •• .barrels. . • .' 

T*li0V • .«••••••••••...• .pounds. ...^ 

\jktd ...M*«** •.•••••••• ••••• ••••. .do. .•••.' 



Hi 



.do. 



.do. 



Hide* •••.••.• number. • . .i 

Wool M ponnds. • . .1 

TokKseo ....•.^..•... do 

TiaoChj seed barrels. . . . 

f^lnam eofinee number. . . . 

8«gftr ......!•••.••••. M barreb. . . .' 

&£ ^ do 

R«eper« number. .. . 

PMaioea. «...•.•.... bushels. .. . 

OtI. • .•••..••• barrels 

Men-hsndiw .•• • tons. . . . 

Iltfli wiDTs • • .barrels. . . . 

pounds.... 

.• do ; 

Iffwi do 

Fuf* • do 

Batfaio robas - do 

Cattie number. J 

tffUidnee oneooineraied 



Quantitj. 



71,723 

436, H08 

3,i»l,317 

H,537 

767, 0H9 

694 , 7H3 

5*2, H65 

l,OM4,377 

2,976,747 

H99.504 

660,955 

31,617 

1,0H6,944 

4^J,758 

1,670 

15 

7lf9 

3,. SMI 

552 

2,000 

76 

2.491 

1,«7S 

33,H75 

^375,^72 

144,;WO 

564.5<I0 

7.215 

44<j 



Value. 



•215,169 

262,084 

1,159,674 

4,268 

15,218 

41,(;87 

.T70,O55 

2b7,308 

65,062 

23H,140 

81.960 

32,548 

HH,527 

326,083 

48,275 

11,690 

75,000 

14,180 

6,371 

55,200 

500 

1,872 

1,245,500 

18,7HJ 

16,937 

68,793 

14,438 

564,500 

3,657 

13,440 

48,.'>5d 



5,395,471 



IMPORTS. 



Artielea. 



Rarity 




• • tons. 

• •• • bushels. 

•• barrels. 

• ...bunhels. 

tliousand feet. 

tiiousaud. 

L^tlTl ••.••• thousand pieces. 

Tiafcer • cubic feet . 

• p<»nnds. 

, j^allons. 

IWh.. ..^ barreb. 

rfacieb and ailaa pounds. 

.• number. 

..cords. 

•.. number. 

• ••-•••• .••• pounds. 

lives •••••• number. 

>...M pounds. 

• •.••••••••.•• tons. 

frvit. barreb. 

Tmk do... 

M bsfs. 



Quantitj. 



Value. 



. . « 

• • . 

. . . 

• • . 

. . * 
. . . 
. . • 

• • . 
. . . 
. . . 
. . . 
. . . 

• a . 
« . . 

I 

. . « 

• . . 



• ••1 



37, 
12, 

6, 

26, 

125. 

64), 

27, 

410, 

3,139, 

HI, 

!>*, 

347. 

9, 

44, 

41. 

10. 
9, 
5, 

11. 

30, 



.16H 
331 
630 

0H4 

<I56 

3:18 

5<j 
679 
800 
156 
541 
.S4I0 

742 

924 
198 

034 
4 
567 
2^6 
K16 
257 
316 
000 



121,081,300 

6,165 

19,H90 

15,650 

1,250..'>60 

l.M).^45 

27.'>.KMI 

21,. WW 

2**2.5^i 

:w.4r,2 

19-i.*«ll 

97, 4 JO 
11. HH 

9.9(10 
2.642 
40. (MN) 
20. 7*^3 
411,4441 
14,7.'>4 
27,036 

^^s,7i^2 

150, (Ml 
I42.11M» 



24,410,400 



180 ANDRBWS' BBFORT ON 



THE LAKES. 

Heretofore the various districts of collection have been presented 
separately, with such statistics as were attainable and deemed neces- 
sary, in regard to their respective trade, tonnage, local resources, ave- 
nues and outlets for external communication, and for the facilities of 
exporting and importing produce, merchandise, &c. 

In many cases, however, the establishment of the districts being 
arbitrary, to suit the conveniences of the custom-house, and founded 
neither on geographical position, nor territorial limits of States — so that 
at one time characteristics the most different are presented in one and 
the same district, and at another many adjacent districts possess iden- 
tically the same qualities and facilities — it has been judged best, with 
a view to presenting a general and compreliensible synopsis of the va- 
rious regions, with their several interests, trades, improvements, and 
requirements of farther improvement, to give a cursory sk^ch of this 
most interesting region, lake by lake; and thereafter to collect the 
whole lake country, with its interests, and influence on the cities of the 
Atlantic coast, and on the increase, wealth, and well-being of the con- 
federacy at large, into one brief summary- 
Commencing, therefore, from the easternmost terminus of the lake 
country proper, and proceeding in due order westward, the first to be 
mentioned is 

LAKE CHAMFLAIN. 

This lake lies between the States of Vermont and New York, on the 
east and west, and for a small distance, at the northern end, within the 
British province of Canada East, It is about 110 miles in length from 
north to south, and varies in width from half a mile to 14 miles, with 
a depth of water varying from 64 to 282 feet. Its principal feeders 
are the outlet of Lake George, at Ticonderoga, the rivers Saranac» 
Chazy, Au Sable, Missisquoi, Winoosfei, and Wood and other creeks. 
Its oullet is by the Sorel, Richelieu, or St. John's river, into the St. 
Lawrence, some 45 miles below Montreal. 

The New York and Vermont shores of this lake are of a character 
the most opposite imaginable, that to the eastward being for the most 

f)art highly cultivated, fertile, and well settled, with grazing and dairy 
arms, furnishing supplies for a thriving business in produce; while the 
counties of New York to the westward, wild, rocky, barren, and rising 
into vast mountains intersected by lakes, with litttle or n6 bottom lands 
and intervale^, sends down lumber and iron in vast quantities ; above 
ten thousand tons of iron ore, nine thousand of bloom and bar, and 
nearly three thousand of pig-iron, having passed down the lake and 
entered the Champlain canal in 1851. 

There is, moreover, a large lumber trade, partially from Canada, 
passing down this lake and canal, to the amount last year of 116 
millions of feet. 

The whole value of the commerce of Lake Champlain was, for 1846» 
about eleven millions; for 1847, seventeen; and for 1851| above 



COUmiML AKV IsAMM TBADB. 181 

fweiitj*six roillioas of dollars. Its licensed tonnage for the same year 
was 8,130. The avenues and outlets of this lake trade are the Chambly 
canalt and Sorel river improvements, to the St. Lawrence river, aflbid* 
mg a rrp<^ navigation up or down the lakes from the Sault Ste. Marie 
to the Uulf of 8i. Lawrence; and the Champlain canal, uniting at 
Walfrfi>rd with the Erie canal and Hudson nver, and thence giving 
acc(*«s to the port of New York and the Atlantic ocean ; the Ogdens- 
barg railroad, from a fine port on the St. Lawrence, crossing the upper 
c*ncl of the Inke, to Burbngton, where it makes a junction with the 
Rutlaod and Vermont Central railroads, and si) proceeds to Boston and 
liie east<*ni harbors of the Atlantic; and the Whitehall railroad by 
BalKtfNi to Tmy, whence it has communication, via the Harlem and 
llufijMNi Iliver railroads, with the city of New York — vast facilities for 
tran^[Hlrtation, to which may be added all the advantages for vessels 
ascvnding the lakes, and coasting, pf>ssessed individually by each of 
tiie regi<iUa lying above it, on tlie St. Lawrence basin. 

LAKE ONTARIO. 

This lake is 180 miles in length by 40 miles in average width; its 
uran depth is 500 feet, its height above the sea 232, and its area 6,300 
«i|uare miles; its principal aiiluent is the outlet of the superfluous 
wutrrs of all the great upper lakes, by the Niagara Falls and river. 

Its ouly U'ibutaries of any consequence are, from the Canadian side 
the Trf nt and Credit, and from the State of New York the Black river, 
tb(' Oswf^go, and the Genesee. Its natural outlet is by the chaimel of 
the Su Lawrence, through the thousand isles, and down a steep de- 
scent, broken by many rapids and chutes, to Montreal; and Uience 
without further difficulty to the ocean. 

The shores of this lake on both sides, but more especially on the 
snutbem or New York coast, combine perhaps the most p)pulous, 
thickly-s<*ttled, and prcxluctive agricultural regions of the United Stutes, 
iolc?ri!iper&ed at every few miles of length by fine and flourishing towns, 
and beautiful villages, resting upon a wheat country — that of Genesee— 
iofiL'ricir to few in the world lor the productiveness of its soil, and the 

3{uality of its grain, and a fruit or orchard country not easily surpassed. 
i has also, bordering on its southern shore, the most valuable and 
brgi*ly exploited salt district of the Tnited States; while all tlic regions 
ad/iintag it pcissess rare advantages in th(Mr admirable system of in- 
Crroal coaununication, and esIM^ciallv in the Erie canal, running nearly 

CrsUIrl to tlu^ lake, through tneir wliole length for a distance of three 
odred and stxty-thre«* miles from Buffalo, on Lake Erie, to Albany, 
ctt tlic HufLsoQ river. The alHjndant water-power afli)rded by tliC 
nvvr^ fallioi^ into this side of the lake is turned to much profit for the 
Afuriog Innh of domcbtic and im(K)rted grain, ibr transhipment by canal 
lui New York and the Atlantic harbors. 

Tbe avenues and outlets of tlie lake are as follows :» 

It is united with Lake Erie by the Welland canal, round the Falls 

•jf Niagara, capable of admitting vessels of twenty-six teet b(»am, one 

bttodred and thirty feet over all, and nine feta draught — the heaviest 

ihil Clio be carried across the flats of Lakes St« Clair above, and Su 



182 ANDREWS* REPOlfr ON 

Peters below — and equal to the stowage of three thousand barrels under 
deck. 

With the Gulf of St. Lawrence it has communication by the La- 
chine, Beauharnois, Cornwall, and Williamsburg canals, of superior 
capacity even to those on the Welland, constructed to admit the large 
lake steamboats plying between Montreal, Kingston, and Ogdensburg. 
Besides these, it has the Oswego canal, falling into the Erie canal at 
Syracuse ; and the Ogdensburg and the Oswego and Syracuse railways, 
uniting with the Albany and Buffalo, Great Western, Hudson river, 
and Vermont system of railways, having ramifications through all the 
New England States, and opening up to it free access to all the more 
important harbors on the Atlantic. 

In addition to these direct outlets, it of course incidentally possesses 
all those opening from Lake Charaplain. 

The value of the commerce of tnis lake for 1851 amounted to about 
thirty millions, and its licensed tonnage to thirty-eight thousand tons* 
The first steamer was launched on this lake in l8l6. 

LAKE ERIE. 

This lake, which lies between 41° 22' and 42^ 52 N. latitude, and 
78<^ 55' and 83° 23' W. longitude, is elliptical in shape ; about 265 miles 
in length, 50 average breadth, 120 feet mean depth, and 565 feet above 
tide-water ; 322 above the level of Lake Ontario, 52 below that of 
Lakes Huron and Michigan*; being the shallowest, and, of consequence, 
most easily frozen, of all the great lakes. 

Lake Erie is singularly well situated with regard to the soil, char- 
acter, and commercial advantages of the countries circumjacent to 
its waters ; having at its eastern and southeastern extremity the 
fertile and populous plains of western New York ; west of this, on the 
southern shore, a portion of Pennsylvania, and thence to the river 
Maumee, at the western extremity of the lake, the whole coast — ^pro- 
ductive almost beyond comparison^-of Ohio, containing the beautiful 
and wealthy cities of Cleveland, Sandusky, and Toledo. On the west 
it is bounded by a portion of the State of Michigan, and on the north 
by the southern shore of the rich and highly cultivated peninsula of 
Canada West — undoubtedly the wealthiest and best farmed district of 
the Canadian province, and settled by an energetic, industrious, and 
intelligent population, mostly of North of England extraction and habit, 
and differing as widely as can be conceived from the French and Irish 
agriculturists of the lower colony. 

The whole of the country around Lake Erie is, to speak in general 
terms, level, or very slightly rolling, with a deep, rich, alluvial soil, 
covered in its natural state with superb forests of oak, maple, hickory, 
black walnut, and in certain regions pine, and producing under culti- 
vation magnificent crops of wheat, corn, barley, and oats, besides feed- 
ing annually vast multitudes of swine and beef-cattle for the eastern, 
provincial, and transatlantic marts. No equal amount of land, perhaps, 
on the face of the globe, contains fewer sterile or marshy tracts, or more 
soil capable of high cultivation and great productiveness, than this 
region — as is already evidenced by its large agricultural exports ; and 



CX>UyMIjLL AKD UkKM TBADB. 188 

k 18 coDsidered that the portions under cultivation are as yet 
coiDparatively a small part of the whole, while none has probably been 
j€t brouiHit to the utmost Umit of profitable culture, what it may one 
dav become, is as yet wholly incalculable. 

^bis lake has few islands, and these principally toward the western 
end ; but on the northern shores it has three considerable promonto- 
ries — ^Lofig Point, Landguard Point, and Point au Pole — which do 
not, bowever, afibrd much shelter to shipping. 

The tributaries of this lake are : From Canada the Grand river, a 
ftream of considerable volume, with fine water-power, having at its 
mmth the harbor of Port Maitland, probably thie best on the whole 
lake, and the only one worthy of note on the Canada side. From New 
York it receives the Cattaraugus creek, and the Buffalo creek, at the 
oQtlet of which is the flourishing city and fine harbor of Buffalo. From 
Ohio it is inrreased by the waters of the Maumce, Portage, Sandusky, 
Vermillion, Black, Cuyahoga, Grand, Ashtabula, and Conoeaut rivers, 
and by those of the Elk and some other small streams from Pennsyl- 
irania. Infinitely its largest and most important affluent is, however, 
the wide and deep river of Detroit, which, flowing down — with a rapid 
stream and mighty volume of water — ^a descent of 52 feet in some 60 
iiuli-:», pours into it the accumulated surplus of the tluree mighty lakes 
above it, and all their tributary waters. 

Its natural outlet is the Niagara river, which, with an average width 
of three c|ti.irters of a mile and a depth of forty feet, descends, in about 
36 mik'St 322 feet over tlie foaming rapids and incomparable cataract 
of Niagara, which of course prevents the p>ssibility of navigation or 
ft^aiion down the stream, though it is crossed at several points by ter- 
rier's ot various kinds. 

Like Erie, however, is connected with Ontario by the Welland 
cannl, a nfible work on the Canadian side, having a descent of 334 ibet 
rffi?cte«i by means of 37 locks, and passable from lake to lake by ves- 
sels of 134 feet over all, 26 feet beam, and 9 feet draught, stowing 
3«1MHI bant'ls under deck. 

By means of this fine improvement, it has free egress to Lake On- 
tario, and thence to the St. LauTence ; and by the vjurious improve- 
menti of that river, and communications from Ontario and Champlnin, 
CD many p^>iiit.4, as heretofore enumerat(*d, on the Atlantic seaboard. 

The artificial outlets of this lake are verv numerous, and no irss im- 
povtant ; niiny of diem already of considerable asfe, and reflecting 
much credit on the early energy and enterprise of the State of New 
ViifL, by which they were principally constructed, in order to secure a 
prrri'dence in the trade of the great West. 

Tli«-se are, the Wellaiid canal, lis described ; the Erie canal, 
crjont^ini; the waters of Lake Erie with the Hudson river, and thus 
by <lirrct navigation with the Atlantic ; the Erie and Beaver canal, 
from Erie, Pennsylvania, to Beaver, on the Ohio, afflirdin*? accrss to 
Pituburir and Cincinnatti ; the Ohio canal, connecting it with the Ohio 
n%'rr at Portsmouth, one hundred miles alK)ve Cincinnatti, and n^:iin (by 
m branch to Beaver) with the same river about forty miles b<*low Pitts- 
faurir ; the Erie and Miami canal, from Toledo to Cincinnati; and tlie 
Wabash caoal, connecting the Miami and Erie with the Ohio at Evans- 



184 AWDBSWS' BBFOBT ON 

▼ille, in Indiana ; and with the Wabash river navigation at LafayeltBr 
in the same State. 

For land steam transportation it has the New York Central railway 
to Albany, where it communicates with the Great Western, Hudsoo 
river, Harlem, Housatonic, and all the eastern railroads ; the Buffalo 
and Corning and New York railroad, connecting at Hornelsville and 
Coming with the Erie railroad, direct from Dunkirk to New York city, 
and the projected Buffalo and Brantford railway to Brantibrd, Canada 
West. It has, again, through the State of Ohio, the Cleveland and Co- 
lumbus railway, the Columbus and Xenia railway, and the Little Mi- 
ami railway, to Cinqinnati ; the Sandusky and MansBeld railway, con* 
necting with the Cleveland and Columbus road at Shelby ; the Madison 
and Lake Erie railroad, from Sandusky city to Springfield, and thence 
by the Little Miami railroad, in one connexion, and by the Great Mi- 
ami railroad (the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton road) in another, to 
Cincinnati ; and the Lake Shore railway, destined to be carried to To- 
ledo, where it will connect with the Michigan Southern i ailroad to the 
bead of Lake Michigan and to Detroit, whence it will have access to 
New Buffalo and Chicago, and ultimately to Galena ai)d the Missis- 
sippi, and Fond du Lac, Winnebago, and Green Bay, on Lake Mich- 
igan. 

The estimated value of the commerce of Lake Erie is $;209,712,520t 
But it is difficult to define accurately between the lakes, so closely is 
their trade intermingled* 

The licensed tonnage of the lake is 138,852 tons, of which a large 
and increasing proportion is steam. 

LAKE ST. CLAIR. 

This small lake, which forms the connecting link, by means of the St- 
Clair and Detroit rivers, between Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Erie, is 
but an inconsiderable sheet of water if compared with the vast inland 
seas above and below it, not exceeding twenty miles in length by thirty 
in width. It has an average depth of twenty feet of water, although its 
mud flats between Algonac and the embouchure of the Thames river 
are extremely shoal, covered with luxuriant crops of wild rice, and 
navigable only by a shallow and tortuous channel, never capable of ad- 
mitting above nine, and in dry seasons not more than seven or eight feet 
burden. It receives from the Canadian shore the Thames river, with 
some smaller streams, the principal of which is the Chenail Ecarte; and 
from Michigan the river Clinton, at the mouth of which is Mt. Clements, 
which with Algonac, at the outlet of the St. Clair, its principal affluentt 
are the only slupping places on its waters. 

At the upper end, Lake St. Clair is filled with many large, low islands^ 
some of them bearing such trees as love the. waters ; tliese being capable 
of some degree of cultivation, and otliers mere flats, covered with wild 
meadows, affording rank grass as their sole production. From the pria- 
cipal channel, looking toward the Canadian coast, the whole expanse oT 
the lake, for many miles' distance, resembles a vast morass of the waving 
wild rice, intersected by small winding bayous ; close to the Canadian 



OOLCmiAL AHD LAXB THAOB. 185 

ihnrr, however, there is another pass from the mouth of the Thames 
lake ward* 

This lake has little commerce proper to itself beyond the sale of 
wnml, fruitt vegetables, and supplies for passing steamers nnd sailing 
emit* although some ship building is done on its waters, and the largest 
steamboat running on the lakes launched upon them. 

N«» separate returns of the small shipping places in the district of De- 
txtni having; been made since 1847, it is impossible even to approximate 
tb(' trade of Lake St. Clair ; but when it is considered that the whole 
business of the upper lakes, including the prosperous towns and im- 
iDiiajiurably wealthy back countries on both sides of Lake Michigan, 
and all ih<' mineral regions of Lakes Huron and Superior, pass through 
thi4 «iuth*t, it cannot but appear at a glance how vitally necessary is the 
acti^m ot CfinjH'ess for the removal of the obstructions in Lake St. Clair 
and Lakf St. George, and the construction of a ship canal around the 
Sault Ste. Marie : nor can it fail to strike every one who compares the 
B{Mithy of the American government, in opening the navigation of the 
Qup*r I'ikes and the St. Lawrence, with the energy and earnestness dis- 
played by the British and Provincial authorities in conquering the far 
SQ(H*>rior obstacles presented to navigation on its lower waters, and in 

Criecting a free ingress and egress from the ports of Lakes Huron and 
i('hiir<'n to tlie tide- waters of the Atlantic ocean. 
Tilt' commerce of all the lakes to the northward and westward of 
Lake Erie has an estimated value of above sixty millions of dollars, 
with a liceiuM'd tonnage of nearly thirty thousand tons of steam and 
sail — a wonderful amount, when the brief period of the existence of this 
trade* and of the States themselves which iurnish it, is taken into con- 
sidfration. 

ULXE HUBON. 

This superb sheet of water lies between Lake Superior on the north- 
west. Lade Michigan on the southwest and west, and Lakes Erie and 
Ontario on the south and southeast. It is two hundred and sixty miles 
ID Irngth, and one hundred and sixty in breadth in its widest part, in- 
daftivc <if the Georgian bay, a vast expanse— almost a separate lake— 
di%'idf<l fn>m it by the nearly continuous chain of promontory nnd 
t«landji ft»rtned by the great peninsula of Calx)t*s Head, the Manitoulin, 
(^ickburn, and Drummond groups, up to Point de Tour, the ea.<t(Tn- 
nif»»l rape of northern Michigau. It is said to contain tliirty-two thou- 
sand inlands, principally along the northern shore and at the north- 
Wf^rm <'n<l, varying in size from mere rocky reefs and ninnaeles to 
laxi^: and cultivable isles. The surface of Lake Huron is eh'vated five 
busMlretl and uinetv*«ix feet aliove the surface of the Athmtic, and de- 

Srr*«:d forty-five below that of Lake Su|)erior, and ll>ur bt»low that of 
li(*hiuan. Its in'eatest depth is one thousand fei*t, near the west shore* 
Its mean depth is nine hundred feet. 

It is bounded on the north and east by the Canadian shore, which, 
above Godericb, is bold and rocky, ciu-rying a great d(*pth of water to 
the base of the in>n-bound coast, with an interior country wliich may 
be generally described as a desolate and barren wilderness. 



186 ANDREWS' SXPOST OST 

At the southern extremity of the Oreat Greorgian bay, whence there 
is a portage via Lake Sincoe to Toronto, not exceeding a hundred 
miles in length — the future line of a projected railway — 13 the small 
naval and military station of Penetanguishine, with some unimportant 
Canadian settlements on the river Wye, Nottawasauga bay, Owen's 
sound, &c., and on the islands westward of it some considerable reserves 
of Chippewa and Pottawatomie Indians. Far up the northern shore 
are the Bruce mines, under the Lacloche mountains, and opposite to 
them the settlement on the fertile and partially cultivated island of St. 
Joseph. These are all the signs of cultivation or improvement on the 
British side, below the river St. Mary's, on which there is a long, 
.straggling village, with a fort or station of the Hudson Bay Company, 
over against the American village at the Sault. On the west it has the 
eastern coast of Michigan, with the deep indentation of Saginaw bay, 
as yet thinly settled and only cultivated to a limited degree, though the 
lands of the interior are of unsurpassed excellence and fertility as a 

{[rain country, and at the present time extremely valuable for their fine 
umber. 

Lake Huron is ill-provided with natural harbors, having none on the 
eastern shore, except that afforded by the entrance of a small river at 
Goderich, between the St. Clair river and Cape Hurd, on Cabot's Head. 
The western shore has — though somewhat better provided^only two 
or three safe places of shelter in heavy weather, the principal and best 
of which are Thunder bay and Saginaw bay, the latter of which con- 
tains several secure and commodious havens. This lake has no out- 
lets of any kind for its commerce, except the natural channel of its 
waters, by the river, and across the flats of St. Clair to the eastward — 
no canal or railroad as yet opening on its shores ; though it will cer- 
tainly not be many years — perhaps not many months — before the great 
Western railroad through Canada will open to it, via Penetanguishine, 
Hamilton, and the Niagara Falls agd Buffalo railways, a direct and 
very short communication with the Atlantic seaboard — making a saving 
of above six hundred miles of distance from the Sault Ste. Marie. By 
the straits of Mackinaw it has an outlet to the southward, into Lake 
Michigan, and enjoys through it communication, via Green bay and Lake 
Winnebago, the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, with the Mississippi and the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

LAKE MICHIGAN. 

This, which is second of the great lakes in size — ^inferior only to 
Lake Superior — is, in situation, soil, and climate, in many respects, 

!)referable to them all. Its southern extremity running southward, into 
ertile agricultural regions, nearly two degrees to the south of Albany, 
and the whole of its great southern peninsula being embosomed in fresh 
waters, its climate to the southward is mild and equable, as its soil is 
rich and productive. It lies between 41^ 58' and 46^ north latitude, 
and 84o w and 87© 8' west longitude ; is 360 miles in length, and 60 
tn average breadth ; contains 16,981 square miles, and has a mean 
depth of 900 feet. On its western shore it has the great indentation of 
Green bay, itself equal to the largest European lakes, being a bundrBd 



OpumUls AMB LAKB TBADB. 187 

miles in length* by thirty in breadth, well sheltered at its mouth, by 
the Traverse islands, and having for its principal affluent the outlet of 
Lake Winnobam and the Fox river. 

The other principal tributaries of Lake Michigan are the Manistee, 
Ma»kegv>o, Grand, Kalamazoo, and St. Jofteph rivers, from the southern 
peninsula of Michigan ; the Des Plaines, 04Maincs, and Chicago riveit 
vom Indiana and Illinois ; and from the northern peninsula of Michigan, 
the Menomonie, Escanaba, Noquet, White-fish, and Manistee rivers. 

The lake is bounded to the eastward by the rich and fertile lands of 
the sottthem peninsula of Michigan — sending out vast supplies of all 
the cereal grains — wheat and maize especially — equal if not superior 
in quality to any raised in the United States ; on the south and south- 
west by Indiana and Illinois — stipplying com and beef of the finest 
rlity, in superabundance, for exportation ; on the west by the pro- 
tive grain and grazing lands ana lumbering districts of Wisconsin ; 
and on the northwest and north by the invaluable and not yet hali^ 
explored mineral districts of northern Michif2[an. 

The natural outlet of its commerce, as of its waters, is by the straits 
of Mackinac into Lake Huron, and thence by the Su Clair river down 
the St- Lawrence, or any of internal improvements of tlie lower lakes, 
and the States hereinbeiore described. 

Of internal communications it already possesses many, bodi by canal 
and railroadt equal to those of almost any of the older States, in length 
and availability, and inferior to none in importance. 

First, it has die Green bay, Lake Winnebago, and Fox river im^ 
prcivement, connc^rting it with the Wisconsin river, by which il has 
access to the MissL^tsippi river, and thereby enjoys the c^^mmerce of its 
upper valleys, and its rich lower lands and prosperous southern cities ; 
and second, the Illinois and Michigan canal, rendering the great corn 
▼alley of the Illinois tributary to its commerce. By railways, again, 
pcrli-cted orprrjjected, it. has, or will shortly have, connexion with the 
Mifinissippi, m its up|)er waters and lead regions, via the Milwaukie and 
Mi.<sissippi and the Chicago and Galena lines. To the eastward, by 
the MiciugTin ("entral and Southern railroads, it communicates with the 
Lake Sh<>reroad, and thence with all the eastern lines from Buffalo to 
B^Mton ; and to the southward it will speedily be united, by the great 
tystem of projected railroads through Illinois and Indiana, to thc^ Mis- 
•lAsippi and Ohio river. 

It is imposstible not to be convinced, on survt^ying the magnificent 
ay^tem of internal improvements so energetically carried out by these 
•till young, and, as it were, embryo States, that if they were, in a 
dtfgfi't\ anticipatory of their immcnliate nutans and resources, they were 
ocH really in advance of the requirements of the age and country. 
Tbb is sufficiently proved by their triumphant success, and by tlje high 
pnntkm of population, civilization, agricultural and commercial rank 
to which they and thev alone have raised, as if by magic, the so lately 
plfired and untrodden wildernesses of the west. 

By the strong, deep, and rapid river of St. Mary's, with its broad 

(baonnfr Sault, Lakes Michigan and Huron are connected with what 

may be caUbd the headmost of the great lakes, though itself the rc^ipi- 

of the waiars of a line of lakes extending hundreds of miles further 



188 ANDREWS' HBFOBT OK ^ 

to the northwestwardy though uunavigable except to the canoes of the 

savage. 

LAKE SUPERIOR. 

Lake Superior is bounded on the south by the northern peninsula of 
Michigan and part of Wisconsin, on the west and northwest by a por- 
tion of the Minnesota Territory, and on the north and northeast by the 
British possessions. The lands immediately adjoining it are, for the 
most part, sterile, barren, and rugged beyond description, consisting, for 
the most part, on the southern shore, oi detrilal, and on the northern, of 
igneous rocks, covered with a sparse and stunted growth of pines and 
other evergreens, mixed with the feeble northern vegetation of bircfat 
aspen, and other deciduous trees of those regions. Little of theshorest 
it is. believed, are susceptible of* cultivation ; and it is likely, when 
these wild districts become — as they one day will, beyond doubt — ^the 
seat of a large laborious population, that its inhabitants will depend 
mainly for their supplies of food and necessaries, as of luxuries, on the 
more genial regions to the south and eastward. The tributary rivers 
of this lake are numerous,, dnd, bringing down a large volume of water, 
afibrd superabundant water-power for manufactories the most extensive 
in the world, though, from their precipitous descent and numerous 
falls and chutes, they can never be rendered navigable for more 
ihan a few miles above theu: mouths except for canoes; and even for 
these, owing to the number and difficulty of the portages, the ascent is 
laborious in the extreme. 

That these regions will, at no very distant future period, be largely^ 
if never densely, peopled, may be held certain, since, from the east to 
the west the whole southern shore abounds with copper — ^not, as it is 
generally found, in ore yielding a few per cent., but in vast veins of 
almost virgin metal, the extent of which is yet unexplored, as it is 
probably unsuspected and incalculable. So long ago as when the 
French Jesuits discovered these remote and desolate regions, early in 
the seventeenth century, these mines were known and worked by the 
Indians, who, at that time, possessed implements and ornaments of 
copper. They concealed, however, the situation of these mines with a 
superstitious mystery ; and as instruments and weapons of iron and 
steel were introduced among them by the white man, tue use of copper 
fell into abeyance, and the existence of the mines themselves was lost 
in oblivion. 

Within a few years there have been rediscovered several mines — 
some of which, and those by no means the least productive, have been 
discovered within a year or two of this date — which are now in the 
full current of successful exploitation. Many more are doubtless yet 
to be discovered, as the whole region is evidently one vast bed of sub- 
terraneous treasure. The isles Royale and Michipicoton are also, 
beyond question, full of copper, as are portions of tne British coast to 
the northward, where two or three mining stations have been already 
established, with more or less prospects of success. The grounds of 
these prospects, and the character oi the country and its mineral depo9- 
ites, are very ably and graphically described in the interesting memoir^ 
by Dr. Jacl^on, on the geology, mineralogy, and topography of Lake 



COUmiAL AlfD LAKB TBADB. 189 

which is appended to this report, and which, it is believed« 
contains roost correct and valuable information. 

As vett beyond the mining stations and the village at the Sault, Lake 
Papr-rior has no towns or places of business except the points lor 
slnpptn^ tne mineral products of her soil, and receiving the supplies 
oecesMry to the subsistence of the men and animals employed in the 
rxpl«ntatif>n of her treasures. Nor beyond this has she any trade, un- 
less it be the exportation of her white-fish and lake trout, which are 
unrquallcfl by any fish in the world for excellence of flavor and nu- 
tritious qualities. 

Tlir only iidet for merchandise, or outlet for the produce of this vast 
lake, and the wide regions dependent on it, is the portage around the 
Saolt, across which every article has to be transported at prodigious 
labor and expense ; whereas, by a little less exclusive devotion to 
what are d<*(*med their own immediate interest, on the part of the 
iodividual States of the Union, and a little more activity and entcr^ 
pnM* <iQ that of the general government, an easy channel might be 
cno9tn]ct(*d at an cxpi^nse so trivial as to be merely nominal, the results 
of which would lie advantages wholly incalculable to the commerce of 
all the several States, to the g(*neral wealth and Well-being of the 
natMHi, and to ihe almost immediate reniuneration of the outlay to the 
gv*nr*ral government by the increased price of, and demand tor, the 
public lauds in those regions. 



Oeohffy^ Mineralogy^ and Topogrnphy of the lands around litiJct Suprrior; 
Ay Charles T.Jackson, A/. D^^lue United States Geologist and Chemr 
III, Assayer to the State of Ma^sachusettSy and late Geologiu to the States 
Mf Maine^ Sno Hampshire^ Rhode Island^ and far the public lands ef 
SsomochutettM* 

Lake Superior is the largest sheet of fresh water on the face of the 
^*»l»i% and IS the most remarkable of the great American lakes, not only 
tn«n its magnitude, but also from the picturesque scenery of its borders, 
and the interest and value attaching to its geological feature's. As a 
minin? region it is one of the most important in this country, and is rich 
in v# ins of metallic copper and silver, as well as in the on s of those 
mrtalff. At the present moment it may be regarded as the most valua- 
ble mining district in Nortli America, with the exception only ofthe gold 
deprHites of California. 

This great lake is comprised between'the 46th and 49fh tlrgre»os of 
aortb latitude, and the o4th and 92d degrees of longitude, west of 
Greenwich. Its greatest lt*ngth is 400 miles; its width in the middle is 
160 mtlea, and its mean depth has been estimated at 900 \ci*U Its sur- 
finre is about 600 feet above the level ofthe Atlantic ocean, and its hot* 
mm is 900 fi*et l)elow the level ofthe sea. The ancir>nt French Jesuit 
Patberi, who fi^st explored and d<*scribed this great lake, and published 
an account of it in Paris in 1636, describe the form of its shores as 
flioaUar to that of a bended how, the northern shore being the arc, and 
ibe aoiitbem the oordt while Keweenaw Point, projecting from the 



190 ANDRSWS' RBPOST ON 

soutliern shore to the middle of the lake, is the arrow. This ^aphic 
description is illustrated by a map, prepared by them, which displays 
the geographical position of the snores of this great lake with as much 
fidelity as most of the common n\aps of our own day, and proves that 
those early explorers were perfectly familiar with its shores, and knew 
how to make geographical surveys with considerable exactness. Refer- 
ence to a former report to the government of the United States by my- 
self, (31st Congress, 1st session, Ex. Doc. No. 6, part 3d, Washington, 
1849,) fully demonstrates how much was known to the early French 
explorers of the geography and mineral resources of Lake Superior 
and the regions circumadjacent ; and that report will be found, notwith- 
standing some omissions and interpolations, for which I do not hold 
myself responsible, to contain much that will tend to throw light on the 
mineral resources of the public lands lying along the southern shores of 
the lake. 

The coast of Lake Superior is formed of rocks of various kinds and 
of different geological groups. The whole coast of the lake is rock- 
bound, and in some places mountain masses of considerable elevation 
rear themselves from the immediate shore, while mural precipices and 
beetling crags oppose themselves to the surges of this mighty lake, and 
threaten the unfortunate mariner, who may be caught in a storm upon 
a lee shore, with almost inevitable destruction. Small coves, or boat 
harbors, are abundantly aff'orded by the myriads of indentations upon 
the rocky coast; and there are a few good snug harbors for vessels of 
moderate capacity, such as steamboats, schooners, and the like. Isle 
Royale, though rarely visited by the passing vessels, affords the best 
harbors. Keweenaw Point has two bays in which vessels find shelter, 
viz.. Copper harbor and Eagle harbor. Adequate protection may be 
found from the surf under the lee of the Apostle islands, at LaPointe; 
and there is tolerable anchorage at the Sault de Ste. Marie, the port of 
embarcation upon St. Mary's river, at tlie outlet of the lake. 

There are but few islands in Lake Superior ; and in this respect it 
differs most remarkably from Lake Huron, which is thickly dotted with 
isles and islets, especially on its northern shore. 

Owing to the lofty crags which surround Lake Superior, the winds 
sweeping over the lake impinge upon its surface so abruptly as to raise 
a peculiarly deep and combing sea, which is extremely dangerous to 
boats and small craft. It is not safe, on this account, to venture far 
out into the lake in batteaux ; and hence voyageurs generally hug the 
shore, in order to be able to take land in case of sudden storms. During 
the months of June, July, and August, the navigation of the lake is 
ordinarily safe ; but after the middle of September great caution is re- 
quired in navigating its waters, and boatmen of experience never ven- 
ture far from land, or attempt long traverses across Days. Their boats 
are always drawn far up on the land at every camping^^ilace for the 
night, lest they should be staved to pieces by the surf, which is liable 
at any moment to rise and beat with great fury upon the beaches. 

The northern or Canadian shore of the lake is most precipitous, and 
consequently most dangerous to the navigator. On the south sb(Nre, 
again, the sandstone chfis, which rise in mural or overhanging preci* 
pices directly firom the water's edge for many miles, afford no landing- 



OOLOVIAL AMD LAKB TRADK. 191 

places. This is the case e«pecially along the clifis at the Pictured 
K<M:ks, and on the coast of Keweenaw bay, called FAmc by the French 
▼oya|ci*ur8« 

On the coast of Isle Roysfle there are beautiful boat harbors scattered 
alimg its whole extent on both sides of the island ; and at its easterly 
extremity the long spits of rocks, which project like fingers fur into the 
lake, affi>rd abundant shelter for boats or small vessel^ while at the 
wr5teTn end of the island there is a large and well-sheltered bay, called 
Washini^on harbor. 

Near Siskawit bay the navigator must beware of the gently-shelving 
rrd sandstone strata which run for many miles out into the lake, with a 
f<*w feet (}!ily of water covering them. Rock harbor, on the south side 
of tlie Uland, is a large and perfectly sale harbor for any vessels, and 
kH5 frond holding ground for anchorage, with a very bold shore ; while 
th<* nainerous islands, which stand like so many castles at its entrancCf 

Cnilect it from the heavy surges of the lake. The whole asptxt of this 
IT is not unlike that of the bay of Naples, though there is no modem 
volcano in the back gn)und to complete the scene. 

Nnn«* f»f the American lakes can compare with Lake Superior in 
Ijpaithtulneiis of climate during the summer months, and there is no 
pbcf* sti well calculated to restore the health of an invalid who has 
»ul]tT<-tl from the dc*pres8ing misisms of the tever-breeding soil of the 
srnithwestem t>tates. In winter the climate is severe, and at the Sauk 
Sir. Marie mercury not unfrequently freezes ; but on Keweenaw Point, 
where the waters of tlie lake temper U)e chillness of the air, the cold 
IS not excessive, and those who have resided tliere during the winter 
say that the cold is not more diiiicult of endurance than in the New 
England Stat<rs. Heavy snows fall ia mid-winter on this promontory, 
tuning to its almost insular situation ; but the inhabitants are well skilled 
:n tlie use of snow-shoes, so that the snow is not regardt*d as an ob- 
friacle to the iiedestrian, while on the newly-made roads the sli*ds and 
»!« iirhs sorni beat a track, on which gay winter parties ride and frolic 
dunng th<' long winter evenings of this high nortliern latitude. From 
researclies which I have made, it appears that the mean annual tem- 
prratorr at Copper Harbor, on Keweenaw Point, is 42^ ; and from my 
« xpenments on the temperature of the lake, at diflerent seasons of the 
Tear* the waters of this great lake are shown to preserve a constant t(*m«- 
prature of about 39^^ or 40^ F., which is tliat of water at its maxi- 
myro density. 

It is knoMm that Lake Superior never freezes in the middle, nor any- 
«bere except near its short's, from which the ice very rarely extends to 
nure than ten or fifteen miles distance. Occasionally, in severe win- 
ters, the ice does extend from the Canada shore to Isle Ilt)yale, which 
IS from fifteen to twenty miles distant ; 8^> that the caribou and m(M>so 
rmaa orer on it to the island, whither the Indian hunters 8om«'time8 
fallow tliem over the same treacherous bridge, liable, although it is, to 
br suddenly brr>ken intf> fragments by the surges of the lake. 

By tlie action of drifting ic*e, not only have boulders of rocks and of 
Bative copper been transported tar from their native beds, and de|)oa- 
tfftl opoQ the shore at distant places, but even animals, such as S(]uir« 
lelsv fabbits, deer* mooset caribou, and bears, have thus navigated 



192 AMDRHWS* SBPORT ON 

the waters of Lake Superior, and been landed on islands to whicfa 
they could not otherwise have gained access. The mouth of every 
river on the lake shore reveals, by the debris brought down by ice in 
the spring fieshets, the nature of the rocks* and minerals which occur 
in its immediate banks or bed ; and thus indicates to the explorer the 
proper places where to search for ores or metals. 

The early French explorers noticed the fact of the transportation of 
masses of native copper and rock by drift ice, but they made no use of 
these facts to discover the native deposites of metals in the rocks which 
border on the rivers. It was by following the hint drawn from these 
traces that my assistant and myself were enabled, in 1844 and 1845« 
to discover and make known to the country those valuable mines, 
which have so astonished the world by their metallic contents, and 
which subsequently induced the government of the United States to 
undertake a geological survey of that teritory, with the conduct of 
which I was charged by the Hon. Robert J. Walker, late Secretary of 
the Treasury, and which I effected, so far as it was possible to do so, 
before my labors were brought to an abrupt conclusion, by circum- 
stances over which I had no control. 

To the construction of a canal around the falls of the Sault Ste. Marie, 
one of the principal obstacles will be found in the winter's ice, against 
which the locks at the entrance to the canal must be guarded, or the 
work, however strong, will be overturned and destroyed. Vessels of 
any considerable burden cannot approach the shore nearer than about 
half a mile. The canal must, therefore, be carried out into the water 
to that distance, and the form of the ice-breakers, guards, or mole* 
must be such as to allow the ice to rise over them, and not to press 
against perpendicular walls. This is to be done by giving a proper 
slope, or bevel, to the walls, so that the ice will ride up them and 
break into pieces. By this method the harbor and entrance locks may 
be sufficiently protected against the driving and expanding ice of the 
lake and St. Mary's river. 

The opening of a ship canal between Lake Superior and the lower 
lakes is one of the most important enterprises of the day, and it is only 
to be regretted that Congress has thought it best to appropriate land 
instead of applying money directly to the execution of this great work, 
which may now be delayed for some time, to the great disadvantage of 
the country at large. So soon as the canal above mentioned shsUi be 
completed, the summer tour of travellers will be extended to a cruise 
around Lake Superior, and from La Pointe .many will cross over to 
the Falls of St. Anthony, on the Mississippi river ; and thus explorers 
will find it easy to gain access to remote regions, now seldom visited 
by white men. The importance of this enterprise can hardly be over- 
estimated, and its consequence will be the vast facilitation and increase 
of the commerce of Lake Superior, and the incalculable enhancement 
of the value of the public lands, while a tide of immigration may be 
looked for from Norway, Sweden, and the north of Europe, as well «s 
from the New England States, pouring into the northwestern wilder- 
ness, and subduing the forests, and extending far and wide the area of 
freedom and civilization. 

The time will doubtless come when a canal or railway will be made 



OOU>NIAL AND IsAXB TBADB. 193 

i(> tbr Pallfl of 8u Anthony ; and possibly we may see the trade of Hud- 
<4n*s bey flowing into the United States, through Lake Superior and 
•njr other great lakes and rivers. For that great bay is but fittoen days' 
(*anoc voyage from Lake Superior, and the portage^ arc few and not 
kmg, BO that the British Hudson's Bay Fur Company carry on constant 
cummonication with their factories upon the bay from their posts upon 
Lake Superior ; and their agents at the British posts in Oregon travel 
trom their stations on tiie borders of the Pacific ocean, by way of Hud- 
>4iq's bay and Lake Superior, on their route to Great Britain. This 
oortfaem region has untbrtunately been always, hitlierto, undervalued. 
It is oi>w known to be one of the most important mineral regions in 
America ; and it should be borne in mind that there are deposites of 
D«ti%'e copper on Copper Mine and McKenzie's rivers, in the same kinds 
itt'ruck that contain the stupendous lodes of this metal on Keweenaw 
FoiDt and the Ontonagon rivers. Every means that tend to carry our 
{f Kpulation farther northward will tend to bring to light and to practical 
utility the mineral treasures of those regions ; while trade in furs and 
m:mI skins will be brought nearer to us by enterprising men, it matters 
isul whether of the British provinces or of the United States of America* 
The lime is now come when the public faith is settled on the value 
•»t mineral productions ; i|nd it is understood that good working mines 
:ire sure to cf>mmand and reward the energies of capitalists and minerst 
oioct* It is proved that mining is liable to no greater risks of failure than 
fdinary mercantile enterprises, provided due precaution be exercised 
by the adventurers in the selection of their mines and in working them 
tu advantage. 

R0CK8 OP LAKB SUPBRIOB LAND DISTRICT. 

On approaching the Sault Ste. Marie by the St. Mary's river the 
gf^AogM has an opportunity of discovering the age of the sandstone 
•trala« by observing that the limestones of Saint Joseph's island, and of 
the other numerous isles in that river, are locks of the Devonian group, 
and cootatn the characteristic fossils by which that rock is determined 
to be the e«|uivalent of those of Eifei, as has been fully proved by Mons. 
Jok-s Marcou, tlie geologist sent to the United States by the govern- 
ment of France, to make collections for the Museum of Geology in the 
da PlamttM of Paris. These Devonian rocks, like those of Madu- 
ra liave lieen mistaken by two geologists who have reported upon 
*ius district for Siberian limestones ; by whom the geological position 
• •f the sandstone of the Sault Ste. Marie has also been mistaken, in 
their supposing that it passed beneath these Devonian rocks, when it 
:zi reality is above them, as it is se<*n to rest horizontally around Silu- 
nao limestooe, near Sturgeon river, on Keweenaw Point, beneath which 
.t csnooc pass, considering the fact that the limestone in (]ue$tion has a 
'lip of thirty degnn^s from the horizon, wliile tht; snndstone at that place 
j^ aoile horizont;iL 

It is obvionst then, that the red and gray sandstones of Lake Superior 
irr above Devonian rucks, and then*tore cannot (>e older thim the coal 
vcmatioo ; while from their littdo^icul characters they appear to l)elong 
'iO the Prmitan system of V'emeuil and Murchis(»n. Above the Sault 

13 



194 ikMBBBWS' REPORT ON 

we see these red and gray sandstones dipping at a gentle angle into the 
lake, showing that they do in fact dip directly opposite to the direction 
that would be required to make them dip beneath the limestone on St. 
Mary's river. ^ 

This question is one of some importance ; since, if the sandstones of 
Lake Superior were, as has been erroneously alleged, of the Potsdam 
group, they would be out of all accordance with tne ascertained facts 
of geological science, and would break into the system of the best 
known laws of elevation of strata and of order of super-position. 
In paint of fact the sandstones of Lake Superior are the exact equiva- 
lents of those of Nova Scotia, where trap-rocks of the same age as 
those on Lake Superior pass through it and produce precisely the same 
results as I have abeady described in my reports on the geology and 
mines of Lake Superior, bearing in the same way more or less native 
copper, with occasional particles of silver. Now, Potsdam sand* 
stone never presents any such results in any part of America ; and to 
call that of Lake Superior its equivalent, is but to lead people astray, 
and to nourish false hopes of finding copper and silver where it does 
not occur, while a great error introduced into science cannot fail to 
produce the most mischievous results. On this account, I have thought 
proper to notice an error which would not otherwise be worthy of refu- 
tation. 

Leaving the Sault and cruising along the southern shore of the lake, 
with an occasional trip inland, we come to cliffs of sandstone, and then 
to rocks called metamorphic, which extend from Chocolate to Carp 
and Dead rivers, and find slate rocks, granite rocks, sienite, homblend 
rock, and chlorite slate. In this group of primary rocks we find moun- 
tain masses of excellent specular iron ore and magnetic iron ore mixed. 
These mountains of iron ore were originally explored under my direc- 
tions, by Mr. Joseph Stacy, of Maine, who first called public attention 
to them in 1845. They were subse(j[uently examined by Dr. John 
Locke, and Dr. Wm. F. Channing, while serving as my assistants in 
the geological survey of this region in 1847. 

There IS an immense supply of the richest kind of iron ore in these 
hills, and the Jackson Iron Company of Michis^an has erected forges 
for making blooms for bar-iron — ^the quality of which is excellent. This 
region may be called one of the important iron-districts of Lake Supe- 
rior, and will become of great value at some future day, when there 
shall be facilities for transportation of the ore to the coal districts of 
Ohio. 

The granitic and sienite rocks occupy a considerable tract of land 
which has not yet been explored, and has only been run over by the 
linear surveyors, who have brought out fragments indicating the coun- 
try to the westward of the sandstone, on the coast, to be crystalline ; 
but the geological relations of the two rocks have never been ascer- 
tained, nor have their mineral contents been seen by any one. 

Following the coast to I'Anse, or Keweenaw bay, we find on the 
south side of that bay large beds of slate rocks, some of which are good 
novaculite or whetstone slate. On the northern side of the bay we find 
a long series of cliffs of red sandstone perfectly horizontal, or at most 
wavy, extending all the way to Bete Gns. This sandstone, as before 



COUanAh AMD LAXB TRADB. 196 

obfterved at Sturaeoa riveri sorroundB a mass of Silurian limestoDe 
containing sbells, Imowo as the PentameruB obUmgui^ one of which I dis- 
covered in a piece of the limestone brought to me by one of my assist- 
ams in 184& 

At Lac la Belle and at Mt. Houghton the trap-rocks occur, and ride 
over the sandstone strata after passing between their layers ; and at 
Mu Houghton the igneous a^ncy of this trap-rock has changed the 
fine sandstone into a kind of jasper. 

At Lac la Belle, on Bohemian mountain, we have re^lar veins of 
the gray sulphuret of copper, containing a certain proportion of sulphu- 
ret €}( silver. Mines have been opened on this hiU, out have not thus 
far proved successful, since the ore requires preparation by machinery 
Dot yet to be procured in that region. 

Lac la Belle is a most beautiml sheet of water, bordered by moun- 
tains or steep hills, such as Mt. Houghton and Bohemian mountain, 
while on the south the horizontal plains of sandstone stretch away in 
the distance and are covered with a ^owth of forest trees. Leaving 
Lac la Belle, we pass down a serpentine stream which enters the great 
lake. Then following the coast; we pass beneath frowning crags and 
visit the falls of the Little Montreal streanj. All this coast consists of 
irap-ffocks, and of a kind of porphyry or compact red feldspar. No 
copper veins of any value occur on the coast this side of the point, 
though many companies have wasted their money in attempts to work 
calcareous spar veins that are perfectly dead lodes, or free from cop- 
per. At the extremity of the point, agates are found in amygdaloidal 
trap-rocks, and on the shore in the form of rolled pebbles. 

Doubling the cape, we soon pass Horseshoe cove and reach Copper 
harbor, the site of Fort WiUdns, and one of the first places where cop- 
per ore was noticed by the French Jesuits ; since whose time it has 
ever been known to the voyageurs on the lake under the name of the 

gft€M TOcJtm 

While constructing the fort at l^opper Harbor, numerous boulders of 
black oxide of copper, a very rare ore of that metal, were discovered ; 
and before long a vein of this valuable ore was discovered in the con- 
gjooaeraie rocks, near the pickets which enclose the parade ground. 
This was found to be a continuation of the vein calleo the gretn rock 
at Hayeses Point, and was immediately opened by the Boston and 
Pitisburg Mining Company. Unfortunately, however, the vein was 
•oon cut off, as 1 had ventured to predict it would be, by a heavy stra- 
tom of fine-grained red sandstone, which is not cupriferous. There 
the vein was found to consist wholly of calcareous spar, and of earthy 
minerals of no economical value. 

The miners were then transfernnl to the cliff near Eagle river, where 
1 bad surveyed a valuable vein of native copper, mixed with silver. 
This vein has since been fully proved, and is one of the wonders of the 
world ; there bein^ 8i>Ud masses of pure copper in the vein, of more 
than 100 ions weight each, besides masses of smaller size in other 
parts of the vein. This mine has produced about 900 tons of copper 
per aonuiDf and is one of the most valuable copper mines in the coun- 
try. It is a regular metallic veb, in amygdaloidal trap-rock, which 
ttodcrljef the compact trap-rock that caps the hill. The spot is one of 



196 ANDEIBWS' REPORT ON 

the finest locations for mining purposes that I have seen, the vein being 
exposed in the face of a cliff' 300 feet above the level of the southwest 
branch of Eagle river. This vein, when first discovered, was far from 
disclosing its real ^alue. A perpendicular vein of prehnite, six inches 
wide at the top of the cliff*, was observed to contain a few particles of 
copper and silver, not amounting to more than two per cent, of the 
mass. About halfway down the cliff* this vein of prehnite was found 
to be a foot and a half wide, and contained five and a half per cent, of 
copper and some silver. It was thought worth while to drive a level 
into the lower part of the cliff*, where, according to the rate of widen- 
ing of the vein, it ought to be from two to three feet wide. This was 
done at my suggestion, and a magnificent lode of copper was disclosed ; 
many lumps of solid copper of several hundred weight being found 
mixed with the vein-stone. On sinking a shaft at this point tlie solid 
metallic copper was soon found to occupy nearly the whole width of 
the chasm, and immense blocks of copper are now taken from this vein 
by the miners, who are working levels 300 or more feet below the 
mouth of the shaft. Large quantities of lumps of cbpper called barrel 
ore, and rock rich in smaller pieces of copper, mixed with silver, are 
now raised, this last being palled stamp ore, and worked by stamping 
and washing the ore. From this stamp work about five thousand dol- 
lars' worth of pure silver is picked out by hand, and much is still left 
among the finer particles of metal and goes into the melted copper. 

Suitable cupelling furnaces will ultimately be erected for the separa- 
tion of all the silver from this rich argentiferous stamp work, lead being 
the appropriate metal for its extraction by eliquation and cupellation. 

There are other valuable copper mines on Eagle river. The North 
American Company, which has one end of the cliff* vein, called the 
South Cliff* mine, and another on which their mining operations com- 
menced some years ago, is at present in successful operation, and will 
add much to the exports of copper fi-om the lake. 

The Lake Superior Copper Comp&ny, which was the first that en- 
gaged in those mming operations that gave value to this district, opened 
its first mines on Eagle river in 1844. Under the very unfavorable 
state of things which then existed in the savage and uncivilized state of 
the country, and after two or three years' labor, they very unfortunately 
sold their mines, at the precise moment when they were upon the vein 
that now has been proved to be so very rich in copper and silver. 
The Phoenix Copper Company, formed of the remains of the Lake Su- 
perior Company, opened these mines anew ; and now these give ample 
encouragement to the new adventurers, who will doubtless reap their 
reward in valuable returns for their labor and enterprise. 

A new vein a little to the eastward of the first that was opened, on 
the river's borders, is said to give promise of valuable returns. 

The Copper Falls mine, another branch of the Lake Superior Com- 
pany, is also engaged in working valuable veins of native copper and 
silver, and has sent some of their metals to market. 

The Northwest Company has a valuable mine a few miles from 
Eagle Harbor, and the metal raised therefrom is very rich and abun- 
dant, some of it being mixed with sprigs and particles of metallic silver. 
This mine, if opened with due skill, and in as bold a manner as that of 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADB. 197 

the Boeton and PitUiburg Company at the clifT, cannot fail to prove of 
grrat value* 

TtH*n* is also a mine, owned by the Northwestern Company, near 
the Copper Falls mine, in the rear of Eagle Harbor, which is also rich 
in Dativ<* coppc-r, but I do not know its present condition. 

A mine was also opened at Eagle Harbor, which gave a large yield 
of copper mixed with laumonitc ; but the mine was opened hke a 
quarry, and tvas close to the waters of the lake. It was, therefore, 
soijn Airxkrd, and was consequently abandoned by tlic miners. • 

There is also a mine called the Forsyth, which is probably a valu- 
mble ooe, but it was not opened at the time I made my surveys. I 
obtaioed fine specimens of copper and silver from this vein, and sent 
them to Washington, with the large collection I made for the United 
Statf^s government, and they are now to be seen with my collection in 
the Smithsonian Institute. 

A full and minute descriptive catalogue of the collection I made for 
the United States government was sent by me, as a part of my report, 
lo ihe late Secretary of the Interior ; but it has not been printed, 
tbuugh it was the most valuable part of my report, and is absolutely 
orcessary for the full understanding thereof, and for learning the 
oatun*, locality, and value* of each specimen in the collection made 
by mt\ 

The rocks which contain native copper, on Keweenaw Point, are of 
that kind called amygdaloidal trap, wliicli is a vesicular rock, formed 
by the interfusion of sandstone and trap-rock, and is tin; product of 
the combination of the two gaseous bubbles, or aqueous vapors, which 
have bk>wn it into a sort of scoria at the time of its formation. It is 
in this rock that we find the copper- bearing prehnite and other vein- 
jtoors (leculiar to the copper lodes. In Nova Scotia the same facts 
wrre observed by Mr. Alger and myself, only that there the copper is 
a¥Kv abundant in the brecciated trap, or a trap tuff, which lies below 
XlM" amygdaloid. Prehnite does not occur in Nova Scotia trap, but in 
its iKtead we find aiialcime, laumonitc, and stilbite, as the minerals 
ac^iHniMinying the native copper. 

<>D Isle [{/lyale we have phenomena similar to those observed on 
K«-w«"f'naw Point : lon^ Indis of trap-rock, with bands of a con- 
gbmrrate of coarse water-worn pebbles, and strata of fine red sand* 
stnoe. 

The traprocks rest on the AtraUi of sandstone, after passing between 
thin 5tnua ; and at the line of contact, and for a coijsiderable distance, 
we have an amygdaloidal structure develriped. It is pn)bable that 
ihe trap-HK'k was poured over tlie smidstone strata while the whole 
was ffuimK'r^tult and that other beds of sandstone were d(*{N)sit(*d upon 
it ; «o that if this was the case, wc should have a succession of 
dr*(in«itcs; but in some places it ap[x.^ars as if the trap had elevated 
tbr strata^ tuid pushed itself through the sandstone* by main forces 
Whatever may b(? the thc'ory of this* it is certain that the >trike of the 
strata and the direction of the included trap-rock are thr" sam<*. On 
KewiY'naw Point we have veins cutting acn>ss the mineral direction of 
the jOraLa, and, of course*, of the trap ran>;(N or, as the miners call it, 



198 ANDREWS* RBPORT ON 

" across the country ;" while on Isle Royale the copper veins more fre- 
quently run parauel with the trap ranges, or " with the country.** 

On Isle Royale, as near the Ontonagon river, on the south shore of 
the lake, massive epidote is the ilbost common "vein-stone" that bears 
native copper — the metal being interspersed with it in its mass, or 
spread in thin sheets in the natural joints of the rock, with occasional 
masses or lumps of considerable magnitude. Near Rock Harbor, on 
Isle Royale, at a place called Epidote, and at another called after the 
mostf abundant mineral found m the veins, ffranular and compact 
epidote are the prevalent rocks accompanying we native copper. So, 
also, at Scovill's Point the same associations prevail in the cupriferous 
veins. 

The most important and productive mines of native copper on Isle 
Royale have been opened on the north side of the island ; but still the 
explorations have been too limited to allow of our judging of the 
value of the numerous veins upon that remarkable island. At Wash- 
ington Harbor, upon Phelps's island, several promising veins of native 
copper, associated with prehnite, occur; but they have not been 
opened to a depth suflScient to establish their value. At Siskawit bay 
we^find a large body of fine red sandstone bordering the trap-rocks, and 
shelving down into the lake at a very moderate angle. No valuable 
copper veins have been found at this place ; but the bay is one of the 
favorite stations for fishermen, who pack annually great numbers of 
sikawit, [saJmo siskavntj'] the fattest and finest species of the lake trout 
family, and large lake trout, namaycush, [salmo amethystus^l and white- 
fish, attihawmeg, [coregonus albus,'] for the western market — from 
900 to 1,000 barrels of these fine fisn being salted and packed for sale 
each year. 

The siskawit may be said to be peculiar to the shores of this 
island, few being caught on the shores of Keweenaw Point, and their 
migrations being extremely limited. They are caught readily by the 
hook, but are more commonly taken by means of gill-nets, which 
are set a yard or two from the bottom, in water of about 200 feet 
depth — the . lower edge of the net being anchored by means of small 
stones attached to cords, while the upper edge is sustained vertically 
by means of thin laths or spindles of light wood. These nets are set 
at night, and are drawn in the morning. 

The siskawit weighs fi-om five to twenty pounds, while the lake 
trout often weighs as much as forty or fifty pounds. 

Of all the fish caught upon the lake the siskawit is most prized by 
the natives on account of its fatness. White-fish are, however, much 
more delicate, and are preferred to all others by the white inhabitants 
and travellers. 

The fisheries of Lake Superior are of great value to the people 
living upon the shores of the lake, and of some importance to the 
States bordering on the other and lower lakes, and tne inland towns 
near their borders. To the poor Indian the bounties of the great lakes 
are of vital importance, for, without the fish, the native tribes would 
soon perish. Game has become exceedingly scarce in these thickly 
wooded regions, only a few bears, rabbits, and porcupines, and some 



COLONIAL AJtD hAXM TRADE. 199 

putxidges, being found in the woodsi and ducks in moderate numbers 
upon the waters* 

Acricukure has scarcely beeim to tame the wilderness in the vicin- 
ity ot* the copper mines, and we only crops raised are potatoes and a 
lew hardy northern esculents. Small cereal grains — such as oats, bar* 
ley and rye — will do well here as in Canada ; and Indian corn of the 
northern varieties, in places not too much exposed to the chill breezes 
^if the lake, thrives and ripens. English grasses have not yet been 
cultivated, but they will undoubtedly tlirive as well on the south shore 
iii Lake Superior as in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The native 
iFTE^sei are abundant and good, but are limited to small natural prai- 
rieji or dried-up ponds. Judging from the luxuriant growth of forest 
trees — such as the maple, yellow birch, and other trees conmion to 
Maine and New Brunswick — we should judge that the soil was as good 
'm the shores of Lake Superior as in that State and province. 

Those who liave only viewed the* immediate coast of the lake, es- 
peciallv that now densely covered with a tangled growth of small, 
nunted« tipnice and fir trees, would i>e likely to undtTvalue tlie agri- 
cultural resources of that region. Thoy should remember that the cold 
air from th<* lake aflects tlie vegetation only near its shores, and tliat 
tVirtlHT inlaml the temperature more resembles that of Canada and the 
ir>rtfaem parts of New Hampshire and New York. This is not only 
ibown by tiie native forest trei*s and the flowering plants, but also, 
wliere clearings have been made to a sufficient extent, by the agricul- 
tural pfrxluce rais^xl upon tlie soil. 

Ti»e iiirests also are tilled with excellent timber .for building pur- 
poses ; and, where the growth is of mixed trees, such as sugar-muple, 
y<*llow birch, and pines, the white and yellow pines are of large di- 
men^iofij, and furnish gcxxi lumber for sawing into bovds, planks, and 
deals. Though there is little prospect at present of sending sawed 
boards from Lake Superior to the lower lake country, the time will 
come when this valuable timber will become of commercial import- 
ance ; and that time will arrive the sooner if the ship canal now pro- 
posed at the Sault de Sainte Marie shall be constructed within any 
reajooable time. 

The northern or British shore of Lake Superior has as yet been but 
iitllr explored, either geologically or for minerals* One mine of blende, 
or sulpliuret of zinc, richly mixed with spangles of native silver, and a 
▼rin of sulphuret of copper, have been uiscovered at Prince's bay, on 
the nrirth short*, not far from Isle Koyale. I know not what progress 
ha« bct*o made in developing the ores of this mine, but at the time 
wbrn I examined it^ in lo47, it gave promise of rich returns. As a 
setKTal thing the copper on the northern shon^s is mineralized by sul- 
phur, and occurs as yellow copper pyrites, or as gray or black sulphu- 
reu of <Y>pper, while the copper on the south shore and on Isle Iloyale 
Ls moidy in the metallic state, and all the valuable working-mines are 
therr i>pencd for the native metal. This is a remarkable reversion of 
the U4ual laws of mineral veins, and was first discovered and [M)inted 
out by myself, and the first mines for native cop|x*r wctc opened by 
my advice and in accordance with my surveys, in 1844, as before 
MstecL Tbi« remarkable region Ims certainly surprised both giH)logists 



200 ANDREWS* BBPOaT ON 

and miners by its wonderful lodes of native copper, and by tiie lumps 
of pure silver which have been opened and brought to light by enter- 
prising companies and skilful miners. 

One of the most remarkable associations of metals is here observed 
in the intermixture of pure silver with pure copper, the two metals 
being perfectly united without any alloying ot one with the other. 
This singular condition of these two metals has puzzled chemists and 
.mineralogists ; and the solution of the problem of their mode of depo- 
sition in the veins is still undiscovered. It is obvious, from experiment, 
and from all wc know of the affinities of metals for each other, that the 
native copper was not injected in a molten state into the veins. Al- 
though I have discovered the manner in which the copper veins were 
probably formed, I am far from having learned that of the silver, for 
we know of no volatile salt, or combination of that metal. This sub- 
ject, which has occupied much of my time for several years, will be 
explained more fully at a future time, in a paper addressed to scientific 
men, as it does not form a suitable subject for a mere popular essay 
like the present communication ; and, as before observed, is still an 
uncompleted study. 

The rocks known to belong to the cupriferous formation of Lake 
Superior are all of igneous formation, or have been thrown up from 
the unknown interior of the globe in a molten state, and in long rents, 
having a somewhat crescentic shape, with the curve toward the north 
and west ; the radius of the arc not being far from tliirty miles in 
length on Keweenaw Point. The average width of this oelt is not 
more than five miles, while its length is not less than two hundred 
miles. The Ke\Veenaw belt of trap runs by the Ontonagon river, nar- 
rowing to only a mile in width in some parts of its course, and then 
widening rapidly as it extends into Wisconsin. 

On the Ontonagon river it is about four miles wide ; and it is there 
highly cupriferous, several important veins, now wrought by mining 
companies, having been discovered by the miners in their employ, on 
this river and in its vicinity. The Minnesota mine has been, thus far, 
the most successful of those opened upon this part of the trap range. It 
is remarked by all the geologists and miners who have examined these 
rocks, that the copper ore lies in the amygdaloidal variety of them ; and 
that the veins of native copper are pinched out into narrow sheets in 
the harder trap-rock which overlies the amygdaloid. This fact was 
first noticed by Mr. Alger and myself in the geological survey of Nova 
Scotia, made by us in 1827 ; and the private geological surveys which 
I made on Keweenaw Point, in 1844 and 1845, proved it to be true 
also in that region ; so that it is a law now well known to the miners 
upon the Lake Superior land district. It was discovered, also, that the 
copper dies out in the veins when tliey cut through sandstone rocks. 
The reason for this I have discovered, and proved by experiment and 
observation, and shall farther verify when ordered to complete my 
government survey of the mineral lands of the United States in Mich- 
igan. 

Much may be expected from the explorations now going on upon the 
northern shore of the lake, under the authority of the Canadian govern- 
ment, since the wisdom of that province has perceived the importance 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 201 

of rendering her researches and investigations into the mineral treasures 
of ber soil the most eficctual and complete, and has consequently 
tDtru5ted them to men the most thoroughly competent to the task. 

Experienced miners are often good observers, and to them we owe 
much valuable observation ; but they are not often sufficiendy acouainted 
with Ijeology and mineralo^to enable them to judge of the value of a 
rain<* in a <*ountry with which they are not familiar ; and they cannot 
describe what they discover so as to make their observations intelligible 
or valuable to others. Miners are good assistants, but poor principals, 
in any geological survey. Hence the British government employs her 
most Iramed and practical geologists in her surveys in Canada, and 
allows them time and means to accomplish in a proper manner their 
important work. 

On ibe northern shores of the lake, as before observed, we find most 
commonly tlie ores of copper ; while in the trap-rocks, on the south 
side, the metal occurs in its pure metallic state. The ores which have 
been fiiund on Lake Huron already promise to give ample profits to the 
f>wners of the mine ; and other localities are known, where there is a 
rrasr»nable pn>spect of successful mining, on the northern borders of 
Lake Superior. 

Tr»de will spring up between us and our Canadian neighbors as 
srioo as their shore becomes inhabited, and, it is to be hoped, will prove 
of reciprocal advantage to the two countries. 

C. T. JACKSON. 



THE LAKES— GENERAL VIEW. 

This is a brief and rapid outline of a country, and a system of 
waters strangely adapted by the hand of Providence to become the 
channel of an inlanu navigation, une(|ualled and incomparable the 
wi"rld over ; through regions the richest of the wljole eartli in produc- 
iMHiA of all kinds — productions of the field, productions of ttie forest, 
productions of the waters, productions of the lx>wcls of the ejuih— re- 
gions overflowing with cere(d and animal wt^alth, abounding in the 
mo#t truly valuable, if not most pnx*ious, metals and minerals — lead, 
iron, cr)pj>er, coal — bevond the m<isl lavorod countries of the globe ; 
rrgitfint^ which would, but ibr these waters, have be(*n as inaccessible 
a^ tbe Meppa of Tartary or SilxTia, and the v:due of the productions 
wfaeret»f must have b<'en swallowed up in the expense of theu* transpor- 
tati<»n. 

And this country, tiiese waters, hitherto so little regarded, so sin- 
irularly neglecte<l, the importance of which dot^s not ap|)eur to be so 
much as sus[>ected by one man in ten thous:uid of the citizens of this 
int*at republu*, is ecrtainly destined to exc<'l in absolute and actual 
wealtii. afrricultural, mineral, and commerciad, tlw aggregate of the 
Either pi>rtions of the United States, how thrifty, how thriving, how 
^oerK«'tical and industrious soi*v<»r they may be. 

Of thi*s<» lakes and rivers, during the year ISol, the commerce, 
tureiifn and aiastwise, was esliniatt-d at three hundred and twenty-six 
inilluin five hundred mid ninety-three thousand three hundred and 
thinv-fivc dollars ; transaete<I by means of an enrolled tonnage of 



202 AITDKSWS' RBPOHT ON 

seventy*seven thousand and sixty-one tons of steam, and one handred 
and thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and fourteen tons of sail, or an 
aggregate licensed tonnage of two hundred and fifteen thousand nine 
hundred and seventy-five tons. 

In the prosecution of this commerce, it would appear, as nearly as 
can be ascertained, that there was entered an aggregate at all the lake 
ports together, of 9,469,506 tons during the season ; and cleared at 
the same ports 9,456,346 tons — showing an average of nearly forty- 
four entrances of the whole lake tonnage during the season. 

Of the above amount of commerce the value of $314,473,458 went 
coastwise, and $12,119,877 Canadian or foreign. 

The returns of the coasting trade are, it is true, very imperfect and 
unsatisfactory, as are also the estimates founded upon them ; but, as 
approximations only can be arrived at under the circumstances, the 
best use has been made of the returns received ; and the results arrived 
at cannot but appear strange to those not immediately conversant with 
the character ot the lake trade. 

According to these estimates the coasting trade is divided into ex- 
ports, $132,017,470 ; and imports, $182,455,988 ; showing a difference 
of $50,438,518, when there should have been a perfect balance. 
This discrepancy arises from a higher rate of valuation at the place 
of importation than at that of exportation, or vice versd. Products of 
agriculture, the forests, and the mines, are easily valued at a correct 
rate ; whereas one ^reat division of articles of importation, classed as 
merchandise, includmg everything from the finest jewelry and choicest 
silks to the most bulky and cheapest articles of grocery, can scarcely 
be reduced to a correct money value. 

The discrepancy, then, arises from the valuation of the articles per 
ton being fixed at too high a figure at one port> or too low at another. 
Which valuation is the more correct, it is impossible to ascertain under 
thepresent system of regulations. 

Taking the lowest estimate, the actual money value of the coastwise 
exports of these lakes is $132,000,000, in round numbers, being the 
mere value of the property passing over the lakes, without including 
passage money, passengers carried, cost of vessels, expenses of crews, 
or anything in the least degree Extraneous. 

The amount of grain alone jivhich was trsuisported during the season 
of 1851, amounted to 1,962,729 barrels of flour, and 8,119,169 bushels 
of wheat — amounting to what equals an aggregate of 17,932,807 bushels 
of wheat; 7,498,264 bushels of com; 1,591,758 bushels of oats; and 
360,172 bushels of barley ; in all 27,382,801 bushels of cereal produce. 
This branch of traffic, it is evident, must continually increase with the 
increasing influx of immigration, and the bringing into cultivation of 
the almost unbounded tracts of the very richest soil, on which the forest 
is now growing, which surround the lakes on almost every side. And 
the like may be predicated of the exploitation of the mines, the prosecu- 
tion of the fisheries, and the bringing to light of all natural resources — 
facilities of transportion causing immigration, immigration improving 
cultivation and production, and these two originating commerce, ana 
multiplying a thousand-fold the wealth, the rank, and the happiness of 
the confederacy. 



OOLOBTIAI. AND UkXB TRADB. 



203 



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4 

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ii. 

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etc?* 



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9 



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a% 










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8 



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6 






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204 



ANDBBW8' RBPOBT ON 



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CI 






a 



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t 



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s 

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OOU>NIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 



205 



< 
X 






e M 

15- 



I 



1 



i 





a 



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1 



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I* 

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ii 
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to 

8 






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s 



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CI 



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1 ''I' ^* ^ w 

w* •* ^ »^ ^ •s ^ 






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p% V* ^ w w* ^ 9^ w^ »^ ■" ^ ^ ^^ 



• • • 



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OP o 




•8 



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1 



206 



ANDRBW8' REPORT ON 



CI 

o 
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CO (AX 



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CI 



CI 



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s« 



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i3 



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9 



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CO 



& 



8 



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isi 



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mm 

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9 



s 



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3 

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s 



Ok 
CI 



3 



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OOLONIAIt AMD LAXB TRASB. 



207 



i 

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4C 



4 









I 
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5 



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8 

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8-" 



■^aa 






a> 



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COO 



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a- -s 



» 



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ii;s 



xet ctn 






mm^m-m lO A lO lO 

^ «h ffk. 9^ 



§; 



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r- 5? o r- «© »> r- 

^^^ 3> ^^ fr* "ft »^ CO 



S3S g««« 






XC- 

MlOO 



«;s 5 ^8 



(fikA o CO 121 c« o> *(> 

X o co-^ 

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a i 8 






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as 



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9 

3 



to 



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208 



ANDREWS* KBPORT ON 



to 
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bo 

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CO 



CO 



i-it-ci ^oeoao 



S»-^QO"*tcoaot*^oo 
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Oa0t0(O9IO'«C0Q0 



wot' 

0% 9S 9% 






9S 



a.' 



ci 












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CO 00 op O) 



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vs as ^ 



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coo 



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be 
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till I 



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OOU>NIAL AND LAKE TBADB. 



209 



* 
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3 
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51 



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o c* «^ rj I- to 71 CI a> o or en 

':^ X — JL 'O « I- £. I- Ti M '3 

X c« I' «-• ""^ *.n o ^. X V4 -^ 
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CI 






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5 



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cn 



CI 

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g 



CI 

^1 



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210 



ANDREWS BEPOBT ON 



31 









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t^ i-siO 



CO 



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CO 



D 
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s 



10 



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si 



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288 

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1-1 c* 



«*«or-«coico 

<OC0C0C0l>G« 

Ol 1-100 



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to 

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OOU>»ilAI. AND LAKB TRAOB. 



211 



§• 

w • 

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S.1 

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CS C5 « O 
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31 






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t: ^- ^« y -3 • >~.^, - «. -. 2 



w . _« 




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212 



ANBREWS REPORT ON 



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COLOKIAL AlfB LAKB TRADE 



i 

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31 

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213 



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214 



AXDREWS REPORT ON 



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COLONIAI. AXD LAKE TRADED 



215 



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216 



ANDREWS' REPORT GS 



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COLORIAI. AND LAKB TRADE. 



217 



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218 



ANDREWS' REPORT ON 



moX 



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COLONIAL AND LAKB TRAOB. 



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OOLOVUI. AND LAKB T&ADB. 



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CX>LONIAL AND LAKB TRADB. 



223 



No. 7. 

Property coming from Canada by \oay of Buffalo^ Black Rockf Oiwego^ 

and fVhitdtnUy during the year 1851. 



T«B rORBlT. 

Tmt kai pdUy .pounds. . 

ftodoct of wood — 

BmrdB uid ■canUmg foet. . 

Sfain^lcfl • • • • • .• •••«..•. ...M... 

T^abrr • .cub. feet. . 

t^vM •• .pounds. . 

Wuod .cord*. . 

», pot and poarl. . . .burrela. . 



AOKlCrLTUBK. 

Product of antmal*^ 

pork butrelf . 

B»foa pound*. 

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IVi^ii ..•.••••••••*.••.• .do. • • 

Hwir* -••••.do... 

%*«^Uble food— 

F*,-ir .burrrb. . 

WbcAt bush«lt. . 

Er» do. . . . 

C^wni. ....«>•..••.....•• .do . • . . 

BftrWy do.... 

f HU do ... . 

Bran AAd tinp Ptofi. . . .Doond*. . 

f ««« and boAUB busheb. . 

do.... 



A II otfcer africuUnnl producl«— 

Coctoo pound*. . 

€ 'loTvr tad ^rui Med .... .do. • . . 
Ilofu do. . . . 



MAWCrACTVnil. 

I>Mn««tir ffptnti .f^llom. . 

ofi • do.... 

kL*irr pounds. . 

Funiittirt do. . .. 

>U.rbuM«aad pttftsthcreof.do. . . 
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Buffalo. 



Bill Rock. 



ii,ieG 



10,209,427 
ll>4,U00 

356,151 



3tt2 



19 

6,000 

12,78e 

7U(J 

95,02<» 

16,317 



19,302. 
150,960 



12,393,957 

370 

44,492 



74,209,425(24 
6,645 
232,855 



104,143 



12,296 



90 



6,00(1 
21,416 



10,470 



3,HK^; 



t 
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, limr, tiMlcUjr... pound*. 
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.do. ■ • 
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11, 66^ 



2.0()«" 
K),317 



950 
2,475 



5,729 



9.800 



34,!3*J 



Omrego. 



889 



4,898 



141,209 



343,932 

684,280 
70,176 



19,844 
111,291 



64,896 
56 



68,679 



3,860 



Whitehall. 



Total. 



1,041 



13,297 



,090,425130,893,897 

# 1,929| 172,944 

1,187,371 1,467,707 

356,151 

8 

3,353 



455,7781 



3,081 



154,461 

4,835 



7,580 



7,989 



25,606 

343,084 

3,509' 

31,132> 



1,101 

35,86:2 



1,120 



13.00I' 

184,63b 



172.3fi:< 

i.ri.wi 

679.501 



19 

6,000 

17,686 

155,161 

241,064 

16,317 



371,773 

837,715 

78,165 

104,143 

51,179 

366,671 

3,509 

86,028 

146 



6,000 
91,196 
35,863 



10,470 
1,130 
6,743 
5,000 

13.900 
184,638 



11,669 

172,363 

134.091 

1,25:^,738 



ANDREWS BBPOBT ON 



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ANDRBWS KEPORT ON 




COLONIAL AND LAR TRADE. 



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ANBBBW8 REPORT ON 



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COLONIAL AND JsABB TBADB. 231 



PART IV. 



RAILR(>ADS AND CANALS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

As a roport upon ihr inland commerce of the United Statesi or of 
any imrK>rtant i)orlion of it, would be imperft ct without reference to 
il»» various works constituting its channels, to which in some degree h 
«*wen its direction, the following notice of the railroads and canals of 
the Unileti States has been prepared. 

Thi^ peculiar characteristics of this country, in regard to its geo- 
crraphical and topographical features and to the industrial condition 
and relations of the people of the different regions render works of 
internal improvement necessary to the development of the resources 
an<l projjress of every portion. With us such works are chiefly com- 
nKTCial enterprises, their principal object being to cheapen find facili- 
lalf the movement of persons and profierty. Generally, the means for 
tbcir r*vmstruclion have been furnished by incorporated associations, 
-mil coosequently the construction and management of them have been 
.TiUnsted to such companies. 

The opposition by many of the prominent and influential statesmen 
• •f'lhr Tniied States to the inlerfi»r<»nce of the federal government in aid 
of «urh works, on lh<' alleged ground of absence of constitutional power, 
has hitherto prevented the rendering of such assistance, except in the 
ra*«* of the Cuml>erland road, and one or two other instances. Many 
mi« lligrnt men doubt W this opposition has not been advantageous. 
Wherever the respective States have aided such works, they have for- 
tunately, in most instances, committed the control of them to private 
nands ;*nd private inti*rests. Considerations n[)art from commercial 
c^NTcifl have had but little influence in their construction or management. 
Tw-se works, therefore, constitute the best expression of the commer- 
rial wants of our {X'ophs and their immense cost the l>est illustration of 
the magnitude and value of this commerce. 

Tlir early settlements in this country having Ix'en made upon the 
M-aboard« manufacturing and comrntTcial communities at first grew up 
at fc%-onibIe points near the coast. The extension of the settlements 
into the interior necessarily involveil the construction of outlets for 
tbem to markets upon the seaboard. So long as this p>pulation was 
cnofitMxI to the Atlantic slopes public highways were not of gr(»at mag- 
rutiirle nor importance. When, however, sc»ttlers had crossed the Al- 
Irithany mountains and peopled the n»gions beyond them, the public 
cmnd was turned to the subject of constructing channels of commercial 
incrrrommunication adequate to their wants. 

Tbr natural outlets of the great interior basin — the rivers Mif^sissippi 
and 8l. Lawrence — are not in all respects nde<juate and convenient 



232 A19BBBW8' HBPORT ON 

outlets. The 6rst person to present a definite project (or an artificial 
work, on an extensive scale, was General Washington. That great 
and wise man foresaw the future importance of the country beyond the 
AUeghanies, and the magnitude of its prospective commerce, which he 
proposed to secure to his own colony, before he reached the age of 
twenty-dne years he had crossed the mountains, and the subject of a 
canal from the tide-waters of the Chesapeake to the waters of the Ohio 
received his careful attention. At subsequ^t periods he visited the 
Ohio valley, and presented the results of his examination and observa- 
. tion to the House of Burgesses of Virginia, from which body he received 
a vote of thanks. The plan of a canal proposed by him was eagerly 
embraced, and has now so long remained a favorite object that its im- 
portance and ultimate consummation have become traditional ideas 
with the people of Virginia. 

The merits of a general plan for a commercial channel, by which to 
connect the East and West, suited to the wants of the two different 
sections of the country, were not involved in the question of route. 
Virginia, prior to the Revolution, was the richest, most populous, and 
most central of the colonies, and her tide-waters most nearly approached 
the navigable waters of the Ohio. It was taken for granted that the 
appropriate route for such a work lay through her territory ; but at that 
time our people liad neither the engineering skill nor the experience, 
nor were they sufficiently acquainted with the topography of the moun- 
tain ridge separating the great western valley from the Atlantic slope, 
to decide upon the question of route. As they became better acquainted 
with the country, it was ascertained that the best route for a cano/ con- 
necting the navigable water-courses separated by the AUeghanies lay 
farther north ; and it was reserved for New York first to realize the idea 
of General Washington, and thereby secure to itself the vast benefits 
the result of which he foresaw, and which, before the Revolution, he 
sought to secure to Virginia. For years aiier General Washington 
proposed his plan, our western settlements did not extend beyond the 
Ohio; and, in fact, all the country west of the Mississippi was claimed 
by a foreign power. The vast regions now filled with a numerous and 
thriving population, comprising the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin, were not only a wilderness, but the 
idea that they would ever be densely occupied by civilized man was 
regarded as chimerical. The principal settlements beyond the moun- 
tains were those most contiguous to Virginia, and what is now Kentucky 
was then a part of the "Old Dominion." The rapid settlement of Ohio 
and the adjacent States, after the war of 1812, changed the aspect of 
affairs in the West. The preponderating interest and influence extended 
northward of the first settlements, and the State of New York was the 
first to open an improved line of commercial communication between 
the Atlantic and the Great West. A canal was discovered to be prac- 
ticable tlirough her territory, and the genius and public spirit of her 
statesmen stimulated her legislators to make use of this advantage, 
securing to her the chief interior trade. 

It was not until after the completion of the Erie canal, in 1825t 
that the adaptability of railroads to the uses of commerce was 
established. These works are destined to compete with canals, and 



COUMflAL AND LAKB TBADB. 233 

evcik natural water*a)urse8, as media of commercial intercourse. Their 
oonsiroction and profitable operation may be regarded as practicable 
upon all the routes of cfimmerce ; and all the Atlantic cities have 
eilber completed, or have in progress, lines of railroads having the 
samit general c>!»jecl8 and direction with the great New York work, 
by which they propose to secure similar results. These works ore 
regurded as of greater benefit to the interior portions of the country 
than tf» the cities which are their termini upon our navigable water- 
ciHir««*». Their construction is now the absorbing topic. They will 
OOP day l)ecome the ordinary highways of transit for property as well 
as pK^rsMiQs. A satisfactory view of the commerce of the country, 
tbrri*ti»re, necessarily involves a description of them, as its future 
cfaaooels. 

It i< also iro|M>nant that the uses, objects, and influences of public 
works in <leveloping the resources, in stimulating and in giving new 
diret.-tiiias to the commerce of the country, should be thoroughly under- 
stfMidt both as tending to correct legislation in commercial affairs and 
a« s4M*uring to thesi* (enterprises that degree of public confidence to 
which tiiey are entitled. As heretofiire stated, at least 980,000,000 
an now annually rtnjuired to carry forward works in progress, and to 
nw^-i the demand ot' new ones as thev mnv arise. Of this sum, 
S>5U,(KM>,(MK) are Ixirrowed either of the capitalists of this country or of 
Eun»pe, at rules of interest averaging from 6 to 10 per cent, per annum 
isr a M*ries of years. A large sum is in this manner added to the cost 
of tlM'i«<* works, which might be saved were the public mind properly 
cmlighlined as to their productiveness, as investments of capital, and as 
to liieir intluenci* in increasing national wealth and pn)sp«'rity. 

This review of railn^ads ami canals will commence with a notice of 
tlvM- ot' New York, the pioneer iState in successful achievements on a 
larpe M*ale. In noticing the works of other States, a geographical 
ratb«-r than chn»noIogical order will b<* observed. Only the leading 
iinc-st— fuch as are in some measure identified with the commerce of 
the c(»untrk* — will Im' particularly descrilxHl ; and where works are still 
in pn>>?n'ss tlie results predicated of them will lie stated. 

F«ilkiwing the notice is a brief consideration of railroads in their 
aomomicai asp(*cts and results, a matter estet^med of e<)ual if not greater 
aA{ir»nance than a detailed d<\scription of the works themselv(>s. 



NEW YORK • 

Population in 1830, 1,918,608; in 1840, 2,428,921; in 1860, 
1,097,394. Area in s^^uare niil(*s, 46,000; inhabitants to square mile, 

67JJ. 

Krie tanaL — Although it was known at an early pcTiod that a favor* 
aUe nmte fi>r a canal from tide-water to the lakes existed in the valley 
•if the Mohawk river, it was not until 1816 that the project received 
poxticular attention from the authorities of the State of New York. In 
that year* the governor of the State, the Hon. D. D« Tompkins, in his 
annual mesaage tu the legislature, recommended the construction of a 



234 ANDKBWS' RBPORT ON 

canal from the Hudson river, at Albany, to Lake Erie. This recom- 
mendation was favorably received, and after a protracted discussion as 
to the plan which should be pursued, the work was formally com- 
menced on the 4th of July, 1817; and on the 26th day of October, 
1825, the canal was completed. 

Previous to the construction of the canal the cost of transportation 
from Lakr Erie to tide-water was such as nearly to prevent all move- 
ment of merchandise. A report of the committee of the legislature, to 
whom was referred the whole subject of the proposed work, consisting 
of the most intelligent members of that body, dated March 17, 1817, 
states that at that time ttie cost of transportation from Buffalo to Mon- 
treal was $30 per ton, and the returning transportation from $60 to 
$75. The expense of transportation from Buffalo to New York was 
stated at $100 per ton, and the ordinary length of passage twenty 
days; so that, upon the very route through which the heaviest and 
cheapest products of the West are now sent to market, the cost 
of transportation equalled nearly three times the market value of 
wheat in New York ; six times the value of corn ; twelve times the value 
of oats; and far exceeded the value of most kinds of cured provisions. 
These facts afford a striking illustration of the value of internal im- 
provements to a country like the United Slates. It may be here stated, 
as an interesting fact, that prior to the construction of the Erie canal 
the wheat of westei n New York was sent down the Susquehanna to 
Baltimore^ as the cheapest and best route to market. 

Although the rates of transportation over the Erie canal, at its open- 
ing, were nearly double the present charges — ^\vhich range from $3 to 
$7 per ton, according to the character of the freight — it immediately 
became the convenient and favorite route for a large portion of the pro- 
duce of the northwestern States, and secured to the city of New York 
the position which she now holds as the emporium of the confederacy. 
Previous to the opening of the canal the trade of the West was chiefly 
carried on through the cities of Baltimore ajid Philadelphia, particu- 
larly the latter, which was at that time the first city in the United States 
in population and wealth, and in the amount of its internal commerce. 

As soon as the lakes were reached, the Une of navigable water was 
extended through them nearly one thousand miles farther into the in- 
terior. The western States immediately commenced the construction 
of similar works, for the purpose of opening a communication from the 
more remote portions of their territories with this great water-line. All 
these works took their direction and character from the Erie canal, 
which in this manner became the outlet for almost the greater part of 
the West. 

It is difficult to estimate the influence which this canal has exerted 
upon the commerce, growth, and prosperity of the whole country, for 
it is impossible to imagine what would have been the state of things 
without it. But for this work the West would have held out few in- 
ducements to the settler, who would have have been without a market 
for his most important products, and consequently without the means 
of supplying many of his most essential wants. That portion of the 
country would have remained comparatively unsettled up to the pres- 
ent time ; and, where now exist rich and populous communities* we 



OOLOXIAL AMD UkKB TRADE. 235 

shnuki find oil uncultivated wilderness. The East would have been 
mually willjout the elements of growth. The canal has supplied it 
vnih chrap Ib^xl, and has op<»ned an outlet and created a market for 
lh«' pr«Hlut-ts of its manufactures and commerce. The increase of com- 
wercv and the grriwili of the country have been very accurately mea- 
sured by tht* growth of tlie business of the canal. It has been one 
grT*at bond of strength, infusing Ufe and vigor into the whole. Com- 
ixKTciaDy and politically, it has secured and maintained to the United 
Scales the characteristics of a homogeneous people. 

It will l>c seen, by the following tabular statement, that the growth 
of ih** city of New York in ]K)pulation, wealth, and commerce, has 
nearlv kept pace with the increase of the business of the Erie canal 
and ilie pnigress of the western States. The tables show tlie intimate 
rrhti'in of this great work to the commerce and prosperity of the coun- 
try*, and that to maintain a large foreign commerce it is necessary that 
a city sliould have a lari^e domestic trade. 

Tfiey also indicate tlie annual tonnage of the canal ; the value of 
produce and mer<*linnilise passin^r to and from tide-water ; the tonnage 
and value of produce rec(»ived at Bufialo and Oswego from the western 
States; the number of annual lockages on the canal; the foreign arrivals 
att anfl tonnage of, the ports of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore; the value of exports and imports of each of these cities, their 
iocrea5C' in wealth and population, and also the increase of the popula- 
tion of the western States since 1820. 



236 



ANDRBWS BBPOBT ON 



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240 ANDRBWS* REPORT ON 

The foregoiog statements show, that while the cities of Baltimore and 
Philadelphia have made a rapid advance in population, their foreign 
commerce has remained very nearly stationary for a long series of 
years, proving most conclusively that a large foretgfi commerce can 
only be maintained by a city that is able to make herself the depot of 
the domestic products of the country. 

The Erie canal secured to the' city of New York the trade of the 
interior, because it occupied the only route practicable for such 
a work. So long, therefore, as canals continued the most approved of 
known modes of transportation, the superior position of tnat city in 
reference to the internal .trade of the country remained unquestioned. 
Such is now no longer the case. For travel, and for the transport- 
ation of certain kinds of merchandise, the superiority of railroads is 
admitted. It is also claimed that they can successfully compete with 
the canal in heavy freights. However this may be, the correctness of 
the assumption is admitted by the construction of railroads parallel to 
all the canals, for the purpose of competing lor the business of the lat- 
ter. The conviction is now almost universal, that commercial suprem- 
acy is to be secured and maintained by this new agency, which neu- 
tralizes, to a great extent, the advantages arising from the accidents of 
position; and that the commerce of the country is still a prize for the 
competition of all cities which may choose to enter the Usts. In- 
fluenced by these views, all the great commercial towns have either 
completed, or are constructing, stupendous lines of railroad, with the 
confident expectation of securing to rxich a portion of the trade which, 
up to the present time, has been almost entirely monopolized by one* 

It is proper to state, that the people of New York, in view of the 
competition and rivalry with which they are threatened, have deter- 
mined to complete the enlargement of the Erie canal within the shortest 
practicable period. It is calculated that this enlargement can be com- 
pleted within three years after it shall be undertaken. The enlarged 
canal will allow the use of boats of 224 tons burden, or three times the 
capacity of those now employed ; and will, it is estimated, reduce the 
cost of transporting a barrel of flour from Buffalo to Albany to twenty- 
five cents, and other merchandise in like proportion. As the canal is 
abundantly supplied with water, the only limit to its capacity is the 
time required for passing boats through the locks. It is calculated thai 
an average of 26,000 boats can be locked each way during the busi- 
ness season. Allowing each boat to be fully loaded, the total tonnage 
capacity of the enlarged clanal would equal 11,648,000 tons. But as 
the proportion of down to up freights is as four to one, the average ton- 
nage of the boats is estimated, in the reports of the State engineer for 
1851, at 140 tons for each boat, which, for 52,000 boats, would give 
an annual movement of 7,230,000 tons as the total capacity of the 
canal, or 6,824,000 tons down, and 1,406,000 tons up freight. It is esti- 
mated that upon the enlarged canal the cost of transportation, embra- 
cing tolls, will be reduced to five mills per ton per mde upon ordinary 
merchandise, or to 31 82 per ton for the entire distance lit>m Albany 
to Bufialo. 

C/uimplain canal. — This work, though originally constructed for the 
accommodation of the trade of the country bordering upon that lake> 



COLOlflAL AKD LAKB TRADB* 241 

bids Tmr to beeomc an important avenue for the trade of the St. Law- 
rrocc ba^. Thi« lake is now connected with the St- Lawrence river 
at O^Irnsburg, above the rapids, by the Ogdensburg or Northern rail- 
nittd ; at Moatn*al, by the Chainplain and St. Lawrence railroad ; and 
will UMm have a farther connexion at Lachine, by mc^ans of the Platts- 
buric ami Montreal railroad, now in progress of construction. It is also 
cDflUftc*rted with the St. Lawrence river, at the mouth of the Sorel, by 
ipean? of the Chambly canal. Through this last channel the Stale of 
New York now receives a large and annually increasing amount of 
iunilirr. The Ogflensburg railroad was built expressly tor the pur- 
poie of diverting a portion of the trade of the St. Lawrence at that 
pr«£it, and it is reiisonnble to suppose that all the roads named will, in 
CiiD^, bt*cf»rae, in connexion with the lakes and canal, important out- 
Irtji t<»r wrsiern trade. They promise to open not only cheap, but ex- 

ricdiii-.ius mules, which, in a press of business, must be well patronized. 
I muv bc> staled here, that the proposed ship-canal from Caughnawaga 
lij Lake Champlain will open a practicable route for the largest class 
*tf v«^j»>i* U fnim the upper lakes to Whitehall, within seventy-five mile« 
of tide- water. 

As the route of the proposed canal is remarkably favorable, and bm 
it can be fed from the St. Lawrence, and built at a muderute expense, 
it is believed that it must be constructed at no distant day. 

• Railroads of New York. 

• ItiSIroads from Albany to Buffalo. — The first continuous line of rail- 
ri^ to connect the lakes and tide-water was that from Albany to 
BufTuIo, fallowing very nearly the route of the canal. As it was a pri- 
vstr enterprise, and came into direct compelilion with the Stale works, 
die canal tolls were imposed upon the carriage of all freight, in addition 
Cf» the of>sl of iransmrtaiion. From this source the Slate has derived a 
Ixrire revenue. Thi* tax has had a tendejncy to confine the business of 
ximr road to the h-ss bulkv and more valuable articK^s of freight, and to 
itvmt of a perishable nature. The tax was removed on the fir>l of 
I>ecrmbrr, 1851, by an act of the legislature ; hence the road is now 
brought into free comix'tition with the canal, and hits, durinir the pres- 
rnt v.iiwn, carried flour from Buffido to Albany for sixty eeiiis per 
Ui/rrl, which is nearly fifty ct*nls below the average price by canal tc>r 
aearly twenty years subs4H|U(*ril to its o|X'ning. The (|u:intity of Inifihl 
IS ttill n'!«trict<*d for the want of suflicicnt equipmc^nts and suitable 
•n^ioim<Nijtions for receiving and storing it, particularly at Albany. 
Ttiis fact fvp-ratrd as a siTious drawback on the pnst winter's opcT- 
ations. The necessary facilities f!)r business will s(K)n be supfiiied, 
sod tiierr can be no doubt that the railnmd will engage in a large car- 
ryiog business in direct comp(*lition with the canal. 

The above road will soon have practically a double track for its 
whole line. It already has such from Albany to Syracuse. From tlie 
btter place a new road is nearly completed to the Niag^ira river, com- 
posed of tbe straight line between Syracuse and lt(K*hester, and the 
Bocbestcr and Niagara Falls road. Its capacity fur busiiKss wiil, 

16 



242 ANDRBWS' REPORT ON 

therefore, be unlimited. It connects with Lake Erie at Buffalo ; and with 
Lake Ontario, through branches already in operation, at Sackett's Har* 
bor, Cape Vincent, Oswego, and Lewiston; and, by lines in progress, 
at Great and Little Sodus bays, and at Rochester. By presenting 
numerous points of contact with western trade, it will escape all the 
inconveniences of too great a concentration of business at anyone point, 
and will be enabled to offer great facilities for the cheap and easy 
transport of freight. 

At Albany, it will connect with the Hudson river and Harlem roads, 
the former of which will be a double track road. In connexion with 
these a double track will be formed from New York to Buffalo, and to 
various points upon Lake Ontario. At Buffalo this line is carried for- 
ward to the roaas of Ohio by the Lake Shore road. The great western 
roads of Canada, now in progress, will form a connexion with Detroit, 
by way of the north shore of Lake Erie. From Detroit, the Michigan 
Central railroad is completed to Chicago ; as is the Michigan Southern 
from Monroe ; so that by January, 1854, New York will have two par- 
allel lines of railroad to Chicago, each of which will be about ono 
thousand miles long. From Chicago to the Mississippi river two ino- 

^►ortant roads are in progress — the Galena and Chicago, and the Rock 
sland and Chicago, both of which will be completed in the course of 
1853. The length of these lines will be about one hundred and eighty 
miles each. 

Although the carriage of freight has been denied to the above line, 
except on payraeiU of canal tolls, which amounts to' a virtual prohibition 
of many articles, it has exerted an influence on the growth and pros- 
perity of New York second only to that exerted by the Erie canal. In 
connexion with the great lakes and the western Jines of improvementt 
it commanded, as soon as opened, the travel between the Atlantic States 
and the West and Southwest, and concentrated this travel upon that 
city, which in this manner became a necessary point in the route of 
every western or southwestern merchant, visiting the eastern States. 
The result was, the introduction to merchants of that city of a large 
class of country traders, who would otherwise have continued to pur- 
chase at points where they had been previously accustomed to trade. 
By passing through New York, the whole business population of the 
country established business relations more or less intimate in that 
city. 

Erie railroad and its branches, — The Erie railroad, unlike the Central 
line, was planned and has been executed with special reference to the 
accommodation of the trade between New York and the West. It is 
the greatest work ever attempted in this country, and its construction 
is the greatest achievement of the kind yet realized. The road and all 
its structures are on the most comprehensive scale, and its facilities for 
business are fully equal to the magnitude and object of the work. 

As the lake, on the one hand, and the Hudson river on the other, 
are approached, the road spreads out into a number of independent 
lines, forming at each terminus a sort of delta^ to accommodate its im- 
mense business. Its outlets to tide-water are at Newburgh, Pier- 
mont, and Jersey City. At the two former places the company 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TBADB. 243 

hive eirtensivc ^n^unds for the reception, storing, and forwarding of 
ntrrrhanilisc. With only one terminus, it would be impossible to 
aroicnni«Klate its immense business without great confusion and dehiy, 
;i;id jrrrally increased cost. 

Oo tbe we^item portion of the line, as soon as the Susquehanna val- 
l« y 15 rrarhrd, important lines radiate from the main trunk, striking the 
Ilk'-* at all the points above named, and at Dunkirk in addition. Tlie 
Tii'irr tiD[x)rtant of these branches are the Syracuse and Binghampton, 
in cfiii* .\ion with the Syracuse and Oswego road ; the Ca5'uga and Sus- 
f|!j»4i.i:ini, in connexion with the Lake Ontario, Auburn, and New York 
r- id; the C:uiandaigua and Corning, in connexion with the Canandai- 
r-ji .iml NiriL'nra Falls road ; the Buffalo, Corning and New York, and 
.:.'.• BufTilo |pd New York City railroads. 

By iiir ansi of all th<\sc fi^eders, the trade of the West will be inter- 
r^-pif'il nt almost every important point on Lake Erie and Ontario, 
.I..J ci^llfded and forwarded to the great trunk line. Measures are 
:iiM> in progress to connect the Erie road with Erie, Pennsylvania, by a 
I '.♦' running direct from Little Valley; and with Pittsburg by me.uisof 
I*-- AII»*L'hruiy Valley railroad. It is hardly jK)ssible to conceive a road 
>».th iijon* favorable direction and connexions, possessing capacili(*s for 
.; riiotf extrusive business, or one that is destuu'd to Ixar a more ini- 
]«*rt.int r< 1 aion to the commerce of the whole country. 

This n»ad was o|H»ned f()r business only on the first of June, ]85L 
It h-YS not, ihcTefore, been in operation a sufficient length of lime to 
-.;pply any satisfjietory statistics as to its probable influence upon west- 
• rn ri»tnni«Tce. So far as its business and revenues are concerned, it 
!. !• exceeded the mc»st sanguine expectations. 

In this connexion it may be state*d that another very important out- 
.'T from the Eri«» road to tidt^-water, the AV^iny and Sustjufh4nina rail- 
r-Kwl, is al)out to be commenced; the mea'is to construct which have 
nrrndy b^'cn s«*cured. The distance from Binghampton to Albany by 
••• • n»iji^ will Ik* 143 miles, against 224 to New York by the Krie road. 
Krocn BiriL'hani[»tori, troiug east, commence the most difficult and ex- 
r«u«»i\f [Hirtions of the Erie road, invi)lving high grades, short curva- 
*"*re>, and a njuch greater cost of ojXTaiing the road per mile than the 
{'•riion of ilic line w«\si <if that point. From Bingliani[)ton to Alb.'inv 
: !•• ruutr is vt ry direct, and the gratles favorable; and there can l>e no 
'I 'ubi th.'it u con-siilerabhr portion of western freights, thrown u[Min the 
Kric n>ad. uill lind its way to tid<'-u:iler r>\'<»r the Albimy and Suxpie- 
r lona rnrfd. Such, particuhirly, >%ill 1h» the case with freight wliicli is 
»:■ -i;?ne.| t<»r an eastern market. The lar^e nuinlxT of railroads c<»n- 
»« r^uiij up»n the Sus(|U«hanna valley rend«TS the Albany and Sus<|ue- 
'•.iiiiii fiKiil hiL'hly n«'ce>sary, to relieve llie lower portions of the lorint r 
: • 'M x\i»' imm»ti-*<' volume of business that will Ih» collected ujHm tl #• 
' . .in trurik ti(»m all its tributaries. 

TIm- Iw-l ciMnm*-ntary in\ the importance of the last named project 
• lo \w' found in Oie action of the citv of Albany, which verv rectniK, 
.■ Iir-r f •KiH'rale cap.icity, ma<le a subscTipti(»n to its stock to theanioimi 
■ ? Sl.^^liKtHH*, in addition l«) large private subscriptions. 

Til'- l<'iliA%ing table will >how the cost of the oublic works of New 



244 ANDRBWS' RBPORT ON 

York which have been constructed, or are i;. c/rDgress, with a view to 
their becoming avenues of the trade between tne East and the West*: 

Erie and Champlain cana]s $26,000,000 

Amount estimated for completion of Erie canal 9,000,000 

Hudson river railroad 12,000,000 

Harlem railroad ^ 4,873,317 

Utica and Schenectady raikoad 4,143,918 

Albany and Schenectady railroad 1 ,740,449 

Syracuse and Utica railroad 2,570,891 

Rochester and Syracuse railroad, (both lines) 6,464-362 

Buffalo and Rochester railroad 2,228,976 

Rochester and Niagara Falls railroad ^ 1,600,000 

Oswego and Syracuse railroad 588,768 

Rome and Watertown railroad 1,500,000 

Sackett's Harbor and Ellisburg railroad 350,000 

New York and Erie raikoad 26,000,000 

Canandaigua and Niagara Falls railroad 3,500,000 

Buffalo, Corning and New York railroad 2,000,000 

Buffalo and New York city railroad 1,500,000 

Albany and Susquehanna railroad 4,350,000 

110,410,681 



NoTB. — The cost of the Sodus bay and Southern, and the Lake On- 
tario, Auburn and New York railroads, cannot, in the present stage of 
their affairs, be estimated with sufficient accuracy to give tiicm a place 
in the above table. The cost of the Rochester and Syracuse road is 
estimated. ^ 

Railroads from the city of New York to Montreal^ Canada^ — The roads 
that make up the line from the city of New York to Montreal consti- 
tute a very important route of commerce and travel. The city of Mon- 
treal is the commercial emporium of the Canadas, and is a large and 
flourishing town. It lies very nearly north, and at a distance of about 
four hundred miles from New York. The roads which conned these 
cities lie in the gorge which divides in two the great mountain range 
extending, unbroken, except in New York, nearly from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. This basin, or gorge, is occu- 
pied by the Hudson river. Lake Champlain, and the outlet of the latter 
to the St. Lawrence — the river Sorel. The route, as will be seen, is 
remarkably direct and favorable, as far as its physical characteristics 
are concerned ; and as it connects the commercial metropolis of this 
continent with the great city of the St. Lawrence, and traverses a con- 
stant succession of large and flourishing towns, its importance will be 
readily appreciated. 

This ^reat route is made up, for a large portion of the distance, of 
two distmct lines. The first link, from New York to Albany, is com- 
posed of the Hudson river and Harlem roads; the second, from Albany 
to Rutland, Vermont, is made up of the Troy and Boston, and Western 
Vermont roads, and the Albany and Northern, and Rutland and Wash- 
ington roads. From Rutl&nd only one line is in operation, composed 



OOLOXIAL ANB LAKB TRADB. 245 

of the Rutland and Burlington, Vermont and Cnnada, and Chamnlain 
auil Si. Lawrence roads. A road is also projected upon the west Dank 
of L.ike Chatnplain, which, when completed, will give two distinct 
linrs for the whole distance between New York and Montreal. From 
AUKiny and Troy a railroad is in operation to Whitehall, the southern 
ttrminiis of the lake. A road is also in operation from Montreal to 
I'l iti^^bur^, a dist:ince of about sixty miles, and a comparatively sliort 
hiik «mly is wanting to constitute a new and independent route between 
N»*w Y<«ck and the 8t. Lawrence river ; which there is every reason to 
\>At* vc will 9o<m Ik* supplied. 

Th'* ab>vc line of road, though recently op^^ned, already commands 
ai aro<iunt of travrl fully equal to the importance of the connexions 
u •Ki^tiin*. Its through -freight business is not so large as its passen- 
r T Iruvel, for the reason that a large portion of the line follows the 
..:.^^* *liate bank of an excellent navigable water-line, which, in the 
- .niMHT 2*':is<>n, commands the heavy freight. In the winter it will 
u r» nv** xUo 4*hann<*l of trade as well as of travel. As a pleasure 
"•44'«- it pr#>«»uls uncommon ailraclions, which will secure to it a large 
i».-.ii* ^j. In the dull season lor freight. The inland lines in Vermont 
:-• il N»*w Vc^rk, however, traverse sections of country capable of* sup- 
j ; .!•? a vfTv large Kical traffic both from their agricultural and miu- 
« r»il r* "iourcrs. 

AniMfi:: the me>st remarkable topographical features of this country 
.* lU* *iv<Tance of the great Alleghany range by the Hudson and 
M'»h:iuk river:?, on the one hand, and Lake Champlain on the other. 
S» drt'p are ihcu.* indentations that the ^^tong /fi^e/" of stjvenly miles 
«•« the canal, occupying the summit of the ridge which diviiles the 
w iff rft running into Lake Ontario from those flowing into the Hudson 
r.-vrr, and which coresponds to the crest of the Alhghanies, is nearly 
«'»e hundr**d fi-et l)elow the surface of Lake Erie, and might, witFi 
••• o#- additional expense, have be(*n led from that source 

L'lkf* Champlain is only eiglity -seven feet above the ocean, and the 
r*«mi.ut l>«-iw<*en it and the Hudson is only one hundred and t()rtv- 
•• v^-n frt< nlmve tide-water, and only twenty-three feet alK)ve tlic 
I .ffrf where the Champlain canal intersects it. In approaching New 
^•*rk from the interior, which is in the direction of the heavy trade, 
• *• .'ilwive routes are ihe most favorable to economical transit, nothing 
*- r.ij lii'it in overcoming adverse gnnlcs. It is these facts that c(»n« 
•Muif ihi*>e r<Hjte« keys to an important portion of the commerce of 
:"».*• <'*Kjntry, and have rendered New York the commercial meiro{>oli.s. 

Tl4'*y are ju* well adapted to railroads as to canals; and as lhes<* de- 
: 't'-Mon* are iMiurxled by high rangrs of hills, the basin at the head of 
r. i*ijntion on-thf Hu<lson must be n*irard(»d as one of tin* mnsl inip<»r- 

"it Ulterior wiiuts in the railroad svstem of the country. All»:inv and 

■ • « •■ 

I'rov an- th*» citi<*s of the eastern Slalfs, lyin*; upon tiile-wal<T, the* most 
-. * • --.ble fr»»m the interior, and are cons<'<juently the radiatini; points 
't fti#ai«* of our most important line?? of iniprov<'ment. Tlie Oi/«X* ot 
" • -e to tide-water are the Hudson river and Harlem road<, which lM»ar 
•.*.•' •inie relation to the roads fiecMipving the routes al)ovc drseri!>ed, as 
.;•** tbr Hudson river to the Erie and Ctiamplain canals. TN^se facts 



246 ANDREWS* BBPOET ON 

• 

are a sufficient illustration of the important relations borne by the 
Hudson river and Harlem roads to the railroad system of the country* 

Railroads from Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence. — The Cbamnlain 
and St. Lawrence and the Plaltsburg and Montreal railroads baTe 
already been briefly described. The third and most important line of 
road uniting the above waters is the Northern^ connecting the lake with 
the river St. Lawrence, at Ogdensburg, a point above the fells on that 
river. This road, though in the State of New York, is properly a jBot- 
tan work, as it was planned and the means furnished for its construe^ 
tion by that city. It is regarded as the key which opens to the roads 
terminating there the navigable waters of the lakes. . 

An important extension of this road is under contract from its south- 
ern angle, riear Potsdam, to Sackett's Harbor, on Lake Ontario. The 
completion of this link will form a complete chain of railroads through 
the northern portions of New York, connecting Lake Champlain with 
all the important ports on the eastern shore of Lake Ontario. 

The three leading lines already described constitute, with their 
branches, the great routes of railway travel and commerce in the State 
of New York. In addition to the through business, they all traverse 
routes capable of supplying a lucrative local traffic ; particularly the 
lines in western New York. The description of the trunk lines will 
convey a sufficiently accurate idea of the objects and characteristics of 
their respective branches without a special notice of the latter. 

The most considerable line of road, not particularly alluded to, is 
the Long Island road. This was one of the earliest works of the kind 
in the State, and was constructed chiefly to accomo^date the travel 
between the cities of New York and Boston. It is a somewhat remark- 
able fact that the pioneer work should be now entirely abandoned as a 
route of travel between the above cities. It is now only used to ac- 
commodate the local business upon its line, and consequently cannot 
be regarded as a work of much importance. 

Delaware and Hudson canal. — This work was constructed for the 
purpose of opening an outlet for the northern Pennsylvania coal-field« 
It extends from Roundout to Honesdale, in Pennsylvania, a distance of 
108 miles, and is connected at that place with the coal-fields by a rail- 
road. It IS a well-constructed work, of large capacity, and has proved 
a very useful one, not only on account of its coal trade, whence its 
chief revenue, but from its local traffic. 

Measures are also in progress for the construction of two considera- 
ble Unes in the western portion of the State— K)ne from tlie city of 
Rochester, following the valley of the Genesee river, to Olean ; and 
the other from Bufflilo, probably to the same point* The objects in- 
ducing the construction of these roads, independent of local considera- 
tions, are the communications which they promise to open through the 
Alleghany valley road with Pittsburg and the coal-fields of northern 
Pennsylvania. Both routes traverse districts of great fertility, which 
cannot fail to afford a good business. The value of a railroad con- 
nexion between Buffalo and Rochester, the two most important cities 
of western New York, and Pittsburg, which is at the head of navigation 
on the Ohio, will be readily appreciated. 

An examination of the accompanying map will show bow complete 



COLONIAL AND UUUS TBADB. 247 

L# llir sy«?tem of public works in New York, constructed with a view of 
i*»ininan<Iing tlie trade of the interior of the country. As previously 
«cal«-d« a large portion of this trade naturally falls upon the great lakeSf 
lioin the facililios they offer for reaching a market. The importance 
oftlii^ iireal water-line is still farther increased from the fnct that most 
lit ilw i< ading works of the West, designed to lie routes of commerce, 
n ly on it as a base*. The commercial or business outlet for the lakes, 
as wrli a« of tlie works connected with them, has bt»en the Erie canal. 
That work comes in contact with the lak(*s at only two points, Buffalo 
and C^swpgfj, The railroad, on the other hand, by the greater facility 
vi iij cf»tK<iruction, opens as many outlets from the lakes to tide-water 
a« tlM-re are hiu^bors upon the former accessible to its commercial 
moriiic. New York is now proBting to the utmost by her advantages 
m rrftTf-nce to western trade. Nearly every g(M>d harbor, as well on 
Lakf Erie as on Ontario, either is or soon will be connected with tide- 
H ji« r by railroads, actually constructed or in progress. Already such 
rficm«'\H»ns are formed with the harbors of Cape Vincent, Backelt's 
HvUir, and Lewiston, on Lake Ontario ; and roads are in progress 
U'^m CSrrat and Little SckIus bays and Charlotte, with similar objects. 
< Pn L.ikf Erie, roads ah(*ady extend from Tonawanda, Black Itock, 
BuiT I l«N Dunkirk, and Erie, Pennsylvania, to tide- water; so that in- 
%••' ad iif onlv tuo outltts for the trade of the West, at Buffalo and Os- 
»• :r'N ihtre are to be at least six limes that number in New York 
• ' •€!*•. The facilities given to the commerce of the country by all these 
liiif « mu-l prove not only of utility to this commerce, but to the* trade 
.ti»d pHh^pffity of the State and city of New York. The addiiinnal 
a\f'iiu« * to market* already oj)ened and in progress, will, by a hi*ahhy 
•.•»tii|i»-ti;ioii, rt'duee the cost of transportation to the lowest possible 
(■#irit, iriif <timul.ite the movement of pro|XTty and merchandise to an 
t vtxit»r4»jijary degree. While every region of the Unil«*(l Stales is 
f:* ikiii*? ixirjordiniiry exertions to turn to themselves the interior trade 
.-Mhr oufiiry, N«'W York is pr<'paring for the most fonnidablt* conipe- 
IJ0K1 uith iuT rivals, and m^krs the most of the means witliin her 
r* .u'h t>jn:iinlain her present pre-eminence. 



RAILROADS OF NKW ENGLAND. 

.Vmv /.r\V/MMrAi/iur^j.— Population in 1K30, G10,4()<^; in 1840, 737,- 
f\^J; lu 1S.V>. 91U,.014. An*a in square mile s, 7,800; iiiliabit:inls to 
• J-- in* r:iil»% 127.41). 

S'rfv //rfrfm.«r.— Population in 1S3(). 280,(552 ; in 1810,291,1)48; 
»• l^V). .'U4.12U. Area in stjuare luiles, 10,212 ; inhabitants to s(|iiare 
../• . .'>n.7<J. 

S' if4 i/ Sry Hampahirr, — Population in 1830, 2()9,328; in 18-10^ 
'J^l.'fH; in iN'iO, 317,970. Area in sipiare niilrs, 9,280; iuhabinnts 
ti» •-j:j4ri' iJiile, 34.2(i. 



248 ANDREWS' REPORT OK 

The Massachusetts Systcnu 

Under this bead will be embraced a notice of the railroads of the 
States of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont,- as the lines of 
these States constitute one general system, and have been construclod 
by means furnished chiefly by the city of Boston- 

Westem railroad. — ^No sooner had the people of this country be€»me 
acquainted with the part that railroads are capable of performing in 
commercial affairs, than the city of Boston conceived the bold idea of 
securing to itself the trade of the interior, from which it had previously 
been cut off* by the impossibility of opening any suitable communica- 
tion by water. It w^as this idea that gave birth to the Western railroad 
project, the most important which has yet been consummated in New 
England, and <ine of the most so in the United States. This work ha^ 
probably exerted a wider influence, as the best iilustrat-ion of what 
railroads accomplish for the iidvancen>ent and welfare of :i jwople, than 
any similar work in the country. From the largeness of tlie enterprise^ 
the early period of our railroad history in which it was umierinkcn. and 
the difficulties in the way of its construction, it is pToj)erlv rcterrtxl to 
as a fitting monument of the sagacity, skill, and pcMScvnance of the 
merchants of Boston. The completion of this road iiviy U- considered 
as. establishing the railroad interest of 'this country upon a firm basis. 
It showed what could he accomplished, and the influence such works 
were calculated to exert upon the course of trade, and in promoting the 
prosperity of all classes. It imparted a new impulse lo the inlernalr 
improvement feeling of the country, under which our railroad enter- 
prises have moved forward, witli increasing strength and vigor, lo the 
present time. 

The Western railroad, when its objects, direction, and the obstacles 
in the way of its construction are considered, is certainly a remarkable 
work. Through it the city of Boston proposed to draw to herself the 
trade and produce of the West, from the very harbor of New Yorkt . 
(for the Albany basin can only be regarded as a portion of her harbor;) 
and to open in the same direction an outlet for the product of her man- 
ufactures, and of her foreign commerce. It is well known that these 
efforts ha>% been so far successful as to secure to Boston a large 
amount of western trade, which otherwise would have gone lo New 
York, and to render the Western road her channel of communication 
between the former city and the West. It was only when menaced 
by this work, that New York successfully resunred the construction of 
the Erie railroad ; and it is not too much to say, that but for the former, 
the Erie road would probably have been abandoned, even after the 
expenditure of many millions of dollars, and the Hudson River railroad 
project remained untouched up to the present time. 

The Western railroad, though constructed at immense cost, has 
proved to be one of the most productive works in the United States, 
paying an annual dividend of eight per cent., besides accumulating a 
large sinking fund. It has been the chief instrument of the extraordi- 
nary progress of Massachusetts in population, wealth, and commercial 
greatness, from 1840 to 1850. It supplies the State with a large por- 
tion of many of the most important articles of food. It opened an out* 



COU»nAL ANB LAKB TRADB. 249 

• 

|fl to th<* products of her mnnufacturing establishments and her forei^ 
ri.mnwrrf, and stimulated every industriul pursuit to an extraordinury 
d'»crrf\ and, from the results that have followed its op^'ning, forced all 
our I* ailing cities to the construction of similar works, with similar 

ol»j- otji. 

HatlrwjJs from Bcsian to LaJce Champlain and (he St. hnurfvce. — The 
W» •iirni niilroad, though accomplishing greater results, and exerting a 
widtr irifiuence upon the varied interests of the State, than either were 
or (-iiuld, with rtMs^m, have been anticipated, secured to the city of 
li<»«!"n «fdy a small p(3rtion of the western produce reaching Albany. 
A* ih»» canal, which has been the avenue for this produce, is in opera- 
lM« ufdy during the period of navigation on the Hudson river, it is 
?• jnd tnrii this produce can be forwarded to New York by water much 
ru.apfr than to Boston by railroad. Cost of transportation always de- 
I' ruj:tj«* the route. At the dullest season of the year for freights, flour 
!* «»*ii ri M'ut frcim Albany to Liverpool at a cost not exceeding twenty- 
tive ci-nls |)fr%lirrel, which is only equal to the lowest rale charged 
truni Albany to Boston. The Western railroad, therefore, though a 
ornvcriti nt channel through which the people of Boston and of Alassa- 
i*iu<< tt> <iraw their domestic supplies of food, is found unable to com- 
j>» le wiffj tin* Hudson river as a route for produce desiumd Ujr cxiKtrto^ 
!i>ih to tortign countries or to the neighboring States. It failed to secure 
OM- <if the lt*<Hding objects of its construction. Its fault, however, was 
«t< M» mucli ascnlx'd to the idea upon which the road was built, as to 
the f'-uie jirlcetc'd to accomplish its object. It was felt that a route 
f iif.*-r rtjn<»ved from the influence of the New York system of public 
mof k* mu>t l)e selected, and this conviction led to the projf^ct of a 
diff 1 1 linr of r:^road from Boston to the navigable waters of Lake On- 
: •:»«»• p:i<>ing to the north of Lake Champlain. This line, freed from 
x*\ inunrdiaif competition, and from the attractive influence of other 
C*» ^t citii-s, would, it was believed, secure to Boston the proud prc- 
tniii.ffue of iMxoming the exporting port of western produce, aiul, as 
a f^rrf^.-^ary consequence, the emporium of the country. 

Thi'i CNat line has lK»<*n completrd ; but it has tm) recently come 
.r*o ofi* ration to predict, with any certainty, the result. From J^oston 
:»» Liki' (Miamplain it is^ com[x>!^ed of two parallel lines: one made up 
of ih«' B<»>t()n and Lowell, Nashua and Lowell, Concord, Norlhrrn 
(\* w H.lrnp^hire,) and Vermont Central; tin* other of the Filelibursj, 
.1 part ul ihf Vrrmont and Massachus<'tts, Cheshire, and Kulland roads. 
Frii'n Burlington, on Lake Champlain, these roads are carried li»rward 
«'r«*u a common trunk, composed of the Vermont and Canada, and 
<>jd»n«*biirg (northern New York) roads, to l)g(len>burg, on iIh' St. 
L.iN^r«ner, aliove the rapids in that river, thus fl»rniing an uninter- 
r iptt d line fn>m the navigable waters of the great babiri to the cily of 
iWi^ton. 

Ttw liiwer portions of these lines in Massachusetts and New Hanqv 
•hirf urre, in the outset, constructed chiefly with loeal iihjeets in view. 
It was Dot until the State of Vermont was reached, that more eonipre- 
l.*-fi*i>»- themes began to give direction and character to the railroad 
'Tilerpriju A in that quarter. The Vermont Central, the Kullind, and 
tiic i>g<k*nsburg roads were commenced nearly simultaneously. The 




250 AxvKEvrs^ rbpoet on 

leading object in their construction was that to which we have already 
adverted. Only with such objects to be realized in the future, and 
not during the progress of the works, could they have been accom- 
plished. Men were called upon to make — and they contributed under 
a conviction that they were making — ^great present sacrifices for a fu- 
ture and prospective good. The constancy with which these works 
have been sustained and carried forward under, circumstances the most 
discouraging, and under an unexampled pressure in the money market, 
reflects high credit upon the people of Boston, by whom the money for 
them has been chiefly furnished, and is the best possible evidence of 
the value of the prize sought to be gained. 

By means of the line above described, a railroad connexion is opened 
with Montreal, through which that city now receives a large amount of 
her foreign imports, bofh from the United States and Great Britain* 
This trade has already far exceeded expectation ; and as the city of 
Boston is a convenient winter port for Montreal, the latter will, un- 
doubtedly, continue to receive a large amount of her >«4rlker supplies of 
merchandise through the former, giving rise to a large and profitable 
traflic, both to the railroads connecting the two, and to the r.ities them- 
selves, and tending to strerigthen the position of each, as far as its hold 
upon the trade of the country is concerned. 

Should the line of railroad connecting Ogdensburg and Boston prove 
unable to compete successfully with the New York works, in tlie car- 
riage of western produce, so far as the export trade is concerned, it 
will, undoubtedly, supply the demand for domestic consumption, and in 
this way not only secure a profitable trafiic, but prove of great utility 
to the manufacturing and commercial districts of New England. For 
the articles of flour, corn, and cured provisions, the Nev^lngland States 
depend principally upon the West. To supply these articles in a cheap, 
. expeditious, and convenient manner, the above line is well adapted. It 
not only traverses many of the most important points of consumption, 
but connects with other roads penetrating every important portion of 
New England. 

Were those immediately interested in the above roads to derive no 
other advantage than that of receiving their supplies of western pro- 
ducts, and forwarding over them in return those oi their own factories, 
they would be fully compensated for all their outlay. The unexampled 
progress of New England in population and wealth, in spite of all her 
disadvantages of soil and climate, proves, most conclusively, the wis- 
dom and foresight of her people in constructing their numerous lines of 
railroad, which ally them to the more fertile and productive portions of 
the country. 

The distance from Boston to Ogdensburg is about four hundred and 
twenty-five miles. The rates charged for the transportation of a barrel 
of flour between the two have ranged from sixty to seventy-five cents 
per barrel, which is less than the cost on the Erie canal for the same 
article from Bufialo to Albany, (a distance of three- hundred and sixty- 
three miles,) for many years aft;er its opening. Upon a considerable 
portion of the above line the grades are somewhat unfavorable, but not 
more so than upon other lines of road that aspire to a large through- 
traffic. 



OOLONIAIi AND LAKS TRADB. 251 

Table showing the cott of the various lines of public improvements constructed 
for the purpose of securing to Boston the trade of the basin of the St. Law- 
rence and the West* 

Wi'.'^tern railroad, including Albany and West Stockbridge . $9,9>3,7/>8 

Bcisum and Lowell 1,945,G4G 

Lowell and Nashua 651,214 

Concord 1,4^0,000 

Nonhem 2,7()8,()00 

Vermont Central 8,5(X),(K)0 

Fitcbburg 3,612,486 

Vermont and Massachusetts 3,450,004 

CtKshire • 2,777,843 

Rutland 4,500,000 

Vermont and Cmiada 1,500,000 

Ogdensburg or Northern 5,2i)0,000 

46,343,951 

Akhc ugh only a portion of the Vermont and Massucbusetts road is 
ust'd in tlie above line^ the total cost of the road is includr<], as it is 
proposed to makt* this road a part of a new line to the West, to bo 
efii*cted bv tunnelling the H(X>sac mountains. 

In addition to the roads aiming at Lake Champlain, there are two 
im{K>rtant lines, the Connecticut and Passurnpsic, and the Boston, 
Concord, and Montreal roads — the former in Vermont, and the latter in 
New Hampshire-^having a g(»ncral northerly direction, which are de- 
signed to l>e ulymately extended to Montr(*al. Tht* former has reached 
St. Jt>hosbury, a (Ustancc of two hundred and thirty-eight miles from 
Bc'ston, and three hundred and thirty-two from New York — a higher 
point than any yet attained by any New England rond, with th« 
♦•\t«pticm of tlic Atlantic and St. Lawrence and the Vermont and 
Canada roatls. The latter is nearly completed to IVrtls ritcr^ wlier<* it 
Will l(>rm a junction with the Connecticut and Passuinpsic road. The 
Sirnier will undoubtc^lly be soon extended about thirty miU^s farther 
rK»rth, to Island Pointy which is the point of junction of the Atlantic 
and J>U Lawrence awl St. Lawrence and Atlantic railroads, through 
^liich it will have a railroad connexion both with Montreal ium\ Quc- 
l»ec. The Boston, Concord, and Alontrcal railroad is now Ixing ex- 
tended to Littleton, a distance of tw(*nty miles farther north, and will 
undf>ubtedly Ix; c*ontinued up the valley of the Conneetieut, lJ>r the* 
pur|M>.>e of Ibrming a junction with tlie Atlantic and St. Lawrence road 
near Ldincasttr. 

T1m» Boeton and H'urrnuer road, next to the Western, is the most im- 
portant project in the State. With the former, it makes a part of the 
tkrowgh hne to Albany, previously notic(*d. It is the only channel of eom- 
niuuication between tbc city of Boston and the central {)ortions of the 
State, and commands a large lociU revenue in addition to its ihroui^li- 
trotfic. It is one of the most ex|M*nsive, and at the stmie time one of 
the OMiftt profitable works of tlie kind in th(* countr}\ 

The Boston and Lowell, the Fitchburg, and the Lowell and Nashua 



252 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

roads, have already been briefly noticed in describing the great lines 
of which they severally form the trunks. All these possess a very large 
and lucrative local business, independent of what they derive from in* 
tersectirig roads. They deservedly rank among the leading roads of 
the State, and the former Was a pioneer work of the kind in this country, 

OF the roads radiating from Boston in a southerly direction, the lead- 
ing line is the Boston and Providence, which derives especial import- 
ance from connecting the two largest cities in New England. It also 
forms a part of one of the most popular routes to New York, and holds 
a conspicuous position from the necessarily intimate relation it bears 
to one of the great routes of commerce and travel. The next most im- 
portant road in the southern part of Massachusetts is the Fall River 
road, which connects Boston with Fall River, a large manufacturing 
town, and constitutes a portion of another through-route to New York- 

The other roads in this portion of Massachusetts, though of consider- 
able l(jcal consequence, do not, for the want of connecting lines, pos- 
sess any considerable interest for the public. 

Railroads from Boston eastward. — Two important works, the Boston 
and Maine and Eastern roads, connect Boston with the State of Maine, 
traversing the northeastern portion of Massachusetts and the southeast- 
ern portion of New Hampshire. They form a junction soon after enter- 
ing Maine, and are carried forward by the Portland, Saco, and Ports- 
mouth railroad to Portland. The two former run through an almost 
continued succession of large manufacturing towns, which afford a very 
lucrative traffic to both lines. These roads are daily becoming more 
important from the rapid extension of railroads in Maine, and the prob- 
able construction of the European and North American railroad, con- 
necting the Maine system of roads with St. John and JHalifax, in the 
lower British provinces, which is destined to become a great route of 
travel between the Old World and the New. The above-named lines 
have already a very large through as well as local traffic, and occupy 
a conspicuous position as a part of our great coast-line of railroads. 

There are several lines of road traversing the State of Massachusetts 
from north to south, of much consequence as through routes ; among 
which may be named the Connecticut River line, and that made up of 
the Worcester and Nashua and the Norwich and Worcester and Proviaence 
and Worcester roads. These lines traverse districts filled with an ao* 
tive manufacturing population, for which they open a direct railway 
communication with New York, the great depot both of the foreign and 
domestic trade of the United States. 

The western portion of the State is also traversed from north to south 
by a line composed of the Housatonic and a branch of the Western 
road, extending to the town of North Adams. There are, too, in addi- 
tion to these, numerous local works in the State, which do not call for 
particular notice. 

In the State of New Hampshire there is- but one work having for its 
object the concentration within itself of the trade of the State — the 
Portsmouth and Concord railroad. The principal motive in the ccm- 
struction of this road was to open a communication with the trade of 
the interior, and prevent its being drawn off" to Boston on the one hand* 
and Portland on the other. This work secures to the city of Porl^ 



OOLOniAL AND LAKB TBADB. 253 

mouth all the advantages oF a connexion with the line already described, 
by which the city of Boston proposes to draw to lierself the trade of 
ibe West, and will undoubtedly contribute nouch to sustain the trade 
and commercial importance of the former. 

The line of roaa traversing the Connecticut valley is briefly de- 
scriU'd under the ** Railroads of Connecticut," and those traversing; the 
western part of Vermont are embraced in the notice of the Ne^ York 
system. 



CONNECTICUT AND RHODE ISLAND. 

y^nnrctinU.— Population in 1830, 299,675 ; in 1840,309,978 ; in 1850. 
370«791. Arear in square miles, 4,674 ; inhabitants to square mile, 
79.33. 

lUiode 7</aiiJ.— Population in 1830, 97,199; in 1840, 108,830; in 
ItMf 147,545. Area in square miles, 1,306; inhabitants to square 
mih-, 112.97. 

The railroads of Connecticut and Rhode Island, though numeroust 
and some of them 'important, derive their chief consecjuence from the 
relations they sustain to the works of other tJtates, in connexion with 
which they cons'Jtute parts of several main routes of travel. 

The most prominent of these is the great line connecting Boston and 
New York* The portion of this line in Connecticut is maile up of the 
Nac York and New Ilttrciu and the Sew Ilaren, Hartford^ and Spring' 
fifld roads. Th(*se roads, in connexion with the Western and Boston 
and Worcester, constitute the great travelled land route conneeiiiigNew 
Eni^l'ind with New York, which justly ranks with the most imp)rtant 
passenger roads in the United States, as It is one of the most profitable. 

The travel between New York and Boston has also given birth to 
other projects, claimed to lie still better adapted lc>r its aeeomrnoda- 
lion. The most prominent of these is the Air-Line road, designed to 
(>llr)w a nearly strai^jht route between New Haven and Boston. 
Altlmugh this scheme uas been long bet<)re the public, it h.is not been 
commenced, but there now ap[>ears to be a strong probability that it 
will l>e successfully undertaken. To open this route will only require 
the construction of that |)ortion of it lying in Connecticut, as the MiL«sa« 
chuseits link is already provided for by the Norfolk county roiid. 

Amitlier road, constructed partly with a view to giving a new route 
between Boston and New York, is the New London and New Haven 
nxid, recently opened to the public. This road is to be extended east, 
Uilh to Stonington and Norwich, to form a connexion at the tiirmer 
place with the Sorwick and Worcester % and at the latter with the Stoning 
um, hmkIs. By these connexions, two new routes would be fl>rnuMl be- 
tween Boston and New York, one of which would take the im|N»rtant 
city of Pmvidence in its course, (l is, therefore, probable that at no 
distant day Uiere will be four inde{)endent land routes between New 
York and Boston, in addition to the Uiree lines now in operation, partly 
fay water and partly by railroad. 



254 ANDREWS' Bspoax mr 

By far the greater part of the travel, and no inconsiderable pardon 
of the trade, between Boston and New York, is carried over the routes 
last named, which are known as the Fall River, Stonington and Nor^ 
wich and Worcester Touies ; the first is composed of the Fall River road; 
the second of the Boston and Providence, and Stonington; and the 
third, of the Boston and Worcester, and Norxmch and Worcester^ and 
their corresponding lines of steamers. All these routes are justly cele- 
bratecf for the comfort and elegance of their accommodations ; the<Jaset 
safety, and dispatch with which their trips are performed ; and are 
consequently the favorite routes of travelling by a large portion of the 
business and travelling public. The distance between Boston and New 
York, by these routes, is about 230 miles. 

The other leading lines in Connecticut are the Housatordc, extending 
from Bridgeport to the State of Massachusetts, and connecting with the 
roads in the western part of that State ; the Naugatuch, extending 
from Stratford to Winsted, a distance of about 60 miles ; and the Canal 
railroad, extending from New Haven and following the route of the 
Old Farmington canal to the northern part of the State, whence it is to 
be carried forward to Northampton, in Massachusetts. An important 
line of road is also in progress from Providence, centrally through the 
States of Rhode Island and Connecticut, to Fishkill, on the Hudson 
river, taking the city of Hartford in its route. This road is regarded 
with great favor by the cities of Hartford and Providence, as a means 
of connecting themselves with the Hudson, through which both draw 
a very large amount of some important articles of consumption, such as 
breadstuffs, lumber, coal, and the like. 

The railroads lying principally in Rhode Island are the Stonington, 
which has already been noticed, and which is chiefly important 
as a part of one of the leading routes between Boston and New York ; 
and the Providence and Worcester road. The latter is an important local 
work, traversing for almost its entire distance a constant succession of 
manufacturing villages. It is also an important through-road to tlie 
city of Providence, bringing her in connexion with the Western rail* 
road and the central portions of Massachusetts, and with New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont, by means of the railroads centering at Worcester. 

The Boston and Providence railroad, lying partly in Rhode Island, is 
already sufficiently described in the notice of the Massachusetts rail* 
roads. 

Another important line of railroads, not particularly noticed, which 
may be embraced in the description of the " railroads of Connecticut," 
is the great line following the Connecticut valley. This line, though 
composed of several distinct works, is in all its characteristics a homo- 
geneous line. It traverses the most fertile, picturesque, and attractive 
portion of New England, and is important both from the large tnifiic 
and the pleasure-travel it commands. No line of equal extent in the 
United States presents superior attractions. It has already reached Su 
Johnsbury, Vermont, a distance of about 330 miles from New York, 
and 264 from New Haven. Measures are now in progress to secure 
its extension about 30 miles farther north to Island Point, there to form 
a junction with the St. Lawrence and Atlantic railroad, in connexion 
with which a new, direct, and convenient route will be opened be- 



counruL ajtd lakb trabs. 255 

tween New York and the New England States, and the cities of Mon- 
treal and Quebec* * 



MAINE. 



Population in 1830, 399,455; in 1840, 501,798; in 1850, 583,169. 
An»ri in si juare miles, 30,000 ; inlmbitants to s(|uure mile, 19.44. 

With the exception of the States of Maine and Connecticut, the rail- 
n»a<I system of New Englnnd rests upin Boston as a common cenlr(» ; 
by the rnpital of which it has been mainly constructed. The roads of 
Maine Inuonf^ to an independent system, toward which tfie city of 
l^lrtland Ixars the same relation as docs Boston to the works already 
dt'ScrilK'd. 

The If.'idin^ n)ad in Maine forms a part of the line connecting Mon- 
treal and PortUmd, made up of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence in the 
L'nitcd StaU\s, and the St. Lawrence and Atlantic in Canada. This 
jrr* at wcirk was first prop)S(^d to the people of Portland jis a means of 
pM-ovcrinir the position they had lost irora the overshadowing influence 
ff their grr*at rival, Boston, and of securing to themse^lves a portion of 
the jrade of the West, which is now exerting such' marked influence in 
ii.f» progress of all our great commercial towns. 

Portland possesses some advantages over any other city east of New, 
York, in being nearer to Montreal, the emporium of the Canadas; and 
in p^Mssing a much more favorable route for a raihoad from tlie 
Adaniic coast to the St. Lawrence basin than any otlH»r, eaf't of the 
Cir»*iii Mountain range. The city of Montreal, being accessible from 
♦•ill the gr< at li?kes by the largest craft navigating th(»se waters, is 
tiie eonv<*fiient depot for the produce collected upon them. When 
fiu-v on ship- board, this produce may be taken to Montreal at sli^hlly 
:ncr« ased rates over those charged to Bufl'alo, Oswego, or Ogdenshurt;; 
bit the want of a winter outlet from Montreal to tid(»-water hii^ se- 
riously retarded the prowth find prosperity of that city, and prevented 
h«*r from reaping all the advantages irom her connexion, by hrr 
mairniflcent canals^ with the trade of the West, which she would 
ha\e secured by a convenient winter outlet. Formerly lar*:e amounts 

uce were usually collected th<Te during the autumnal 
tTinulh^f and warelioused till spring, and th<n shipped to Englnnd. 
^^hipmenls by this n)ute involved the necessity of holding product* 
rcceivc^l late in the season some lijur or five months. The ineonve- 
Tiiefices and losses arising from these causes, aided by the repeal of the 
K'j;;li>h corn hiws, were among the prominent reasons winch li'<l to 
the commercial arrangements by which coltmial pnKluce and merelKin- 
dis<» are allowed to pass, in bond, thnnigh the territories o( {he Tnited 
Stales. This arran;»ement had a tendincv to divert a huL't* trade (rom 
Motirrexd, and threalen<»d the most disa>trous consequences to its tra<le 
and prosj)erity. In view of this state of thincrs, its ciiizens espcuised 
nod pn>seculed the raihroad to Portland with great ent^rgy and ztal. 
The whfde work is far advanced toward com|»letion ou lK)th sides 
of the line. The portion within the United Stales will hi} finished 



256 ANDREWS' SBPOBT ON 

during the present year, and the Canadian portion by the 1st of Juljt 
1853. It occuoies the shortest practicable route between the St. Law- 
rence river ana the Atlantic coast. Its grades are favorable, nowhere 
exceeding fitly feet to the mile in the direction of the heavy trafl5c, or 
sixty feet on the opposite course. The gauge of the whole road is to 
be five and a half feet. As no transhipment will be necessary upon 
this. road, and as its operations can be placed substantially under one 
n)anagement, it is believed that produce can be transported over it at 
much lower rates than the ordinary charges upon railroads. 

As before stated, the plan of a railroad from Portland to the St. Law- 
rence originated in the idea of the possibility of making that city the 
Atlantic terminus of a portion of the trade of the St. Lawrence and the 
great lakes. The city of New York had so long been in the exclusive 
possession of this trade, as to create the idea that she held it by a sort 
of natural and inalienable right. When the idea was proposed of turn- 
ing this trade through a new channel, and of bringing it to tlie Atlantic 
coast at a point some four hundred miles northward, the boldness of 
such a proposition was enough to stagger the credulity of every one 
who did not feel himself immediately interested in the result. As 
soon, however, as the prospect was fully unfolded to the people of 
Portland, its apparent practicability, and the advantages which it 
promised to secure, look complete possession of the public mind, and 
the city resolved, single-handed, to undertake the construction of a work 
^running, for a considerable portion of its distance, through compara- 
tively unexplored forests ; traversing for one hundred miles, at least, 
the most mountainous and apparently most difficult portion of the east- 
ern States for railroad enterprises ; and involving a cost, for the Ameri- 
can portion alone, of over five millions of dollars. Repeatted attempts 
iiad been made to construct a short road, for the accommodation of 
local traffic, upon the very route ^nce selected ibr the great line, but 
without success. The inducements held out were not regarded suffi- 
cient to warrant the necessary outlay. It was only by assuming that 
the people of Portland held within their grasp the trade of one of the 
most important channels of commerce in the whole country, that they 
could be induced to make the eflbrts and sacrifices necessary to suc- 
cess. These efforts and sacrifices have been made. The project is on 
the eve of realization, and the wisdom in which the scheme was con- 
ceived, and the skill and ability displayed in its execution, give the 
most satisfactory assurance of complete success. 

The length of this line, the construction of which devolved upon the 
people of Portland, is about one hundred and sixty miles, costing about 
$35,000 per mile, or an aggregate of nearly $6,000,000. The first 
step in the process of construction was a stock subscription of over 
$1,000,000 by the citizens of Portland, aided by some small contribu- 
tions from towns on the route — for the project was regarded by 0ll 
others as a mere chimera. This was expended in construction, and 
was sufficient to open the first division, which, running through an ex- 
cellent country, at once entered into a lucrative traffic. The city of 
Portland then obtained, by two several acts of the legislature, permis- 
sion to pledge its credit to the road to the amount of $2,000 »000. These 
sums, with some further additions to its stock, furnished a cash capital 



OOLOMXAL AMD IMOt S8ADB. 257 

«f over S3,0(X),000 to the work. Tlie necessary balance has been 
niscJ upon stock subscriptions by contractors and company botula. In 
this aaoaer has a cky of 20,000 inhabijtants secured tiie construction 
of a first-class raih'oad, connc^cting it with the St. Lawrence by the 
sbort<*st route practicable i(>r a railroad from any of our seaports. The 
amount actually paid in to the projt^ct by the people of Portland will 
<'XC(u*<l S50 in cash to each individuid, in addition to SlOO to each^ 
r<*prt>seiitL'd by the creditt that have been extended. It is believed that 
DO belter monuniont exists in this country of the energy and enterprise 
of CHir pt^iple, and the successful cr)-operation of one community in the 
execmiuo of a groat enterprise by which all are, relatively specdiingt 
to be equidly beni^fiued. It is an example which cannot be studied 
maA iiDiutted without profit. 

Prior to the construction of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence railroad, 
the only railroad of iiD{M>rtaftce in the State was tlie Portland, Saco and 
Port£^mouth road, which connected its commercial metropolis with the 
railroad system of Massachusetts. This road was constructed by per- 
sons interebted in tlie connecting lines, as a necessary exlensiou of their 
own. Wlu»n the city of Portland was reached, their objects were re- 
garded as 8(Tured. Any further extension of railroads in Maine was 
kM>ked upon as of doubtful utility to the interests of the cit^ of Boston, 
the great centre of the New England system. It wsis felt that the con- 
struction of railroads north and east from Portland, into the intc^rior, 
n^glil concentrate in that city the trade of the State, which had bi*en 
almost exclusively enjoyed by tlie former. This trade was already 
secured and sufficiently accommodated, as far as Boston was con- 
c<*med. by the extensive commercial marine of the two States; and the 
construction of railroads, it was felt, might lessen instead of strengthen- 
ing ibe grasp by which she held it. While every other portion of the 
cuuntry was embarking in railroads, tlie conviction grew up that Maine 
was not the proper theatre lor such enterprises, or, it* it were, the pt?ople 
felt tbcir mciuis unec{ual to their construction, and it was known that 
no ibni^ni aid would be had. All such projects, tlierefure, came to be 
regarded witli comparative indiflference. In this condition of the public 
miod tlie Atlantic and St. Lawrence scheme was proposed, and with 
it a system of railroads independent of the rest of the New England 
Statc*$9 which should concentrate within her own territory her ca[>ital 
and energies, and which should not only place her in a comnuuHling 
pusilioo in reference to the trade of tlie West, but, at the same time, 
place* her m route of the great Une of travel between the Old and New 
Worlds— a position combining all the advantages of the most favorable 
coancxions with the domestic trade of the country and with foreign 
oofiinierc<* and traveL These propositions constitute an era in the his- 
tory of the State. A new life was infused into the public mind, 
and objects of tiic highest value held out as the reward ot new etibrts. 
The t-llect upon the policy and public sentiment of the State has 
beeo magical. The whole people felt and saw that they have rights 
and interests to maintain and vindicate, and that Maine, instead of b^ 
ing a remote and isolated State, removed firom participation in the pn>- 
j^eu and scheises which are eficcting changes so marvelbus upon the 
Smoe of societyt coukl be broi^ght by her own efforts into the very locus 



258 AHDBBWS* BSFOBff ON 

of the great modern movement A new destiny was opened before 
her. To this call she has nobly responded, and the State is alive with 
projects that promise, iq a few years, to secure to every portion of it 
all necessary railroad accommodations, wkh the results which always 
follow in their train. 

Next in importance to the Atlantic and St. Lawrence railroad is the 
European and North American project, which is designed to become a 
part of the great route of travel oetween the Old World and the New. 
Under the above title is embraced the line extending from Bangor, 
Maine, to Halifax, Nova Scotia, taking St. John, New Brunswick, in 
its route. From Bangor west, the line is to be made up pf the Penob- 
scot and Kennebec road, now in progress ; the Androscoggin and Ken- 
nebec road, with a portion of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence, now in 
operation. When the whole line shall be xompleled, it is claimed that 
the transatlantic travel will pass over tms road to and from Halifax, 
and that through .Maine will be the great avenue of travel between 
Europe and America. Without expressing any opinion a& to the sound- 
ness of such claims, their correctness is at present assumed, and is made 
the basis of action on the part of the people of the State, and, to a cer- 
tain extent, gives character and direction to their railroad enterprises. 

Of this great line, that portion extending from Portland to Water- 
ville, a distance of eighty-two miles, is already provided for by a por- 
tion of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence, and the Androscoggin and Ken- 
nebec railroads. The portion from Waterville to Bangor, something 
over fifty miles, is in progress. From Bangor to the boundary line of 
New Brunswick, no definite plan has been agreed upon ; although the 
subject is receiving the careful consideration of the parties having it in 
charge, and no doubt is expressed that such measures will be taken as 
shall secure complete ana early success to the measure. The New 
Brunswick portion of it is already provided for by a contract with a 
company of eminent .English contractors, who, it is believed, will also 
undertake the Nova Scotia division. Of the realization of this scheme 
at the earUest day there can be no doubt. The plan meets with as 
hearty approval in the provinces, and in Great Britain, as it does in 
Maine ; and on both siaes of the water are the results claimed fully 
conceded. Such being the fact, foreign capital will be certain to 8uj>- 
ply, and is, indeed, now supplying, whatever may be lacking in this 
country. 

Another leading road in Maine is the Kennebec and Portland, ex- 
tending from Portland to Augusta, upon the Kennebec river, a dis- 
tance of over sixty miles. This road it is proposed to extend, to form 
a junction with the Penobscot and Kennebec, by which it will become 
a convenient link from Portland east in the great European and North 
American line already referred to. 

An important line of road is also in progress, to extend from Portland 
to South Berwick, there to form a junction with the Boston and Maine 
road — ^thus forming two independent lines of railroad between Portland 
and Boston. A portion of this line is in operation, and the whole 
under contract, to be completed at an early day. 

A project of considerable importance is also at the present time 
engrossing the attention of the people of Bangor — that of a railroad 



COUnOAL AHD liAXX TEADB. 259 

Allowing the Penohgoot river up to Lincoln, a distance of about 6fty 
miles* As the route is remanuibly favorable, and easily wiihin the 
fneaiift of the city of Bangor, its speedy construction may be set down 
as certain. It is much nraded to accommodate the important lumber* 
ing interest on that river. From Bangor to Oldtown — a distance of 
twelve miles — a raihroad already exists, which will form a part of the 
above line. ' 

^he projects enumerated embrace a view of all the proposed works 
di Maine, of especial public interest. 



NEW JERSEY. 

Population in 1830, 320,823; in 1840, 373,306; in 1850, 489,555. 
Area in square miles, 8,320; inhabitants to s<|uarq mile, 58.84. 

The railroads of New Jersey, as do those of the State of Connecti- 
cut, derive their chief importance from their connexion with tlie routes 
of commerce and travel of other Stat<\s. 

The most important roads in the State are those uniting New York 
and Phihuielphi:i, the Camden and Amhoy and the Srw Jersey railroads, 
in c< annexion with the Philadelphia and Trenttm road, lying within the 
fiCHte of Pennsylvania. Upon these roads are thrown not only the 
travel between the two largest cities in the United States, but hrtween 
the two great divisions of the country. As might be expected from 
such relations, they command an immense passcuiger traAic, and rank 
among our most successful and productive works of the kind. They 
are much more important as routes of travel thim of commerce, as the 
Raritan canal, which has the same general direction and connexions, is 
a better medium for heavy transportation. 

Another important work is the New Jersey Central, wliich travers<*s llie 
8late from east to west. At Eiizabothtown it connects with the New 
Jersey road, tlius forming a direct railroad connexion between New 
York and Kaston, on the Delaware river. This road, though locally 
important, is still more so from its prospective connexions with other 
great lines of road, either in progress or in operation. It is proposed to 
extend it up the valley of the Le)iigh, and through the mountain range 
lying between the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, to Catawissa, 
OQ the latter, from which it will be carried to WilUamsport, to form a 
connexion with the Sunbury and Erie n)ad, which is abimt to I>e coin* 
menced. Upon the completion of these, the Central would not only 
(arm a very imjKirt'int avenue iK^twcen the city of New York and the 
coal-fields of Pennsylvania, from which that city draws its supplies of 
foeU but would unite the city with Lake Erie, opening a new and <li- 
rrct line for the trade of the West, and placing New York in vctv fav<ir- 
able relations to the proposed Sunbury and Erie line. From Easlon to 
Sunbury a large amount has already been expended for the pur|)OM:of 
opening the above coromunit*ntion, and no doubt is expressed that this 
pniject will be speedily realized. 

A road is also in prot^ess from Trenton, designed to loUow the Del- 
aware up to the Water Gap, for tlie purpose of connecting with liie 



M 



200 AVDUBWS' 

proposed road from the Lackawanna valley to that place, and of open« 
ing an outlet for the latter in the direction of Philadelphia. Thie road 
has already been completed to Lambertville, and is in piogress beyood 
that point. 

Another important road in this State, possessing similar characCens- 
tics with the Central, is the Morris ami 'Eszex. This road is now in 
operation to Dover, a distance of about forty miles from New Yorkt 
and is in progress to a point on the Delaware river, opposite the Water 
Gap. From the Water Gap a road is proposed estenaing to the Lacka- 
wanna valley, at Scranion, the centre of very extensive deposiles of 
iron and coal. The importance of a continuous line of railroad from 
the coal-fields of Pennsylvania to New York has already been adverted 
to. The extension of the Morris and Essex line into ine Laifcawanoa 
valley is of the first consequence, from the connexion it would ther^ 
form. This valley is already connected with western New York and 
the great lakes, and will be the focal point of a large number of roads, 
oxistructed ibr the purpose of becommg outlets for its coal in a north- 
erly direction. By the opening of a railroad from this valley to New 
York, a new and important route would be formed between thai city 
and the lakes, which could not fail to become a valuable one, both for 
commerce and travel. 

Through the northern part of the Stitte, the Erie railroad is now 
brpught to Jersey City by means of what is now called the Union raft- 
road,* composed of two short roads, previously known as the Ptiieraon 
and the Paterson and Ramapo ; the track of this will be relaid, so as to 
correspond to the Erie gauge. Through this road the Erie is brought 
directly to the Hudson, opposite New York — a matter of great import- 
ance so far as its passenger traffic is concerned. The former is leased 
to, and is run as a part of, the Erie road. 

A railroad is also in progress from Camden, opposite Pbiladelpbia» 
to Absecum Beach, on the Atlantic coast. This road will traverse the 
State centrally, from northwest to soutbesist, and will prove a g^eat 
benefit to the country traversed. 

♦ 

Canab of New Jersey. 

There are two canals of considerable importance in the State<— the 
Ddaufore and Raritan, and the Morris arid Essex. 

The Delaware and Raritan canal, the most considerable work of tke 
two, commences at New Brunswick and extends to Bordentown, a dis- 
tance of 43 miles. It is 75 feet wide at the surface, and 47 at tbe 
bottom, and 7 feet deep. There are seven locks at each end, 110 feet 
long, and 24 feet wide, having eight feet lift each. These locks pass 
boaits of 228 tons burden. The canal is supplied from the Delaware 
river, by a feeder taken out 22 nnles above Trenton. This canal ooci- 
neets with the Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canals, and » 
the principal channel through wbich New York is supplied with coal. 
It also commands a large amount of fiieight between New York and 
Philadelphia, and is navigated by regular lines of propdlers, nmniag 
between the two cities. This wm is of very grest importaiioe to the 
city of New York, as a means of supplj^ag that citjr with coal» and 



COLOmAL AK» LAKB TRADB. 261 

a» sflnrding a convenient channel of communication with Philadelphia. 
It is aUn an important work in a national point of view ; as, in con- 
ncxino with the Chesapeake and Delaware and the Dismal Swamp 
canakt k forms an internal navigable water-line, commencing with 
Long Island soand, and extending south, and by way of the cities of 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Norfolk, to the south part of 
North Carolina. This fact was regarded of great consequence to the 
ootnmerce of the country, prior to the construction of railroads, as it 
^^uld have enabled our people to maintain an uninterrupted commu- 
nicatioQ between the diflR^rent portions of tlie country in the event of a 
war with a foreign power. 

Morrk ami Enez canaL — This work extends by a circuitous route 
fmm Jersey City to the Delaware river, at Easton. Its length is about 
one hundred miies • Its revenues are principally derived from the local 
traffic of the country traversed, and the transportation of coal, which 
is brought to Easlon by the Lehigh canal. Its relations to the com- 
merce of the country are not such as to call for particular notice. 



reNNSTLVANIA. 

Papulation in 1830, 1,348,233; in 1840, 1,724,033; in I&50, 2,311,- 
7W. Area in square miles, 46,U00 ; inhabitants to square mile, 50.25. 

The aittmtion of the people of Pennsylvania was, at an early period 
in our biitory, turned to the subject ot iotemal improvements, with a 
view to the local wants of the State, and for the purpose of opening a 
water communication between the Delaware river and the navigable 
watefB of the Ohio. It was not* however, till stimulated bv the exam* 
pie of New Y'ork, and the results which her great work, the Erie canal, 
was achieving in developing and securing to the former tlie tra<le of the 
West, that the State of Pennsylvania commenced the construction of 
▼arions works which make up the elaborate syMem of that Stfite. 

The great Penmytca^t Une of improvement, extending from Philadel- 
phia to Pitmburg, was commenced on the 4th of July, 1826, and was 
finally compt<'led in March, 1834. It is made up partly of railroad and 
partly of canal, the works that compose it being the Columbia railroad, 
extending from Philadelphia to Columbia, a distance of 82 miles ; the 
eniCc*m and Juniata divisions of the Pennsylvania canal, extending from 
Columbia, on the Su94]uehimna river, to HolIidaysl)urg, at the base of 
the Alleghany mountains, a distance of 172 miles ; the Portaire railroad, 
extending from Holliilaysburg to Johnston, a distance of 3G ^1il(^<t, and 
by which the mountains are surmounted ; and the westrrn division of 
tlic Pennsylvania canal, extending from Johnston to Piilsburg, a dis- 
tance of 104 miles ; making the entire distance from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburg by this line 394 miles. The canals are 4 iivt dn p, 2S ll^t 
wide at the bottom, and 40 at the water*line. Its hx-ks are IK) feet long, 
aad from 15 to 17 feet wide. The Alleghany mountains are passed by 
a smnoiit of 2,491 feet, and the eastern division of the canal attains a 
bright of 1,092 l€*et above tidi*-water- The Portage road consists of a 
of inclined planes, which are worked by stationary engines. 



J 



262 ANDREWS* RBPOBT OK 

The cost of this great line up to the present time has been about 
$15,000,000. 

The eastern division of the canal has an additional outlet, by means 
of the Tide-water canal, (a private enterprise,) whrch extends from 
Columbia to Havre de Grace, on the Chesapeake bay, in Maryland. 
It forms an important avenue between both Philadelphia and Balti- 
more and the interior of the State, as the boats that navigate it are, 
after reaching tide-water, conveniently taken to either city, as the case 
may require. 

The line of improvement we have described was constructed with 
similar objects, and bears the same relation to the city of Philadelphia 
as does the Erie canal to the city of New York. It has not, however, 
achieved equal results, partly from the want of convenient western 
connexions, from the untavc^able character of the route, and partly 
£rom the fact that the line is made up of railroad and canal, involving 
greater cost of transportation than upon the New York work. It has, 
however, proved of vast*dlility to ine city of Philadelphia and to the 
Stale, and has enabled the former to maintain a very large trade which 
she would have lost but for the above line. The comparatively heavy 
cost of transportation over this route has not enabled it to compete 
with the New York improvements, as an outlet for the cheap and bulky 
products of the West ; but so far as the return movement is concerned, 
It enjoys some advantages over the former, the most important of wTiIch 
is the longer period during which it is in operation. At the commence- 
ment of the season it opens for business aoout a month earlier than the 
Erie canal — a fact which secures to it and to the city of Philadelphia 
a very large trade long before its rival comes into operation ; so that, 
although it may not have realized the expectations formed frOm it as 
an outlet for western trade, it has been the great support of Philadel- 
phia, without which her trade must have succumbed to the superior 
advantages of New York. 

It would be a matter of much interest could the movement of pro- 
perty, upon the two lines of improvement from tide-water to the navi- 
gable waters of the West, be compared, both in tonnage * and value. 
The returns of the Pennsylvania works, however, do not furnish the 
necessary data for such a comparis6n. There are no methods of dis- 
tinguishing accurately the local from the through-tonnage, nor the 
quantity or value of property received from other Stales, as is shown 
upon the New York worts. The returns of the business on the former, 
however, show only a small movement east over the Portage road, 
which must indicate pretly correctly the through movement. In the 
opposite direction the amount, both in value and tonnage, is much 
larger. A better idea, probably, can be formed of the value and 
amount of this traflSc from the extent of the jobbing trade of Philadel- 
phia, a very considerable portion of which must pass over the above 
route. Philadelphia, though it does not possess a large foreign com- 
merce, is one of the great distributing points of merchandise in the 
Union ; and the large population and the very rapid growth of that 
city, in the absence of tne foreign trade enjoyed by New York, proves 
conclusively the immense domestic commerce of the former. 

Another great line of improvement undertaken by the State is com- 



OOLOHXAL AttP LAMM TEADB. 263 



puaed of the Siu^vehanna dtvUion of the Penmyltania canals extendimr 
from the mouth of the Juniata to Northumberland, a distance of 39 
mi]^8v and the North Branch canal» extending from Nurthumberland 
tu the State line of New York, a distance of 1G2 mUes, where it will 
coooect with the New York State works and the numerous proposed 
lines of railroad centring at £lmira« Of this last-named canul, 112 
mileftt extending from the mouth of the Juniata to Lackawannock^ 
have been completed, at a cost of nearly S3,0O0,0U0, and the remain- 
der of the liiie is in rapid progress. As the lower part of this canal 
will coooect with the Pennsylvania, and through this with the Tide- 
water canal, a great navigable water-line will be constructed, extend- 
ing through the central portions of the State from north to south. This 
lioie will, for a considerable portion of its distance, traverse the anthra- 
die coal-Qelds of die State, from which a large traffic is anticipated. 
A large trade is also expected from the New York works in such 
articles as Philadelphia and Baltimore are better adapted to supply 
ihsrn New York. 

Another important work, so far as the coal trade of the country is 
c«iocrrned, is the Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canals extending 
from Bristol to Easton, a distance of sixty miles. This work Ibrms 
th«* nutlet to the great Lehigh coal-fields. Its cost has been about 
Sli8U(),000. 

In llie wt\st<»rn portion of the State several important works were 
pn»je<tcd, jis a part of the great system originally proposed, although 
only an iacunsiuerable portion of them has been completed by the State. 
Of these are, first, the Beaver divisum of tlie rtnnsylvania canals com- 
mtffieiau at Beaver, on the Oliio, at the mouth of Beaver river, and 
extf-nding to Newcastle, about twenty-five miles. This canal forms 
the trunk of the Mahoning canal, extending from the Slate line of 
P<.-nn^ylvania to the Ohio canal, at Akron, a distance of about seventy- 
fix miles ; and also of the Erie extension of die Pennsylvania canal, 
cummt'ncing near Newcastle and extending to Erie, a distance of ulxmt 
one hundred and six miles. 

Tliis ladt-de<i<Tilx*d work has passed into private hands. It is at tlic 
present time chiefly employed in the transportation of coal, and is the 
principal avenue ior the supply of this article to Lake Kiie. Connected 
ifc.lh the Erie extension is a State work called the French cretk feeder 
and Fraaklin branch, extendin«< from Franklin, on th(» Alleghany river, 
to Coim«*aut lake, by way of Meadville, a distance of alx)ut fHty miles. 
Th« .m; improvements in llie western part of tlic Stale are chit lly im- 
p*/rtiUit us local works ; they have not proved productive as invest- 
u)ent.«», thiiugh lii^hly bentfieial U> the country traversed. 

The Wot Brajien cjujal, exiendins; frnni Noithutnberland to Lock- 
hiven, a distance of seventy-two miles, is a work of mueli local im» 
{D>stunce« as it traviTses a rr*gion very rich Unh in soil ;uk1 minerals. 



The above constitute the leading W(»rks which Ix'Uing to the Stale 

; t.rmed. TIutc are a lew other works of minor 
importance, which do not call lc)r piu^ticuhir lunice. 



^y*tem, as it may be t.rme 



S> lar as dieir income is concerned, the various works undertaken 
ftnd executed by the Stale have not proved producti\e, though thej 
have been of vast utihty, and have exerted a great iulluence in dcvcl* 




964 



AI^WBWS' RB90B9 0» 



oping the resources of the State. The usefolness of the ^at Ceotntl 
line has been seriously impaired by the compound and inconvenient 
character of the work, nQarie up partly of railroad and partly ftf ceivU 
The mountains are overcome by inclined planes, which are »ow re- 
garded as incompatible wilh the profitable operation of a railroad, and 
which are to be avoided on the route by works now in progfess. The 
other works described, not having been carried e«t aecording to the 
original plan, have failed to make the connexions con4emplate<^ and 
consequently have not realized tbe results predicted. Tne Slate of 
Pennsylvania, however, possesses within herself elements which, pro* 
perly developed, are fitted to render her, probably, the first State iit 
the Union in population and wealth. This nas, to a great estenl, been 
already effected by tbe works described, which have in this way added 
to the various interests of the State a value tenfold greater tha» tbe 
cost 'y and her people can much better afibrd lo pay the immense sutiB^ 
which these works have cost, than remain unprovided with such im- 
provements, even with entire freedom from debt. 

Annexed is a tabular statement, showing the length and cost of the 
various State works above described. 



Tabular Sfafement fhrnsing ike lengthy eost^ total revenue, muT erpmHttmrn 
of the fubHc works of Penmylwania up to Jtinttary 1, 18^. ^. 



Line*. 



Length. 



Columbia aad Philadelphia railwaj. 

Eastern division of canal 

Juniata division of canal 

Alleghany Portage railway 

Weatern division of cana) 



Total 



line, 



' »• • • m 



Delaware di^ion of canal 

Susquehanna division of canal. . . . 
North Branch division of caaal. . . 
West Branch division of canal » . • . 



French Creek division of canal. .. 
Beaver division of canal. * • • 



Jtftief. 
82 
43 

)dO 
36 

105 



396 

€0 
39 
73 
72 



Finished linea.. •••»••••••• 



Unfinished impravernents 

Board of Canal Commissioners. . . . 

Board of Appraisers ^ 

Collectors, weighmasters, and lock* 

keepers m....^....*. ... 

Exploratory surveys - 



640 

45 

25 



710 
314 



Cost. 



(4,791, 546 91 
1,737,236 97 
3,570,016 29 
1,860,752 76 
3,096,522 30 



15,056,077 23 

1,384,606 96 

897,160 52 

1,598,379 35 

1,832,083 28 



2&, 768^7 34 

817,779 74 
512,360 05 



Total. 



1,024 



22,098,447 13 

7,712,531 69 
70,782 67 
17,584 93 



Revenue. 



|7,.463,395 53 
2,661,008 05 
1,371,948 59 
2,985,769 10 
^,523,979 59 



17,096,10a 86 



402,779 15 

1,003,047 58 
449,056 19 



21,119,660 53 

5,819 67 
38,312 29 



21,163,812 49 



Ezpendituies. 



$5,105,058 39> 

762,981 m 

1,760,583 1» 

3,161,327 2& 

1,197,183 83. 



Il,9e7»ia2 97 



2,838,694 75 1,117,716 70 



554,835 VSt 

' 753,66d 17 
738,470 58 



15,151,817 64 

143,911 94 
310,360 Oa 



157,731 14 



30,057,077 56 



21,163,812 49 



15,506,089 58 

*"**70)782'66 

1,346,384 14 



16,985,356 36 



Private Works. 

Penmylvania railroad. — The object of the Pennsylvania railroad is 
to provide a better avenue for the trade between Philadelphia and ibe 



coumuL Aim laxb tkadb. 265 

interior— one more tn harmoDy with the works in prnprss and oprra- 
tioD in oiher States than the great line already described- Tlie latter 
is <iol oulv poorly adapted to its objects, but is closod a considerable 

Eortion of tnc year by frost. The mercantile classes of Philadelphia 
ove lone feh the necessity of a work better adapted to their wants, 
and fitted to become a great ronte of travel as well as commerce, from 
the intimate relation that the one bears to the other. It is by this in- 
terest that the above work was proposed, and by which the means 
hofvc been ftimished for its construction. The conviction of which we 
have spoken has been instrumental in procuring the money for this 
project as fast as it conld be economically expended. The work has 
been pushed forward with extraordinary energy from its commence- 
ment. Already a great portion of the line has been biuught into 
operation, and the whole will soon be completed. 

The Pcmnsylvania railroad commences at Harrishurg and extends 
to Pittsburg, a distance of two hundred and fifty miles. The^general 
mole of the road is favorable, with the exception of the mountain di- 
vision. The summit is crossed at about 2,200 feet above tide-water, 
involving gradients of ninety-five feet to the mile, which are less than 
those resorted to on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and not much 
exceefling those profitably worked on the Western railroad of Massa- 
chuiunt^s. The route is graded, and the structures are prepared for a 
<iriuble track, which will be laid as S(X)n as possible after the first shall 
hr r»[)ened. The cost of the road, for a single track, is estimated at 
$12,500,000, of which $9,750,000 have been alreadv provided by 
stock subscriptions. The balance is to be raised by an issue of bonds. 
The mad is to be a first-class WDrk in every respect, and is constructed 
in n manner fitting the great avenue between Philadelphia and the 
western States. 

As a throygk route, both for trade and travel, there is hardly a work 
of the kind m the United States possessing greater advanta/res or a 
stronger position. Its western terminus (Pittsburg) is already a citj 
of nearly iOO,000 inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing. That city is 
the seat of a large manufacturing interest, and the centre of a con- 
siderable trade; and a road connecting it with the commercial me- 
tropolis of tlic State cannot fail to command an immense and lucrative 
trailic. 

The western connexions which this road will make at Pittsburg arc 
of the most favorable character. It already has an outlet to Lake Erie 
thn>ugh the Ohio and Pennsylvania and the Cleveland and Well^ville 
roads. The former of these is regarded ns the appropriate extension 
of the Pennsylvania Hne to the central and western p^irtions of Ohio. 
Thniugh tiie Pittsburg and Steubenville road (a work now in progress) 
a cmnexion will be opened with the Steubenville and Indiana railroad, 
which is in progress from Steubenville to Columbus. These lines, in 
connexion with the Pennsylvania road, will constitute one of the short- 
est practicable routes between Philadelphia and central Ohio. At 
Grw-nburp:, 25 miles east of Pittsburj^, the Hempfield railroad will 
fcim a direct and convenient connexion with Wheeling, which has 
already become an imp>rtant point in the railroad system of the cf>un- 
try* At that city, 1^ means of the Hempfield line^ the Pennsylvania 




266 AUDBBWS^ BBPORT OK 

road will be connected with the central Ohio and with the northern 

extension of the Cincinnati and Marietta roads ; and through all the 
above-named lines the former will be brought into intimate and odpv^ 
nient relations with every portion of the western States. 

The Pennsylvania road must also become a route for a considerable 
portion of the travel between the western States and the more northern 
Atlantic cities. From New York it will constitute a shorter line to 
central Ohio than any ofiered by her own works. It will, for such 
travel, take Philadelpnia in its course — a, matter of much fanportance 
to the business community. 

' The route occupied by the road is one of the best in the country for 
local traffic, possessing a fertile soil and vast mmeral wealth in its 
coal and iron deposites. From each of these sources a large business 
may be anticipated. The whole road cannot fail, in time, to become 
the seat of a great manufacturing interest, for which the coal and iroa 
upon th« route will furnish abundant materials. 

The Pennsylvania road, though only partially opened for businesst 
has demonstrated its immense importance to the trade of Philadelphia. 
It was the means of securing to that city during the present year a 
very large spring trade, which otherwise would have gone to New York. 
The advantages already secured are but an earnest, it is claimed, of 
what the above work will achieve when fully completed. It is dlgiffi- 
dently expected by its projectors that the work will be followed Iby 
the same results in Philadelphia that the Erie canal secured to the c^ly 
of New York. However this may be, there can be no doubt of its re- 
coming the channel of an extensive commerce, and one calculated to 
promote, in an eminent degree, the prosperity of the city of Philadel- 
phia, as well as that of the whole State. 

The next most important work in the State, and one of greater local 
importance, is the Philadelphia and Reading railroad. This work is 
the great outlet of the Schuylkill coal-fields to tide- water. On this ac- 
count it bears a most intimate relation to most of the great interests of 
" the country. Its length is about ninety miles, and its total oost about 
$17,000,000. It is one of the most expensive and best-built roads in 
the United States. All its grades are in favor of the heavy traffic. 
Nearly 2,000,000 tons of coal have been transported over this road the 
past year. There can be no doubt that the enormous coal traffic 
which this road secures to Philadelphia is one of the causes of the ex- 
traordinary increase of that city from 1840 to 1850. This work has 
not, till a comparatively recent period, proved a profitable one to the 
stockholders ; but it is confidently expected that for the future it will 
yield a lucrative income. 

Philadelphia^ Wilmingtonj and Baltimore railroad. — This work lies 
partly in the three States of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, 
out may be appropriately described with the Pennsylvania roads. Its 
income is chiefly derived from its passenger traffic. It is one of the 
most important trunks in the great coast-line of railroads between the 
North and the South, and would be supposed to be one of the best routes 
in the country for a lucrative traffic. Its length is ninety-eight miles, 
and it has cost something over $6,000^000. It has been an expensive 
wprk to construct and maintain, and has not, consequentlyj proved veiy 



OOI^QMUL AMD LAKS TRADB. 267 

pro6tabIe to stockholders, though its value in this respect is rapidly in* 
creasing. Its position is such as to monopolize the travel between its 
termiilt and between the northern and southern States. 

Among the other railroads in operation in the State may be named, 
1st, the Philadd-phia and Trenton^ one of the links of the principal line 
(if toad connecting Philadelphia with New York, and for this reason 
an important work. This is one of the leading routes of travel in the 
country, and conunands a very profitable traffic. 2d, the Hurrishurg 
and LoMcaster road, which forms a part of the great line through the 
State. 3d, the York and Cumberland road, which is to form a part of 
the line through central Pennsylvania, of which the Stuquehanna road 
is to be an important link. 4th, the Cimberland Valley road, extending 
frum Harrisburg to Chambersburg. 5th, the Lackawanna and JVesfem 
wnd* connecting the northern coal mines of Pennsylvania with the New 
York improvements. 6th, the Philadelphia^ ficrmaniown^ and Noyns- 
t'jtm roaa, of which it is proposed to form the base of a line extcMuling 
fit>m Norristown to the Delaware river. 7lh, the Franklin railroad, 
extending from Chambersburg to Hagerstown, Marvland. 8th, the 
SortheoMU 9lh, the Franklin Canal road, extending from Erie to the 
Ohio Stale line. These two last form the only existing link between 
th*.' railroads of the Mississippi valley and ot the eastern States, and 
will, fhim their favorable relations, command an immense business. 
Tb(* Lackawanna and Western will soon become a part of anotticr 
thrrws^h route from western New York to the city. Already arc roaiJs 
ciibtT in progress or in operation from New York to the Water Gap. 
The completion of these will leave only about forty-five miles of new 
bne, to open a new and shorter route from Great Bend, on the Erie 
road, to tlie city of New York than by that line. 

There are also in the eastern part of the State numerous coal roads, 
tlfcf most important of which is the Pennsylvania Coal Company's road, 
exif'nding from the Lackawanna valley, a distance of something over 
ffirty miles, to the Delaware and Hudson canal. With the alK>ve ex- 
c4'ntion, the coal roads are short lines ; as they are purely loc: J works, 
a cJ«'*icripUon of them is not appropriate to this report. 

There are several very im]K)rtant works, pro{M>srd and in progress, 
in the Stale. Those in the eastern part of it are: the road from Norris- 
town to the Delaware river, which is to be extended to thr Water Gap, 
for the purpose of forming a connexion with the proposed road to the 
Lackawanna valley ; the Caiauisaay JVilliitmsport^ and Erie road, 
which is the virtual extension of tlie Heading road into the Sus^ciuehaiuia 
vall«*y ; an<l a road extending from Easton, lollowing up the valley of the 
Lehijjb, to a junction with the road last named. The first ol* these is 
in pn egress. The Catawissa road was partially graded some y<*ars 
ttiicf-, and efforts are now making to secure its completion. The road 
up the valley of the Lehigh is regarded us the virtual extension of the 
New Jersey Central road into the valley of the Susquehanna, wh<»re a 
evinnrxion will be formed with the Bunbury and Erie road, thus opn- 
ine a direct communication between the latter and New Yf)rk, and 

Iu.'iring that citv in as favorable connexions with the proposed hue to 
«ake Erie as Pliiladelphia. 
Au iinportaot line oi load i^ soon to be commenced, extending from 






Ham^fMB^ op tot wtOty oi die SowjiichMoa to EiHin* id 
of New Y<^1l. This woriL mav be recaided as a Ttiihi— » 
!£ su'i* v'.^rjJv descnixd ia m mi Pi i fi with tfae Piltii— ■ 
Lami^ railroad* 

In the westrm part of the State tfae leadaig work m m*m ^<m* s the 
jUUghaity Valley road« extending from Pittsbiir;^ "^ * _ ^ 

eastfrm ^iirectioo to Olean, oo tlie New York and Erie 
tfae pfx4>able temuousof tfae Genesee Valley and tfae 
roads. Tlie leneth of tfae Allegfaanj VaUey road wiD be 
hundred and eij^btv miles. Its gauge will probaUj oGrre^ond t^ ifaiK 
of the Xew York and Erie road. In eoonexioQ witfa tbis. it wi3 
a very direct and ooDveaient roote between the cities of !€ew York 
Pittsburg and also between tbe latter and tfae cities of ASmeht and 
Boston^ tlirougfa tfae Albany and Sosqoehaflna road. By tfae abiive 
lines the Alleghany Yallfy toad will ooonect P itlsbui g widi L^kco 
Erie and ODtario, and with tfae Hudson river. The road wili ttaverse 
one of the best portions of Pennsylvania, possessing a ienik woL. and 
8d»onding in extensive deposites of coal and iron. Tfae project faas 
tfae warm support of PiUsbargt and wneo the mducemems to its oon- 
straction are considered, and the means that can be made ap p fcah le 
to this end* its early completion cannot be doiibted. 

Another road in progress in western Pennsytvania is the 
extending from Green$burg, on the Pennsylvania road, to 
distance of seventy-eight miles. One of the leading obyects of this 
is to connect the great Pennsylvania line with tfae luads centring^ 
Wheeling. It derives its cfa»?f public consideration from this Act, 
although its line traverses an excellent section of coontry, which wvidd 
yield a large local traffic. This prefect is regarded with much fa^'iir 
by the people of Philadelphia, from the soj^woed fevcMrable connexions 
it will make wrth the Ohio Central and the northern extension of tbe 
Cincinnati and Marietta roads* When completed, it will andoobledly 
becr^mc an important avenue of trade and traveL 

The PiUMbujg and Steuhenalle road resembles the HamAdd, botfa 
in its ohjficUi and its direction. It was proposed as a more mrect roote 
to central Ohio than that supplied by the Ohio amd Pennsylvania rail- 
road. One of the leading motives fijr itrconstruction was to counteract 
any influence that the ihmj^dd road might exert prejudical to the 
intere.sts of Pittsburg, by placing that city on one of tne shortest routes 
between the East and West. At Steubenville it will connect with the 
SteubenmUe and Indiama road, now in progress from that city to Colum* 
bus, the capital of Ohio. 

The proposed Sunlmry and Erie railroad is intended to bear the same 
relation to Philadelphia, in reference to the trade of Lake Erie and the 
West, as does the Erie railroad to New York. Its length will be about 
two hundred and forty miles. Active measures are in progress to se- 
cure the necessary means for this work, which promise to be success- 
ful. The whole distance by this roote, from Phihdelphia to Lake Erie, 
will be about four hundred and twenty miles, somewhat less than that 
from New York. 

There are a number of canals in the State owned by private com- 
panies, the most important of which are the SehuylkiU and Lehigh ca- 



O O mm iMM, AMD LAldk TBADB. 269 

nabi which have been constructed (or the piirpoee of aflbrding outlets 
br the anthracite coal-fields of that State. They derive their chief 
cooa^kence from their connexion with the coal trade, although they 
have^ large traffic in addition. These works, tbouc^h of great utility 
and importance, from the relations they sustain to the varied interests 
olHhe country, in supplying them with fuel, are of a local character, 
and do not form portions of any extended routes of commerce*. 

The Tide-water canal has been briefly alluded to in the notice of the 
^* State workSf'* to whirh it supplies a communication with Chesapeake 
bay, and with the cities of Baltimore and Philadelphia, by a continu- 
ous water-line. It is a valuable improvement, and forms the outlet for 
a large and important section of the State, and for a portion of the com- 
merce passing over the State works. It is a work of large capacity, 
and is m possession of an extensive trade. It is also a channel turough 
which a large quantity of coal is sent to market. 




DELAWARE. 

ilation in 1830, 76,748; in 1840, 78,085; in 1850, 91,532. Area 
ire miles, 2,120; inhabitants to square mile, 43.17. 
only road lying entirely in this State is the Newcastle and Frendt^ 
connecting the Delaware with Chesapeake bay, by a line of 16 
This road was once of considerable importance, as it formed a 
part of the route of travel between the East and West, which has 
since been superseded by the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Balti- 
more railroad. It may now be regarded only as a work of local con- 
aec|ttenoe. 

Cheaapmht and Delaware cafui/.^-The only improvement of any con- 
siderable importance in Delaware is the uhesapeake and Delaware 
canal, oonnecting the above-named bays. This work is 13^ miles long, 
66 feet wid|pv 10 feet deep, with two lift and two tide-locks. It cost 
nearly S3,0()0,000. A very considerable portion of its cost was fur- 
Biabed by the general government, in donations of land. This work 
hears a similar relation to the commerce of the country with the Itari- 
lan camdt and makes up a pan of the same system of internal \yater 
OEvigatioD. It is also the channel of a large trade between Chesa- 
pedce bay and Philadelphia and New York. 

The PkilaJdphia^ ffilmingtom, and Baltimore railroad lies partly 
withio the State of Delaware, and has been sufficiently described 
der the head of •^Pemsylvaoia.** 



MARYLAND. 



Popahuion b 1890, 447,040; in 1840, 470,019; in ia50, Sa3jQ25. 
Area in aqoare mUea, 9,356 ; inhabitants to square aoile, 62.31. 

Infl n rfic ed by similar olgects to those wUdb actuated the people of 
Phihdelphia, New York, Boatim> id the eaaleni fllatest in ihoir iromeiise 




270 AlfDBkwS* BBFOBT ON 

expenditures for works that facilitate transportation, the people of Mary- 
land, at an early period, commenced two very important works, the 
Chesapeake and (Jhio canal and the Baltimore and Ohio ratlf^ffd^ for 
the purpose of attracting the trade of the interior, and of placing 'them- 
selves on the routes of commerce between the two grand divisions of 
the country. By the deep indentation made by the Chesapeake Itoy, 
the n.'ivigable tide- waters are brought into nearest proximity U) the 
Mississippi Valley in the States of Maryland and Virginia, To this is 
to be ascribed the fact, that before the use of railroads* the principal 
routes of travel between the East and the West were from the waters 
of that bay to the Ohio river. The great National road, established 
and constructed by the general government, commenced at the Poto- 
mac river, in Maryland, ' and its direction was made to conform to the 
canvenient route of travel at that time. 

No sooner had experience demonstrated the superiority of rail- 
roads to ordinary roads, than the people of Baltimore assumed the 
adaptation of them to their routes of communication, and immediately 
commenced the construction of that great work, the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, which, after a struggle of twenty -five *years^ is now on the eve 
of completion. * 

This road was commenced in 1828, and was one of the first 
brought into use in the United States. At the early period in 
was commenced, the difficulties in the way of construction 
appreciated. These obstructions, now happily overcome, for 
time proved too formidable to be surmounted by the engineering' 
and ability, the experience in railroad construction, and the limited 
amount of capital which then existed in the country. Though for a 
long time foiled, its friends were by no means disheartened, but rose 
with renewed vigor and resolution from every defeat, until the expe- 
rience of successive efforts pointed out the true pathway to success. 

The Baltimore and Ohio railroad extends from Baltimore to Wheel- 
ing, on the Ohio river, a distance of 379 miles. Its estimated cost is 
$17,893,166. It crosses the Alleghany mountains at an elevation of 
2,620 feet above tide- water, and 2,028 feet above low water in the 
Ohio river, at Wheeh'ng. In ascending the mountains from the east, 
grades of 116 feet to the mile are encotfdtered on one plane, for about 
fiftepn miles, and for about nine miles in an opposite direction. Grades 
of over 100 feet to the mile, for over ten miles, are met with on other 
portions of the line. These grades, which only a few years since w^ere 
regarded as entirely beyond the ability of the locomotive engine to 
ascend, are now worked at nearly the ordinary speed of trains, and 
are found to offer no serious obstacle to a profitable traffio. Occurring 
near to each other, they are arranged in the most convenient manner 
for their economical working, by assistant power. With the above 
exception, the grades on this road will not compare unfavorably with 
those on similar works. 

The road is now open to a point about 300 miles from Baltimore, 
and will be completed on or before the first of January next 

Whatever doubt may have existed among the enmneering profes- 
sion, or the public, as to the ability of this road, with such physical 
difficulties in the way, to carry on a profitable traffic, they have been 




OOtONIAL AlTD LAKB TRADE* 271 

fpinovrd by its successful operation. That grades of 116 feet to 
llie mile, for many miles, had to be resorte^ to, is full proof of the mag- 
nitude of the obstacles encounlered. lis success in the face of all 
these, of a faulty modo of construction in the outset, and of great finan- 
cial embarrassment, reflects the very highest credit upon the company, 
oftd uw)n the people of Baltimore. 

As Iw'fore stated, the first route of travel be^twecn th(^ Ea^t and the 
We:»t was between the waters of the Che5;ap<\'ike and tlje Ohio. The 
ojK-ninj: of the Erie canal, and, subsequently, of the railroads b(»tween 
the HudiM^n river and Lake.Erie, diverted this travel to this more norih- 
vm and circuitous, but more convenient route. This diversion seriour^ly 
nfl«'rie<l the business of Baltimore, and materiallv lessened the revenues 
ofihe Baltimore and Ohio railroad, since its opening to Cumberland. 
All thi<« lost ground the people of Baltimore exp(Xt to regain ; and with 
it, to draw themselves a hu'ge trade now accustomf*d to pass to the 
morr northern cities. Assuming the cost of transporlation on a railroad 
to l>e nirasured by lineal distance, Baltimore certainly occupies a very 
£ivciral»le position in reference to western trade. To Cincinnati, the 
prrai city of the West, and the commercial dtpot of soulliern Ohio, 
f^ic sh«»rl<'st route from all the great norlhcTU ciii<»s will probably lie 
bv w'fiv of Baltimore, and over the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. To 
s^trengtlieii hrr position still farther, the people of this city have alreadj- 
rommeneed the construction of the iVirMtrcif/^rn railroad, extending fmna 
the ?outhwrst(Tn angle of the Baltimore and Ofiio railrr)ad to Parkers- 
burg, on the Ohio river, in a direct hue towards Cincinnati. The dis- 
Mtjce from Baltimore to ParkeTsburg, by this route, will Ik? about 395 
mile.*, and about 580 to Cincinnati, by the railroads in progress tlirough 
8i»utli«Tn Ohio. 

FriMn Wheelinfij the main trunk will Ix; carried to the lakes by the 
CUrtltindtind WelUrille r,\x\xom\^ now completed to WtUsvillr^ 100 miles, 
and in progre-^s from Wellsville to Wheeling, 36 miles; and through 
c* ntral Oliio to Columbus, by the Central Oliio railroad, now in o|)era- 
lion from that place to Zanesville, a distance of about GO miles, aud in 
nrotrress ea,<t to Wheeling, alK)ut 82 mil(»s. When the Ohio, therefore, 
IS reaehed, Baltimore will be brous^ht into imnuHliate connexi(fn with 
all tho avenues of trade and travel in the West and will be in a strong 
l^f^sition to contend for the great prize — the interior connnerce of the 
oMintry. 

The local traffic of this road assumes a great importance from tljc 
immense coal trade which must pass over it from tlie extinsive mines 
Mtuated near Cumberland. The superior quality of this cord wdl 
always se<-ure ff)r it a ready market, and thert* can be no doubt that 
the demand will always be equal to the eapaeity of th(^ road. Alieady 
h:ts this trade lx»<»n a source of lucrative irallie, and contributed not a 
little to the success of the road lM"t()re th(» western connexions, u(M)n 
mhseh complete success was predicated, could b(* fc»ruied. But for 
tl.H trattic the credit of the company could have hardly Ixt^n main- 
tained, al a piint necessary to secure the requisite m<*ans for its pro,->e- 
rutjiin to the Ohio river. 

Bnltlrmtrt and Sufquehanva railrnml nnd ;V.t rn/tnrxitttti. — Th(» n«'Xt ^ 

gre.a line of public improvement in M:ii viand is Uie linltimorc and ^W 



272 AHDBSWS' BXI*OBV OH 

Susquehanna railroad^ by which that city secures a coininimication 
with the country lying to the northwest, and with the public works of 
the State of Pennsylvania, as she will ultimately with those of New 
York. As far as distance is concerned, the city of Baltimore occupies 
as favorable a position in reference to the public works of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the various hues of improvement connecting with them, us 
does the city of Philadelphia ; the former being only 82 miles from 
Harrishurg, while the latter is 107 miles. Such being the fact, Balti- 
more is making the most vigorous efibrts to perfect and extend the 
works by which these important communications are maintained. She 
is especially occupied in pushing a line up the Susquehanna river, with 
a view to its extension to Elmira, the most considerable town on the 
Erie railroad between Lake Erie and the Hudson. This town is also 
connected with all the railroads running through central New York, 
with Lakes Erie and Ontario at various points, and by a water-line 
with the Erie canal. By reaching this point, the Baltimore lines of 
improvement will be brought into direct connexion with the New Yodt 
system of public works, which have thus far monopolia^d the interior 
trade of the country. To divert this trade from its accustomed chan- 
nels, and to turn a portion of it at least to Baltimore, is one ^eat object 
that induces her to Lend her aid to the Susquehanna road m Pennsyl- 
vania, through which this object is to be effected. 

The trunk of this great Uneis the Baltimore and SusquehannaxBiXtOHif 
which extends from Baltimore to York, Pennsylvania, a distance of 56 
miles. In its original construction it received important aid from the 
State. It has not been a successful work, in a pecuniary point of view, 
owing to a faulty mode of construction and to Uie want ot suitable con- 
nexions on the north. But these drawbacks to its success have been 
removed, and its business prospects are now rapidly improving. From 
York it is carried forwara to Harrishurg, by means of the York and 
Cumberland road. Beyond this point no railroad has been cf>nstructed 
up the Susquehanna valley. It is the construction of this link that is 
occupying the especial attention of the city of Baltimore, and toward 
which, in addition to private subscriptions, she has extended aid in 
her corporate capacity to the amount of $500,000. The distance from 
Harrisburg to Sunbury, the route occupied by the Susquehanna 
company, is about 60 miles. From Williamsport to Elmira the dis- 
tance is about 75 miles. A portion of this last-named link is in opera- 
tion ; and should the road from Williamsport to Ralston be adopted, as 
a part of the through route, it will require only the construction of sonoe 
20 miles to complete the last-named link. Vigorous measures are in 
progress for the commencement of operations upon the unfinished por^ 
tion of the above line, and the whole will be completed* as soon as 
this can be done, by a prudent outlay of the means that can be made 
apphcable to the work. 

When the works in which the city of Baltimore is now engaged shall 
be completed, she will occupy a favorable position, as far as her procr* 
vmity to the great interior centres of commerce is concerned. She will 
probably be on the shortest route between the great northern cities aad 
Cincinnati — she will be nearer to Bufialo than .even New York or Bos- 
ton. She expects to realize in results the stceogth of her positioD in the 



COLONIAL AND LAKE TRADE* 273 

abstract. Assuming cost of transportation to he. measunul by lineal 
distance, bow fiir the result will justify her expectations remains to be 
seen ; at all events, she i^ certain to be amply repaid for all her cfii>rts, 
by the local traffic of the country traversed by her lin<*s of railrtiads, 
which will increase largely her present trade, by developing the re- 
sources of the section of country legitimately Ixdonging to her. 

The next most important line of road in Maryland is the Washington 
bramck afthft Baltimore and Ohio railroad. This forms a part of the 
great coast line, extentling from the eastern boundary of Maine to Wil- 
mington, North <]!arolina. Its traffic is chiefly derived from passengers. 
It is, besides, situated too near the navigable waters of the Chesapeake 
to command much more than local freight. As a connecting link m the 
great natiomd line referred to, it occupies a position that must alwa^iiB 
j^ecure to it a profitable traffic. 

Chrmj^eaie and Ohio canal. — This great work was projected with a 
view to its extension to the Ohio river at Pittsburg. The original route 
extended from Alexandria, up the Potomac river, to the mouth of 
Wills cieek, thence by the Youghiogeny and Monongahela rivers to 
Pittsburg. Its proposed length was 341 miles. It was commenced in 
1628, but it was only in the past year that it was opened for business 
to Cumberland, 191 miles. Towards the original stock 81,000,000 
was subscribed by the United States, 81,000,000 by the city of 
Washington, 8250,000 by Georgetown, 8250,000 by Alexandria, and 
85.000,000 by the State of Maryland. 

From the difficuities in the way of construction, the idea of extend- 
ing the canal beyond Cumberland has long since been abandoned ; and 
ibcmgh when originally projected, it was regarded as a work of national 
importance, it must now be ranked as a local work, save so far as it 
may be used in connexion with the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, as a 
portioD of a through route to the Ohiot In this manner it bids fair to 
become a route of much general importance. As a very large coal 
tnule must always pass through this canal, the boats will take return 
freights at very low rates, in preference to returning light. It is pro- 
posed to form a line of steam propellers from New York to Baltimore, 
Kir the transportation of coal ; and it is claimed that the very low 
rates at whicn freights between New York and Cumberland cm be ^ 
placed by such a combination, will cause the canal, in connexion with 
the Baltinaore and Ohio railroad, to become a leading route betwc^en 
New Y'ork and the West. 

The canal is a work of great capacity, having six feet draught of 
water, and allowing the passage of boats of 150 tons burden. As it 
commands the whole water of the Potomac river, it will always Ix^ 
abundantly supplied with water. 

This canal has encountered so many discouraging revcsc^s as to 
caose a general distrust as to its uhimate success. It is l^'lieved, how- 
ever, that it will not only become very important as a carrier of the 
celebrated Cumberland coal, but that it will, in time, work itself, in 
coonexion with the railroad, inU> a large through -business between th'*' 
eastern and the western States, in the manner stated. 

18 



274 ANDREWS' RBr ;RT ON 

VIRGINU. 

Population in 1830, 1,211,405 ; in 1840, 1,230,797 ; in 1850, 1,421,661. 
Area in square miles, 61,352; inhabitants to square mile, 23.17, 

The State of Virginia is the birth-place of the idea of constructing an 
artificial line for the accommodation of commerce and travel between 
the navigable rivers of the interior and tide-water. It is now nearly 
one hundred years since a definite plan for a canal from the tide-waters 
•of Virginia to the Ohio was presented by Washington to the House of 
Burgesses of Virginia, and ever since that time the realization of this 
project has been the cherished idea of the State. 

The central position of Virginia, her unsurpassed commercial advan- 
t^es, afforded by the deep indentations of her numerous bays and 
rivers, and the near approach toward each other, in her own territory, 
of the Ohio and the navigable waters of the Chesapeake, all pointed 
out this State as the- appropriate ground for a connection between the 
two. To the apparent facility with which this could be formed, and to 
the advantages anticipated from it, is to be attributed tlie hold which 
this project has always maintained upon the public mind of the State. 

James River and Kanawha Canal. — The great work by which this 
connexion has been sought to be accomplished is the James river and 
Kanawha canal, to extend from Richmond to the navigable waters ot 
the Great Kanawha, at the mouth of the Greenbrier river, a distance 
of about 310 miles. This work is now completed to Buchanan, in the 
valley of Virginia, a distance of 196 miles, and is in progress to Cov- 
ington, a town situated at the base of the great Alleghany ridge, about 
thirty miles farther. It was commenced in 1834, and has cost, up to 
the present time, the sum of $10,714,306. The extension of this water 
line to the Ohio is still considered a problem by many, though its 
friends cherish the original plan with unfaltering zeal. The work thus 
far has scarcely realised public expectation, from the difficulties en- 
countered, which have proved far greater than were anticipated in the 
outset, and have materially delayed the progress of the work. The 
canal follows immediately on the bank of the river, which has a rapid 
descent, and after entering the Alleghany ranges, assumes many of the 
characteristics of a mountain stream. This fact has compelled the 
* construction of numerous and costly works, such as dams, culverts, 
and bridges, and subjects the canal to all the dangers of sudden and 
high floods, from which it has at several times sufltered severe losses. 
But, so far as the canal has been carried, all obstacles have been sur- 
mounted. The various works upon it have now acquired a solidity 
that promises to resist all the trials to which they may hereafter be 
subjected. The crossing of the crest of the AUeghanies, the most diffi- 
cult portion of the whole line, has not been commenced. The summit 
at the most favorable point of crossing is 1,916 feet above tide-water, 
or 1,352 feet above the highest point upon the Erie canal, which is at 
the lake at Buffalo- Elaborate surveys and calculations have been 
made for the purpose of determining whether a sufficient quantity ot 
water can be obtained for a supply at the summit, and the result seems 
to favor an affirmative opinion. 

Could this canal be carried into the Ohio valley, with a sufficient 



COLONIAL AKB LAKB TRADE. 275 

supply of vrater there can be no doubt it would become a route of an 
immense commerce. It would strike the Ohio at a very favorable 
point for through business. It would have this great advantage over 
the more northern works of a similar kind, that it would be navigable 
during the winter as well as the summer. The route, after crossing 
the Alleghany mountains, is vastly rich in coal and iron, as well as in 
a very productive soil. Nothing seems to be wanting to the triumphant 
sttccc9s of the work but a continuous water line to the Ohio. Until 
tbid is accomplished, the canal must depend entirely upon its local 
business for support. Its eventual success as a paying enlerprise was 
predicated upon such accomplishment. Though of great benefit to the 
contiguous country and to the city of Richmond, it does not promise in 
its present condition to be profitable to the stockholders. 

Railroads in Vtrgima. 

Central Railroad, — The object wliich led to the conception of the 
James river and Kanawha canal is now the ruling motive in the con- 
struction of the two leading railroad projects of this State, viz : the 
Virgima Central and the Virginia and Tennessee railroads. While the 
canal is still the favorite project with an influential portion of her citi- 
zens, it cannot be denied that, sympathizing with the popular feeling 
in lavor of railroads, which have in many cases superseded canals as 
means of transportation, and which are adapted to more varied uses 
and belter reflect the character and spirit of tne times, a large majority 
of the people of the State deem it more advisable to open the proposed 
western connexions by means of railroads than by a farther extension 
of the canal. \ 

The line of the Central road, after making a somewhat extended 
detour to the north upon leaving Richmond, takes a generally western 
course, passing through t)ie towns of Gordonsvilk and Charlottesville, 
and enters the valley of Virginia near Staunton. At Gordonsville it 
connects with the Orange and Alexandria railroad, thus giving the for- 
mer an outlet to the Potomac. This road is now nearly completed to 
Staunton, with the exception of the Blue Ridge tunnel, which is a for- 
midable work, about one mile in length, and is in process of construc- 
tiim by funds furnished by the State. From Staunton the line has b«en 

f laced under contract to Bufl^alo Gap, a distance of thirty-five miles. 
V>f ilie whole line up to this point ample means are provided. 
The whole length of the road, firom Richmond to the navigable waters 
of the Kanawha, will be about two hundred and eighty-six miles. The 
means for its construction have thus far been furnished by stock sub- 
scriptions on the part of the State and individuals, in the proportion 
of liiree^fifths by the former, to two-fifths by the latter. No doubt is 
rntertnined of its extension over the mountains, at a comparatively early 
period. The State is committed to the work, and has too much in- 
volved, both in the amount already ex|)ended antl in the results at 
stake, to allow it to pause at this late hour. The opinion is now confi- 
dr*ntly expressed by well-informed pers^ms that some definite plan will 
b*» adopted for the immediate ct)nstruetion of lh<* remaining link o(this 
great bne. 



/ 









276 ANDREWS* KEFORX ON 

By extending this line to Guyandottc a junction will be formed with 
the roads now in progress in Kentucky, and aiming at that point for an 
eastern outlet. It is also proposed to carry a branch down the Kana- 
wha to its mouth, nearly opposite to Gallipolis, to connect with a road 
proposed from that point to intersect with the Hilkboro* and Cincinnati 
and the Cincinnati and Marietta railroads. • 

Virginia and Tennessee railroad. — The leading object in the construc- 
tion of the above road is to form a part of a great route connecting the 
North and the South, by a road running diagonally throuffh the United 
States. This line, commencing in the eastern part ot the State of 
Maine, follows the general inclination of the coast, and passes through 
our most important eastern cities, as far south as Washington. After 
reaching this point, it still pursues the same general direction, and passing 
through Charlottesville and Lynchburg, in central Virginia, and soon 
after leaving the latter place, enters the lofty ranges of the Alleghany 
mountains, which it traverses for hundreds of miles, till they subside 
into the plains circling the Gulf of Mexico. The northern portion of 
this great line is in operation from Waterville, Maine, to Charlottesville, 
Virgmia, a distance of nearly 800 miles.* Parts of the southern division 
are completed, and the whole, with the exception of the short Unk from 
Charlottesville to Lynchburg, is in active progress. Of tlie central 
links, the Virginia- arid Tennessee is the longest, and in this point of view 
the most important. It extends from Lynchburg to the State line of 
Tennessee, a distance of 205 miles. About CO miles of this road are 
completed, and the whole line is under contract for completion during the 
year 1854. The means for its construction are furnished jointly by the 
State and individual subscriptions, in, the pioportion of three parts by 
the forn:^ to two by the latter. When completed, this road will form 
a conspicuous link in one of the most magnificent lines of raihoad in 
the world, both as regju'ds its length and importance. 

The prospects of tqe local business of the above road are favorable. 
It traverses a fertile portion of Virginia, abounding, moreover, in most 
of the valuable minerals, such as iron, coal, lead, salt, etc. At present, 
there is no more secluded portion of the eastern or middle States than 
the country to be traversed by the above road ; all its great resources 
remain undeveloped, from the cost of transportation to a market. 
When this road snail be opened, no section will display more progress, 
nor furnish, according to its population, a larger traffic. 

The friends of this project propose also to make a portion of its line 
the trunk of a new route, from the navigable waters of the Ohio to 
those of the Chesapeake. At a distance of about 75 miles from Lynch- 
burg, the Virginia and Tennessee road strikes the great Kanawha near 
Christiansburg. From this point to the navigable waters of the river 
the distance is only 86 miles. As the Virginia and Tennessee road is 
to be connected by raihoad with both Richmond and Petersburg, the 
short hnk described will alone be wanting to constitute a new outlet for 
western produce to tide-water. That this Hnk must be supplied at no 
distant day can hardly admit of a doubt. Should the State extend aid 
to it, as well as to the Central line, both may be opened simultaneously* 

There are jiumerous other important lines of railroad iu Virginia, 
among which may be named the line running through the State from 



CX)L()NIAL AND LAKE TRADE. 277 

north to south, made up of the Richmond, Frcdrrichhurg and Potomac^ 
Richmond and Petersburg, and Petersburg and Wridon roads ; the South 
Stde, the Richmond and Dantille, the Seaboard and Roanoke, the Orange 
and Ahrandria, and the Manasns Gap railronds. 

The fir^t-named line forms the gieat route of travel through the Slate 
from north to south. Its revenues are chicHy derived from passc^nger 
traffic ; its direction not being favorable to a large freiirht business. 
The whole line is well managed and productive, and is daily improv- 
int! in value, from the extension of both extremes of the great system 
of whi<:h this is the connecting link. 

The South Side and the Richmond and Danville roads are works 
of importance, from the extent of their lines, the coimexions they form, 
and thi'ir pn)spectlve business. Starting from two, the most consider- 
able, townis in. eastern Virginia, situated at the head of navigation 
on two important rivers, they cross each other diagonally about mid- 
way iH'lween their respective termini, thus giving a choice of markets 
til the country traversed by either. The former constitutes the exten- 
f\im, eastward of the Virginia and Tennessee line, and opens jm outlet 
for that work to Richmond and Petersburg. The latter will also 
!M.rure to the same citi(\s the trade of important portions of southern 
Virginia and North Carolina, and will undoubtedly be extended event- 
ually into the latter Stale, and form a junction with the Sorth Carolina 
railroad, at or near Greensboro', forming, in conn«»xion with the North 
Carolina and C/iarlotie and South Carolina railroads a new and inde- 
p*n<lent interior route between Richmond and Petersburg and the 
sTiulhem States. 

The Scabffard and Roanoke railroad is also a line of much consequence, 
and may eventually become a work of great importance, depending, 
however, upon the future progress of Norfolk, its eastern terminus. 
The excellence of the harbor of Norfolk has led to great expectations 
in reference to the future growth of that city. Its p)sition has been 
ctimparcd with that of New York, and it b(*;u"s a relation to the Chesa- 
p»*ake bay, and the rivers entering it, similar to that of the Ibrmer to 
l\w Hudson river and Long Island Sound. No portion of the country 
p>5se<ses greater commercial capabiHlies than eastern Virginia, and 
It Wfiuld se<*m that the numerous rivers bv which it is watered would 
d'fvelop a trade sufficient to build up a large commercial town. Such 
has not bi*en the result, however inexplicable the cause. 

The great seats of commerce lie farther north, and the seaports 
of Virginia, instead of In'ing depots from which are distributed to the 
consum<Ts tlu* pro<lucts of the State, arc? merely points en route to the 
great nortlnTu markets. Her people being devoted chielly to agricul- 
ture, no largi* towns have grown up w ithin her territory. Should, in 
times J greater diversity of pursuits secure th(» con5unipli<»n, by her 
own |)^*c»ple, of the surplus products of her soil, Noifolk could not 
fail to l)ecome an im|)ortanl commercial town. Tiie Seaboard and Ro- 
anoke road would \n: her great arm of inhind eomnuinlralion, com- 
bining, as it does, with th*' roads |XM)etratini; the inlt ri^r of the Slate, 
and of North Carolina. As it is, it is a roadoiniut h con-iccjui iiee, and 
rxM filial to the svmmetrv c)f the railroad svstem of the Stale, and will 



278 ANDRKWS' RBPORT ON 

always transact a large business, even under a continuance of the 
present condition of things in the State. 

The other leading roads in Virginia are the Orange and Alexandria 
and the Manasses Gap railroads. The former extends from Alexandria 
to Gordonsville, on the Central road, a distance of about 90 miles. It 
is an important line, in that it connects the central portions of the State 
with the Potomac and the cities of Alexandria and Washington. It 
will form a portion of the line already described, traversing central and 
western Virginia and eastern Tennessee. To complete such a con- 
nexion, only a short link, extending from the central road near Char- 
lottesville, is necessary. There cannot be a doubt that the legislature 
of Virginia will allow the construction of this link, and aid it with the 
liberality extended toward similar works. 

The Mana^sses Gap road branches off from the Orange and Alexandria 
road about 25 miles after leaving Alexandria, and is to be extended 
into the valley of Virginia through the gap in the Blue rid^ above 
named. A portion of the line is already in operation. It is intended 
to carry this road up the valley to Staunton ; there to form a junction 
with the Central line. The Winchester and Potomac road, at -present a 
short though productive local work, will also probably be extended so 
as to connect with the above road — ^thus forming a line through the 
whole extent of the valley of Virginia, and connecting with the BaUi" 
more and Ohio road at Harper's Ferry, and with the Potomac at Alex- 
andria. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

Population in 1830, 737,987 ; in 1840, 753,419 ; in 1850, 868,903. 
Area in square miles, 45,000 ; inhabitants to square mile, 15.62. 

Railroads in North Carolina. 

The State of North Carolina has, on the whole, accomplished less 
than any eastern State in railroad enterprises, when we take into 
consideration the extent of her territory, and the great necessity for such 
works to the proper development of her resources. Her inaction has 
been owing in part to the want within her own territory of a large com- 
mercial town, which in other States not only becomes the centre of a 
well-digested system of railroads, but, by concentrating the capital, 
renders it available to the construction of such works. 

Of the roads in operation the most important is the Wilmington and 
Weldon road, extending from Wilmington to Weldon, and traversing 
nearly the whole breadth of the State from north to south. This is a 
work of the greatest convenience and utility to the travelling public, 
and must, from its direction and connexion, always occupy an impor- 
tant position in our railroad system. It is a road of comparatively low 
cost, upon a very favorable route, and is beginning to* enjoy a lucrative 
trajflSc. It has been an unproductive work from the faulty character of 
its construction — it being one of the pioneer works of the South, and 



COLONIAL AND LAKE TRADE. 279 

originally laid with a flat bar ; but this superstructure has given place 
Ui a beavj rail, and tlie road is now in a condition to compare favorably 
with our best works. 

The only ottier road in operation in the State is the Raleigh and Gas* 
toH^ which connects the above places by aline oi 87 miles. It is strictly 
a local work, and, from the faulty character of its construction, has 
bi'cn unsuccessful. It bids fair, however, to become a much more inj- 
portant road from its prospective connexion with the North Carolina 
Ctnirai road, now in progress. When the last-named road shall he 
openrd, and tlie Raleigh and Gaston shall have received iin improved 
superstructure, it cannot fail, it is believed, to become a prouuctive 
work, and one that will sustain an important relation to the travel and 
business of the country. Through the Central^ it will be brought into 
comiDunication with the Charlotte and South Carolina road, and form, 
for both, their trunk lines north. 

The only considerable work in progress, lying wholly within the 
State, is the North Carolina Central railroad. It connncnccs on the 
Neuse river, near Goldsboro*, taking a northwesterly direction, running 
through tlie towns of Ilaleigh, Hillsboro', Greensboro', and Lexington, 
to Charlotte. For the greater part of its line it traverses a fertile 
lerrilor)', and will secure railroad accommodations to a large and 
rich si'ction of the State. It will prove of great utility, and is 
much wanted to develop the resources of the Stale, and demonstrate 
its capacity to supply railroads with a profitable traffic. Its entire 
length is 223 miles. At Charlotte it will unite with the Charlotte and 
South Carolina railroad, which will insure to it the character and ad- 
vantages of a through route. The estimated cost of the road is alxmt 
83,000,000; of which sum the State furnishes 82,000,000. The whole 
line is under contract, to be completed at the earliest practicable mo* 
menu 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Population in 1830, 581,185; in 1840, 5JM,398; in 1^50. 668,507. 
Area in square miles, 24,500 ; inhabitants to square mile, 27.28. 

South Carolina Railroads. 

This State furnishes a good illustration of tht» correctness of ilie pre- 
vious remarks, in reference to the influence of a commercial capital in 
promoting and giving character to works of internal improvement for 
the country dependent upon it. Lar^'C cities collect to^rihrr liu' sur- 
plus capital ot the surrounding country, and a merc^antile life trains 
men up for the manngement of enterprises calling lor aidmini-lraiive 
talent, and involving largo moneyed o^x-rations. 

No s<x)uer had the pt»ople of tins countrj' commenced tl;e con- 
stnicUou of railvoads, tliali the city of Charle>ton entered u)M>n the 
great work of tliat State — the South Carolina railroad. This was one 
of the first projects of the kind undertaken in this Ci>untry, having 



280 ANDREWS' REPORT ON 

been commenced in 1830. Its main .trunk extends from Charles- 
ton to Hamburg, on the Savannah river, opposite Augusta, Georgia, 
It has two branches ; one extending to Columbia, the political capital 
of the State, and the other tp Camden. The entire length of the road 
and its branches is 242 miles. Its cost has been a little less than 
|7,000,000. 

This road not only bears an important relation to all the interests of 
the State, but has given birth to other extensive lines of road, and forms 
very important connexions with them. 

At Augusta a junction is formed with the Georgia raikoad, by means 
of which a communication is opened with the railroads of that State* 
which are soon to be extended to all the neighboring States. Already 
have the Georgia lines reached the Tennessee river; and by the first 
of May next they will be carried forward to Nashville, the capital of 
the State of Tennessee, whence railroads are in progress toward 
Louisville and Cincinnati. From Atlanta, the western terminus of the 
Georgia railroad, a line of railroad is nearly completed to Montgomery, 
Alabama, which will soon be pushed forward to the Gulf of Mexico on 
the one hand, and to the Mississippi on the other. 

By means of the Tennessee and Kentucky roads alluded to, Charles- 
ton is now about to realize the celebrated project of the Charleston and 
Citidnnati railroad. The history of this scheme is well known. It 
originated in the bold idea of making that city the commercial empo- 
rium of the great interior basin of the country, particularly the lower 
portion of it. To effect this object, a continuous line of railroad, under 
one organization, was proposed, in as direct a line as possible, to the 
city of Cincinnati. This project attracted, for a time, much interest in 
the States of South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, and southern 
Ohio. It was believed to.be entirely practicable, and large sums were 
expended in reconnaissances and surveys of the routes. We now see 
the accomplishment of the scheme, upon the original plan, to have 
been, at the period when it was commenced, impracticable. As far as 
the means and the engineering skill of the country were concerned, 
the project was premature. Its magnitude was beyond the ability of 
all the interests that could be brought to bear upon it. Tlie termini 
being given, the route assumed was the shortest possible line between 
them. The route selected, therefore, could not command the means 
of the country, applicable to a road between the cities named ; and, as 
might have been expected, the original project fell through. The dif- 
ferent sections, however, up6n the most practicable line,' as far as means 
were concerned, commenced the construction of detached links, having 
in view local objects alone. These are now so far advanced tliat the 
formation of the whole line may be regarded as secured. 

By the more circuitous route by way of Nashville and Louisville, 
the means for a railroad from Charleston to Cincinnati are now pro- 
vided, and the whole route is either in operation or in progress. From 
Charleston to Nashville, a distance of about 600 miles, the line will be 
completed by the first day of May next. Upon the line from Nashville 
to Louisville, a distance of 180 miles, working surveys* are now in pro- 
gress, preparatory to placing this entire link under contract. Louis- 
ville and Cincinnati are soon to be united by means of the LoiiimUe 



COLONIAL ABTD LAKE TRADB. 281 

amd Leaingtnn and the Covington and Lexington railronds. The former 
ii» in operalion; ihi* latter will be completed next year; and the city of 
Charleston, without any expenditure other than that requisite fiir the 
e*iu5truction of roads within her territorj' — excepting a small loan to 
the SaMhvilU and Chattanooga road — sees the great project, lor which 
<he SI) zealously labored, on the eve of accomplishment. 

A more <lirect, and apparently appropriate, line, than that above de- 
scribed, is one traversing the entire length of the State of South Caro- 
Una, in a northwesterly direction, crossing the northeastern comer of 
GtHvrj^ii and the western portion of North Carolina, running dowm the 
Litlli" and up the Great Tennessee rivers, to Knoxville; thence by the 
Cumb(*rlana Gap, or some practicable pass in its vicinity, through 
Danville and Lexinijton, Kentucky, to Cincinnati. The only portions 
uf this line for which the means are certainly provided, arc those ex- 
tf-ruling from Charleston to Anderson, in South Carolina, a distance of 
243 miles, and from Cincinnati to Danville, a distance of 128 miles, 
making in all 371 miles, and leaving about 350 miles to be provided 
fi>r. That this direct line will be accomplished cannot be doubted. A 
cnaHiilerable portion of the country traversed can provide sufficient 
means lor its construction, and the necessary balance will be supplied 
by ciwinecting lines and by private interests. For that portion of the 
link, unprovided for, between Anderson and Knoxville, it is Iwlieved 
tliat the Icf^islature of the State of South Carolina will extend liberal 
aid. The South Carolina and the Greenville and Columbia roads, fbrm- 
ii%Z the lower portions of this great chain, are also expected to render 
elficient support. That portion of it through the State, of Tennessee 
will undoubtedly receive the benefit of the recent internal improvement 
act of that Stale, which appropriates 88,000 per mile to certain leading 
luies— <i sum sufficient, with what private means can ho obtained, to 
secure its construction. The link from Danville, Kentucky* to the 
bimndar>' line of Tennessee, traverses a region of vast mmeral re- 
Mmrccs. It is believed the amount lacking to complete this link, be- 
yond the means of the people upon it, will eventually he furnished by 
parties interested in the wh>le as a through route. Active measures are 
ID prr>gress u|X)n the entire route to secure the necessary surveys, to 
provide the means of construction, and to awaken the minds of the 
prople to the importance of the work. 

The other important projects in South Carolina are the GreenrUle and 
Columbia^ the Charlotte and Sftuth Carolina^ the Wilmington and Man^ 
rkettrr^ and the Northaistnn road, extending fn)m Charleston to a junc- 
tion with the Wilmington and Manchester road. The Charlotte and 
South Carolina andthe Wilmington and Manchester roads lie partly in 
North Carolina, but they are appropriately describ(*d a,s a portion ot the 
South Carolina system. 

The Greenrilk and CJumbia road extends from Columbia, the termi- 
nus of tlM! Columbia branch of the Sonth Carolina railroad, to (irt'en- 
%'illr, a distrmce of alxnit one hundred and twenty-three milrs. It has 
two braiiches^-one extending to Pendleton, and the other to AndtTSon 
c<nirt-house. The leadini2: objects in its construction are of a local char- 
actir; though, as before state<), it i'* inl(»nd«»d to make it a portion of a 
tlirough line to the Mississippi Vall(*y. The road traver>(*s one of the 



I 



282 ANDRBWS' BBPORT ON 

best portions of the State. It has been built at a low cost, owing to 
the favorable nature of the country traversed, and the enterprise prom- 
ises to be highly remunerative. A considerable portion of this line is 
in operation, and the whole will be completed at an early day. 

There is in progress from this road a branch of some magnitude ex- 
tending to Laurens, and a portion of it is in operation. 

The Charlotte and South Carolina railroad has been briefly alluded 
to. Its line extends from Charlotte, the most important town in west- 
ern North Carolina, to Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, and is 
about one hundred and ten mUes long. It is an important link between 
the other roads of the States, and, with them, between those of the 
northern, southern, and southwestern States. Jts local business will be 
lucrative, as it traverses a rich country without suitable avenues to 
market. Like most of the southern roads, it has been constructed at a 
low cost. It is nearly completed, and will be shortly opened. 

Connected with this road, at Chester, is a branch road, called the 
King's Mountain railroad, in operation and extending to Yorkvillc, a 
distance of about twenty-five miles. 

Wilmington and Manchest^ Railroad. — The chief object of this b'ne is 
to supply the link for the connexion of the roads of the Stales of South 
Carolina and Georgia with those of the north. It is this object which 
gives it general importance, though its principal revenues will undoubt- 
edly be derived from local traffic, which the country traversed will 
probably supply. The road is about one hundred and sixty-two miles 
long. Its construction is essential to the convenience of the travelling 
public, and will add largely to the traffic of all the connecting lines. 
A glance at the accompanying map will well illustrate its relations to 
other roads. Although a first-class road, it is constructed at tlie mini- 
mum cost of southern roads. The whole line is under contract and 
well advanced; some portions of it are opened, and the whole is in 
progress to completion with all practicable dispatch. 

The only project of any considerable public importance, not already 
noticed, is the Northeastern road, extending from Charleston to the Wil- 
mington and Manchester road, at a point between Marion and Darling- 
ton. The object of this road is to secure to Charleston a more direct 
outlet, and to place her in a line of travel between the North and the 
South. Without such a work, the tendency of the Wilmington and 
Manchester road would be to divert the through travel from that city, 
and would consequently threaten her with the loss of a portion of her 
business and public consideration. To fortify her position, this city 
also proposes to construct a railroad direct to Savannah. By these 
works she will place herself on the convenient line of travel between 
the extremes of the country. 

The length of this first-named line will be about one hundred miles. 
Its cost will be between 81,500,000 and $2,000,000. The work is 
light, the only difficult point being the crossing of the Santee river. 
The route is now under survey, and will be commenced as soon as 
practicable. The road may be regarded as a Charleston project, and 
that city will contribute largely to its construction. 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 283 

GEORGIA. 

Population in 1830, 516,823; ih 1840, 69] ,392; in 1850, 905,999. 
Areu in square miles, 58,000; inhabitants to square mile, 15.62. 

The State of Georgia has distinguished lierself for the extent, excel- 
lence and successful management of her railroads. In these respects 
she ranks first among the southern States. Her success is mainly 
owing to the fact, that her great lines of railroad were completed within 
a comparatively brief period after they were undertaken. From tlie 
sparse population in the South, and the absence of large towns in the 
interior, tnc completion of a road is necessary to success. Until the 
connexions proposed are formed, the work is generally unprofitable. 
•Successive Imks, as they are opened, do not yield a large revenue, as 
is the case with many northern lines, which find between two neigh- 
boring villages a remunerating traflfc. To this fact is, in some degree, 
t» be attributed the failure in the South of many of the projects of 
1?S36 and 1837. Portions only of the lines of railroad commenced at 
that period were completed. The commercial revulsions which fol- 
lowed checked tlieir furtlier prosecution. The s^^veral links brought 
into use were not of sufficient length or importance to develop and 
command a remunerative business ; and, in some instances, projects 
were abandoned even after a portion of their lines had been opened for 
business* The reverses which have been alluded to, were chiefly con- 
fined to the projects of the newly-settled southern and western States. 
These States were then a wilderness as compared with their present 
cfHidition. At that period success was impossible, not only from the 
lack of capital adequate to the enterprises, but of those qualities neces- 
>ary to superintend and carry out these enterprises, and which can 
(ioly result from experience. The effect of the revers<*s sustained, was 
to discourage for a time all attempts to construct railroads. But the 
long period which has since elapsed has brought with it greater means ; 
a wnder experience ; the successful examples of other Slates ; more 
distinct and better- defined objects; and a more intimate acquaintance, 
and hearty co-operation among people interested in such works. The 
operation of time has settled our commercial depots, and establislied 
the convenient channels of commerce and travel. At an earlier period 
these were a*ts(<iimed in the projects undertaken, and the rcsulu fre- 
quently proved these assumptions to be wide of the truth. New lights 
have arisen as guides to renewed efforts. The southern people are 
a^ain inspired with confidence and hope ; and the movement now p)ing 
on throughout the southern Stales, founded upon a pro|)er knowlrdge 
of their wants and abilities, and guided by wider exj)erience and more 
comwtent hands, is destined to achieve the most satist;ictory results. 

The success of the Georgia roads, as already stated, wjls owuig to 
llie fact that, after a severe struggle, her leading lines were con)plete<l 
without great delay. As Siwn iuh they were brought into ust» they at 
ooc<* commenced a lucrative business, yielding a handsome return ujwn 
the cost, and have proved of inestimable bt^nefit to llie in^ople of the 
Scale. Their roads have not only enabled them to turn their resources 
to the best accotint, but have done much to develop that spirit (if enter- 



284 ANDRBWS^ RBPORT ON 

prise and activity for which the people of Georgia are particularly dis- 
tinguished. 

The leading roads in operation in Georgia constitute two great lines, 
representing, apparently, two different interests. The first extends 
from Savannah, the commercial capital of the State, to the Tennessee 
river, a distance of 434 miles, and is made up of the Georgia Central^ 
Macon and Western^ and Western and Atlantic roads. The latter^ by 
which the railroad system of the State is carried into the Tennessee 
valley, is a State work. The second line traverses the State from east 
to west, crossing the other nearly at right-angles, and is made up of 
the Georgia and the Atlanta and La Grange railroads. This line may 
be considered as an extension, in a similar direction, of the S&uth 
Carolina railroad, and rests on Charleston as its commercial depot, 
as does the former on Savannah. To a certain extent the West- 
em and Atlantic link may be said to be common to both lines. 
The first described line, however, has important branches, which con- 
nect it with a much larger portion of the State than the latter. At 
Macon it receives the SoiKhivestem railroad, an important line, already 
constructed to Oglethorpe, which will be continued to Fort Gaines, on 
the Chattahoochee. A branch of this line is in progress to Columbus, 
an important town on that river, and the principle depot of trade for 
western Georgia and eastern Alabama. Upon tne completion of these 
roads the Central line will extend to the northern and western bound- 
aries of the State, and will receive an important accession to its already 
flourishing traffic. 

The three great roads of the State, which have been in operation 
for a comparatively long period — the Central, the Georgia, and the 
Macon and Western — have, for many years past, been uniformly suc- 
cessful, and take high rank among our best managed and best paying 
roads, averaging, for a series of years, eight* per cent, dividends* 
Notwithstanding their imperfect mode of construction, which has 
required repairs equal to an entirely new superstructure, their costper 
mile is less than the average of roads throughout the country. This 
is owing in part to the favorable character of the coufttry for such 
enterprises, and the prudent and skilful manner in which they have 
been constructed and managed. All these have proved profitable works, 
chiefly from their local traffic. The rapid extension of connecting 
links, which must use the above as their trunk lines to market, must, 
in the ordinary course of business, add very largely to their present 
considerable revenues. 

Among the most important roads in progress in the State, may be 
named the Waynesboro^ the Southicestem, the Muscogee and the Atlanta 
and La Grange. 

The object of the Waynesboro* road is to effect a communication, by 
railroad, between Savannah and Augusta, the latter the terminus of 
the South Carolina and Georgia railroads, and situated at the head of 
navigation on the Savannah river. A portion of this line is already in 
operation, and the whole is nearly completed. It is an important con- 
necting link between other roads, and will greatly add to the facilities 
of business and travel in the southeastern portion of the State. 

The Southwestern road will provide an outlet for the rich planting 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TBADB. 2S5 

district of southwestern Georgia, one of the best cotton-growing re^ons 
in the Si^uth. This road has already reached Oglethor|KS and is to be 
(*xiended to the Chattahoochee. It will tlien have an outh^t in each 
direction of trade. The proposed extension of the road is regarded as 
the appropriate line to supply railroad accommodation to the south- 
wejjlem jKirtion of the State. The Southuxsiern is already in posse^s- 
sion of a large revenue from local traffic alone. This will be materially 
increas**d by the farther extension of its own line, and of connecting 
riinds. 

The Muscogee n>ad extends from the city of Columbus, eastward, 
to its junction witli the Soufhu^stem^ a distance of 71 miles, striking 
the latter about Fort Valley, 28 miles from Macon. It traverses a rich 
phinting country, and is an important work, both as a through and 
[(K*al road. At Columbus it w*ill ultimately form a connexion with the 
roads now in progress and operation in Alabama. Its through traffic, 
dt^rived from llie business centring at Columbus alone, will constitute 
a valuable source of revenue. It is nearly completed, and its opening 
is reganled as an event of considerable importance to other roads in 
the State. 

The Atlanta and La Grange bears pretty much the same relation to 
the Georgia as dcx'S the Muscogee to tne Central line. It extends from 
Atlanta, the terminus of tlie Geor^a and Western and Atlantic roads, 
tr> West Pointy the eastern termmus of the Montgomery and West 
Point road, a distance of 86 miles. A portion of this road is already 
in operation, and the whole is well advanced. Its completion will ex- 
lend the Georgia system of- roads to Montgomery, Alabama. As a 
orfinecting link, it is justly regarded as a work of much public utility. 
It traversers a very beautiful and highly cultivated portion of the State, 
and cannot fail to have, with all the roads of the State, a lucrative local 
tr.iffic. 

The only important road in Georgia already in operation, and not 
[particularly noticed, is the Western and Atlantic^ extending from 
Atlanta to the Tennessee river. To the State of Georgia must be 
;iw^arded the honor of first surmounting the Great Allegliany or Appa- 
uchian range, and of carrying a continuous Une of railroad from the 
i^acoast into tlic Mississippi valley. From the difficulties in the way 
*tt i^uch an achievement, it must always be regarded as a crowning 
W(»rk« Wherever accompUshed, the most important results are certain 
In fnllow^. The construction of the Western and Atlantic road was the 
bignul (or a new movement throughout all the southern and south- 
western States. By opening an outlet to the seaboard iiir a vast sec- 
tion of country, it at once gave birth to numerous important projects, 
which are now making rapid progress, and which, when complott'd, 
will op<*n to the whole soutliern country the advantages of railroad 
transportation. Among the more important of these may l)e named 
:1]«^ Memphis and Charleston^ the East Tennessee and Geitr^in^ aod the 
Saskville and Chattanooga roads, aln*ady referred to. The former 
will open a direct line of railroad from Memphis, zm important town 
• •n the Tennessee river, to the southern Atlantic ports of Charleston 
;ftiMJ Savannah, and will become the trunk lor a great number of im- 
(lortaDt radial branches. The Nashville and Chattanooga^ traversing 



286 ANDREWS' REPORT ON 

the State of Tennessee in a northwesterly direction, has given a new 
impulse to the numerous railroads which are springing into life, both in 
Tennessee and Kentucky. These railroads will soon form connexions 
with those of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and thus all the nortliem and 
western States will be brought into intimate business relations with 
the southern cities of Charleston and Savannah. Through the East 
Tennessee and Georgia road a connexion will be formed with the line 
traversing the United States from north to south. The influence of 
such a connexion upon the growth and prosperity of these cities, as 
well as of the country brought into communicatioji with them, can 
hardly be estimated. 

A railroad is also proposed from St. Simon's sound, on the Atlan- 
tic — said to be a good harbor — ^to Pensacola, in Florida. One object in 
the construction of this road is to build up the town of Brunswick upon 
that sound. As this road would connect two good harbors, one upon 
the Atlantic coast and the other upon the gulf, it will prove an import- 
ant work. It would also open an extensive territory at present but 
slightly developed, for the want of a suitable outlet. 

A railroad is contemplated from Savannah to Pensacola. Its object 
is to open a communication between that city and the southern portion 
of the State, and to attract the trade of a large section now threatened 
to be drawn off by rival works. The project has its origin in the sup- 
posed benefit it would confer upon the city of Savannah, which is ex- 
pected to aid largely in its construction. 



FLORIDA. 



Population in 1830, 34,730 ; in 1840, 54,477 ; in 1850, 87,401, Area 
in square miles, 59,268 ; inhabitants to square mile, 1.47. 

In another part of this report full notice is given to this State, em- 
bracing the works of internal improvement therein, whether constructed, 
in progress, or contemplated to be made, and also those heretofore 
made and now abandoned. It would be superfluous to repeat that 
notice here. Reference is made, therefore, to the conmiunications of 
citizens of this State, contained in the Appendix at the end of this re- 
port, to the documents accompanying the same, and to comments of 
the undersigned, prefixed thereto, for full information on these and other 
subjects respecting this Stale. A paper respecting the " Gulf of 
Mexico" and the " Straits of Florida," prepared firom notes furnished 
by a distinguished and intelligent engineer oflicer of the United States, 
is likewise inserted in the Appendix^ and contains important matter 
relating to this State. 



ALABAMA, MiaSISSIPPI, AND LOUISIANA. 

The roads of these States belong to a general class, from the similar- 
ity of their direction and objects, and from the intimate relations exist- 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 287 

ing between many of their important lines. As already stated, the 
great lakes arc the radial points of the internal improvement system of 
this country. In conformity with this fact we find, that on reachingthe 
(f ulf of Mexico the general direction of the great lines extending into 
the interior gradually changes, in harmony with this fact, and that 
tbt)se arising from the Gulf of Mexico arc at right angles both to this 
and our great narthn'/i lake boundary. 

In examining tlie character and prospective business of roads running 
at richt angles to Uie parallels of latitude, compared with those ft)l low- 
ing the same parallels, some marked points of difference arc found. In 
the latter case, where there is no varietv of pursuits, and where the 
whole population is engaged in agricuhure, there can be little or no 
l')cal traffic. The products being identical, all the surplus is the same 
in Hind. But upon a route following a meridian of latitude, an entirely 
diflerent rule prevails. Such routes traverse regions abounding in a 
iiiversity of productions, all of which are regarded as essential to the 
wants of every individual in the community. Such lines may be said 
to coincide with the natural routes of commerce, over which a large 
traffic must always pass, although the territory traversed may be en- 
tirely devoted to agriculture, ^lie grains, provisions, and animals of 
the north are wanted by the southern States engaged in the cul- 
ture of cotton, rice, sugar and tobacco ; and these last-named products 
are received by ih' people of the north in exchange for what they have 
tt> sell. In this country, therefore, the routes running east and west 
may be terirted the artificial^ those running north and south the natural 
routes of commerce. It is this fact that gives particular importance to 
cb«' great line of communication which it is proposed to extend from 
the Gulf of Mexico to the lakes, thus uniting a country the extremes of 
uhicli alx>und in the fruits of the tropics, and in the products of high 
northern latitudes. 

A railn>ad extending from the Gulf of Mexico constitutes a great 
nati«inal route of commerce, and furnishes a channel of distribution over 
lb<: whole country, lor the vast variety of products of the regions tra- 
vcr$^e<i, and at the same time constitutes an outlet fr)r such surplus as 
may rKU be re<juired for <lomeslic consumption. Such are the extent 
and range of huUian wants, that lht»y require the whole aggregate pro- 
duction of <»ver\' variety of soil and climate for their supply. Owing 
to ilie variety of climate^ this country is capable of protiucing nearly 
every article used in ordinary consumption, and an abundance of all 
that are of primary imjKirtance. U|)on the completion of a railroad 
from the (lulf of Mexico to Lak(* Michigan, a persop living midwav 
li*-twi»-n the two will be enabled to have his table dailv supplied with 
tin* luxuries of lK)th extremes — the delicious fruits of the tropics, and 
th»" im>re tempered but equally valuable products of northern latitudes. 
The diflc'renct*s of climate will then, practically, cease to exist. The 
^petd of tlie railway train will scatttT over the whole country, freshly 
piuckiHl, the fruits of everv latitude, and one chniate will practically 
rxiM lor a//, in the p)ssession of an abundance of the products of each. 

Extended lines of* railroads are equnlly immrtant in another point of 
view. It always happens tliat while in tne aggregate there is an 
abu(wlanc<* of production for the wants of ally there will be failures of 



288 ANDREWS* BEPORT ON 

crops in different portions of the country. Such must be the case in a 
country of so vast an area as our own. With ordinary roads only, it 
is found impossible so to distribute the surplus produced as to secure 
abundance at points where production has failed. The limit to 
economical transportation over the ordinary roads is measured by a few 
miles. The greatest extremes of want and abundance, therefore, may 
exist in adjoining States. All these evils are remediable by railroads, 
so that they will not only secure to us a practical uniformity of climatey 
but of seasons also, giving to us the greatest variety, and at the same 
time the greatest certainty, of uniform supply. 



ALABAMA. 

Population in 1830^309,527 ; in 1840, 590,756 ; in 1850, 671,671. 
Area in square miles, 50,722 ; inhabitants to square mile, 15.21. 

Mobile and Ohio railroad. — The first of the great works of the 
character we have described is the Mobile and Ohio railroad, extend- 
ing from Mobile, on the Gulf of MexiCo, to the mouth of the Ohio 
river, a distance of 594 miles. From Mobile it will be extended down 
Mobile bay to a point where a depth of 20| feet of water is reached 
at low tide, mAing the tchole length of line 609 miles* The route 
traversed is remarkably favorable. There are no grades in the direc- 
tion of the heavy traffic exceeding 30 feet to the mile. 'The highest 
point of elevation above the gulf is only 605 feet. No bridges are 
reauired above 130 feet long. The estimated cost 6f the road, with 
a liberal outfit, is $10,000,000. Of the whole line, 33 miles are already 
in operation ; but the work is in progress upon 279 more, and the 
balance will be immediately placed under contract. It is intended to 
have the whole line completed within three years from the present 
time. The company are fast securing ample means for its construc- 
tion, which £u:e materially strengthened by a recent liberal donation of 
land by the general government. That portion of the line through 'the 
State of Tennessee is provided for by the recent internal improvement 
act of that State. The work is under the most efficient management, 
and its completion within the shortest practicable period is unques- 
tioned. 

The importance of this work, both to the city of Mobile and the 
whole southern country, can hardlv be over-estimated. By means of it 
the produce of the South may, witn the greatest expedition, be brought 
alongside of ships drawing 20f leet water. The route traversed is 
nearly equidistant from the navigable waters of the Tombigbee river 
on the one hand, and ihe Mississippi on the other. It traverses a region 
deficient iu any suitable means of transportation — one of ihe richest 
f)ortLons of the United States. Flanking, as it will, a very large por- 
tion of the best cotton lands in the country, it must secure to Mobile 
a large supply of this article, ordinarily sent to New Orleans. From 
the ease and cheapness with which the planter will be enabled to for- 
ward his staple to market, the road will stimulate the production of 
cotton to an extraordinary extent. It will also develop numerous other 



OOLOniAL AJfD LAKB TBADB. 289 

raoorces now lying dormaot, and will give rise to a greater variehf of 
porsoiis, CO essential to tbe best interests of the South. This work 
cannoc iail to give extraordinair impulse to the growth of Mobile, and 
to secure Co it a prominent rank among the principal commercial cities. 

Another great line of railroads commencing in Alabama, though at 
present resting upon the Alabama river at Selma, to be eventually car- 
ried CO Mobile, is the Alafmiui and TenneMee Biter railroad. Thi* line 
of this road extends from 6elma to the Tennessee river at Gunter's 
LamltDg, a distance of 210 miles. The more immediate object of its 
coBsCniccion is to accommodate the local traffic of tlie route traversed^ 
altbough a large business is anticipated from the connexions hereafter 
CO be lonned. 

It is proposed to extend this road from Jacksonville to Dalton, Geor-> 
gia« to connect with the great line already described, traversing the 
entire country, and passing through northern Georgia, eastern Ten- 
aessec^ and central and western Virginia, and to which the above road 
will broQ the sotithero trunk, and connect this great line with Uie Gulf 
of Mexico. 

The Alabamm, and Tcnmeuee railroad will also form a link in another 
important chain of roads, extending from the gull* to tbe great lakes. 
From Guutrr*s Landing, its northern terminus, it will be carried forward 
CO tiie StuhaUe and CkaUanooga road at Winchester, by the Winchester 
and Alabama mad, now in pmgress. From W^inchester to Nashville 
the Sashcilk mnd Chmtianooga road is now in operation. From Winches* 
Ccr two n>ut4*s are propose<i— one by way of Nashville and Louisville, 
« portion of which is in operation, and the balance amply provid«Ml ibr ; 
«iid tbe other by way of NcMinnville and Sparta, Tennessee, and Dan* 
▼iUe and Lexington, Kentucky. From Winchester to McMinnvilie a 
mad is in progress, as is one fnim Cincinnati to Danville, on the north* 
4»n) portion of the line. The link unprovidrd for is about 25U miles 
kmg. The Tennessee portion of tliis is embraced in the internal im* 
provement act of that State, and vigorous measures are in progress to 
srcure tlie means rociuisite to the work, both in Tennessee and Ken* 
Ciicky. Whe«i these connecting lines shall be completed, the Alabama 
and Teiinessee road will sustiiin tlie relation of a common trunk lo all. 

Tbe Alabama CaUral railroad, commencing in the State of Missis- 
sippi, and extending to Selma, is tbe appropriate extc^nsion, east, c»f tiie 
Mmwijiyi SouiAem railroad, designed to traverse the State of Mi>sirvsippi 
cfotrally from west to east. This line has been placed under conlruct 
firun tilt* State line to Selma. It is proposed to extend it still tiirtticr 
'aucward, so as to fiirm a connexion at Montgomery with ttie Momh 
Jellify mud IfeM Point road. By tbe completitm of tlic above work 
and iu oonnecting lines, a direct and continuous railroad would be 
Inrioed, ext(*nding from tbe Atlantic ports of Charleston and Savannah 
tv> the Mississippi river at Vicksburgh, and traversing, for a grc*uter 
poftiaa of the distance, a region of extraordinary phnlucli vent*s;$, lis 
mportacice as a through line of travel will be readily appm*iated from 
an eauoiinatioo of the accompanying map. Tbe whole of this great 
kor, with tbe exoeptbn of the link iirom Selma to Montgomery, which 
win, Ibr the present, be supplied by the Alabama river, is in progress. 

Anofher line of very considerable magnitude is tbe pro|)os(^ road 
19 



290 A2n>RBW8* BJBPORT ON 

from Oirardt a town upon the Chattahoochee river, opposite ColambQ9« 
to Mobile, under the title of the Oirard railroad. A portion of the 
eastern division of this road is under contract. Its wnole length is 
about 210 miles. It traverses, for a considerable part of its length, a 
rich planting region, only sparsely settled, for the want of suitable 
avenues. This line would form a very important extension of the 
Muscogee and the Georgia system of roads. Of its eventual construc- 
tion there can be no doubt, though the means applicable to the work 
may not secure this result immediately. The line occupies a very 
important through route, and the project will be likely to receive the 
attention of other parties interested in its extension, so soon as they 
shall be released n^om their present duties, by the completion of the 
works upon which they are now occupied. 

The Memphis and Charleston railroad, the line of which traverses the 
ffreat Tennessee valley in Alabama from east to west, has already 
been briefly noticed. It commences at Memphis, the most important 
town upon the Mississippi between New Orleans and St. Louis, and 

J)assiog through portions of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama, 
brms a junction with the Nashville and Chattanooga road in the north- 
eastern portion of the last named State. Its length is 281 miles; the 
whole line is under contract. Its estimated cost is about $3,000,000. 
Nearly the whole cost of the road is subscribed in stock; and, as ample 
means for construction are already provided, the work will be urged 
forward toward completion with all practicable dispatch. 

The above line includes two of the old railroad projects of 1837, 
the Lagrange and the Tuscumbia and Decatur. The former of these 
was abandoned after its line was nearly graded ; the latter was com- 
pleted with a flat rail, and has for late years been worked by horses 
as the motive-power. The original object of the last named road was 
to serve as a portage around the *' Muscle Shoals," which in low water 
are a complete obstruction to the navigation of the Tennessee river. 
Both of the above roads have been merged in the Memphis and CharUs" 
ton road, and are now portions of it. and their direction coincides with 
that of the great line. Their adoption will diminish largely the cost of 
the latter. 

The Memphis and Charleston road, as part of a great line connecting, 
by a very direct and favorable route, the leading southern Atlantic 
cities, Charleston and Savannah, with the Mississsippi river, may be 
urged as of national importance, and must become the channel of a 
large trade and travel. Its western division will form a convenient 
outlet to the Mississippi river, for that portion of the Tennessee val- 
ley ; and will save the long circuit at present made by way of the 
Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers. For the eastern part of this 
great valley, it will afibrd a convenient outlet to the Atlantic ports. It 
will, when completed, form a part of the shortest practicable line of 
railroad between the Mississippi and the Atlantic — a fact in itself 
sufficient to establish its claims to public consideration. For the greater 

i)art of its length it traverses the "Tennessee valley," one of the most 
ertile districts in the United States. This road will add largely to the 
commercial importance of Charleston and Savannah, by securiog to 



COUmiAh AND IsAMM T&AOB. 291 

tbem m portion of a large trade qow drawn off to the Mississippi for 
want of an eastern outlet. 

The only considerable work in operatbn in Alabama is tbe MatUgO' 
mmf and iVest Point railroad. This being one of the early projects of 
tbe SoQtbv was unibrtunate in its original mode of construction, and 
bas ooosequently been unproductive till within a few years. Under 
its present efficient management the road has been completely reno> 
vated ; and now properly takes rank amon^ the leading southern pro- 
jecls. It traverses a fertile and productive region, and has a large 
local business* It occupies an important position to the great through 
line of travel between the North and the South. Travellers from Mo- 
bile and New Orleans can reach Montgomery by steamboat, at nearly 
all seasons of the year. From that point the line of travel is carried 
forward to the Boundary line of Georgia, by the above railroad. FrcHn 
West Point to the Georgia roads the distance is less than 100 miles; 
and this link will shortly be supplied by the Atlanta and Lagrange 
railroad. The route of the Montgomery and West Point railroad is 
identical with that of a great line of travel, and is already in possession 
of a large through business, which will be much increased by the pro- 
gress of southern railroads. It may be here stated, that it is proposed 
tiri connect the last portion of this road with Columbus, so as to form a 
junction with the Muscogee railroad. Such an improvement would 
ouostitttte the Montgomery and fVe$t Point road tbe trunk of two great 
eastern lines. It is also proposed to extend a line of railroad from 
MoQCgomery to Mobile. Although there can be no doubt of the ulti- 
inate realization of this last project, it is not yet sufficiently matured to 
demand further notice. 



MISSISSIPPI. 

Po|Mibition in 1830, 136,621; in 1840, 375,651; in 1850, 600,555. 
Area in square miles, 47,156; inhabitants to square mile, 12.86. 

Tbe only important work in *op6ration in Mississippi is the Southern 
railfoad, extending from Vicksburg to Brandon, a distance of about 
«ixty miles. This, like the Montgomery and West Point railroad, was 
cor of the early projects of the »South, and has experienced a similar 
hidory. By the original plan it was proposed to make this part of a 
line extending through the States of Mississippi and Alabama to G(H>r- 
gia, and, in connexion with the roads of that State, to the Atlantic. As 
was the case with so many southern roads, the scheme proved a 
&ilttre« It is, however, reviving under circumstances that promise* 
full MMXCSs. As already seen, a greater part of the Alabama |K)rtion 
IS either completed or in progress; and operations are about to Ih^ 
maiiDenced upon the unhnished Mississippi section. When com* 
pletedt this line will prove a work of great public utility. There is 
aooe in the country tor which there is greater appart^nt necessity. 
Tbe wliole route traverM's one of the richest planting di.^tricts in the 
*Hjth; and as tlie people on its line can readily furnish tiie ncce^.^nry 
ntffi^tiA^ its early c< instruct ion is not to be doubled. 



292 ANDREWS* KXFORT OW 

Of the proposed lines in this State the most important is the Nrm 
Orleans^ Jackson^ and Northern^ by means of which tae city of New Or- 
leans aims at opening a communication with the roads m progress in 
the southern and western States. The proposed northern terminHs of 
this great work is Nashville, the capital of the Stale of Tennessee. The 
kngin of the road will be about five hundred unIcs. It is regarded 
with especial favor by the people of New Orleans, and is one of the 
great works by which that city proposes to restore to herself a trade 
which has in a measnre been lost ; to turn again the tide of western 
commerce in her favor ; and to develop the immense resources of an 
extensive region of country, to the commerce of which she may justly 
lay claim. The magnitude of this project is well svited lo the great- 
ness of the objects sought to be accomplished. After a long period 
of supineness, the city oi New Orleans is at last fully awakened ; and 
as an evidence of the interest already excited, and an earnest of fu- 
ture efforts, she has subscribed $2,000,060 to the stock of the above 
road, and is adopting the most vigorous and effective measures to se- 
cure its early construction. With the assistance offered by New Or- 
leans, the people on the line of the road can readily fiirnish the balance 
nepessary for the work. It traverses a regic^i of great wealth and pro* 
ductiveness, the inhabitants of which are alive to the importance of the 
work, and stand ready to contribute freely whatever may be required 
of them. When the great interest that the city of New Orleans has at 
stake in the success of the above work, and the local means that cao 
be brought to bear upon it, are considered, its early construction cannot 
be doubted. The route is remarkably favorable, and the road cun be 
built, for a greater part of the distance, at the minimum cost of southern 
roads. The line of this road has not been definitely located, but will 
probably pursue a pretty direct course by way of Jackson and Aber- 
deen, Mis^ssippi, and Florence, Alabama. 

The next great line in the Slate is the Afiseksippi Cenirat, extPEKling 
from Canton in a northerly direction, and passing through Holly Springs 
to the State line of Tennessee. Thence it is proposed to extend it to 
Jackson, in the latter State, there to form a junction with the Mobile 
and Ohio road, and the proposed line from Louisville, Kentucky, to 
Memphis. At Canton it will unite with a road now in progress to 
Jackson, and, in connexion with this short link, will constitute the 
legitimate extension, northward^ of the New Orleans and Jackson line.- 
Although the work of construction has not yet commenced, ample 
means have already been provided by the counties, and the wealthy 
planters upon its line. The object of the road is to open an outlet for 
the rich cotton lands traversed by it, which are now deprived of all 
suitable means of sending their products to a market. Whenever rail- 
roads are constructed in the south, they diminish sa largely the cost of 
transportation, and consequently increade the profits of the planter, that 
a necessity is imposed upon other districts to engage in their construc- 
tion, as the means of competing successfully with those in possession 
of such works* 

The above road, with its connecting links, will cxHietttute an import* 
ant line of ihromgh travel between New Orleans and the nortberD 
States. 



COLOKIAL AMD LAKB TBADB. 29S 

Another road of considerable importance is proposed through the 
Bortbem part of the State, comnienctng ai Memphis, Tennessee, and 

?as9iQg through Holly Springs and the northern tier of counties to the 
enii«*Me(« river. One of its leading objects is the accommodation of 
a very rich aad productive planting district. The line of the Mempku 
ami Chiftaitm road wiU also traverse a small portion of the northeast- 
4iTu oomer of the State. 



LOUISIANA. 

Pop«latio« m 1^30, 215,739; in 1840,352,411; in 1850, 517,739. 
Area in square miles, 46,431 ; inhabitants to square mile, 11.15. 

The State of Louisiana, having in the Mississippi river a convenient 
ch lunei not only for the trade and travel of its own people, but ibr 
opening to them the interior commerce of the country, lii'is neither at- 
tpaipt(*d nor accomplished much in works of artificial improvement. 
B<*tbre railroads were brought into use, the river afforded the best 
knfiWB mode of transportation, both for persons and property, and long 
habit had produced a conviction that it could not be superseded by 
any either cnaanels or routes of commerce. No representations could 
awaken the people of New Orleans to a sense of the importance of fol- 
lowing the example of other cities, and of strengthening their natural 
positioo, by artificial works, till a diminished trade — the rvs^Xi of the 
wiirks of rival communities — rendered the necessity of undertaking 
iumihir improvements too apparent to be longer delayed. Although the 
projects oi the northern and eastern States, by which they sought to 
reach the trade of the Mississippi basin, had been only partially ac- 
aimplisfaed, yet the influence which they exerted, even iu their iui'ancy, 
in diverting the commerce of that grent valley from its natural and ac- 
cu5tonM*d channels, has been so m^irked and decided, that, i(>r a few 
years past, the trade betwet*n New Orleiuis and the distant portions of 
tlir great valley has difflinished----at least has not increasc'd— notwith- 
^tandiag tlie rapid increase of the West in population and pnxluction. 
Such a fact was too slaitling not to arouse the whole ccunmunity to a 
sense of the necessity of taking the proper steps to avert a calamity 
threatening the kiss of their trade and commercial importance ; and the 
pcopie of Bfew Orleans are now taking the most cHicient measures to 
repair the consequences of their neglect, and are busily engaged in the 
pn«ecution of two freat works, by means of which they propose to 
rrCritablish and retain the hold they once had upon the trade of the 
Missusippi valley. 

The leading project now engaging the attention of the people of Loui- 
siana, and particularly those of New Orleans, is the Sew OrUam and 
SoMhtfilU railroad, by constructing which they propose to connect them- 
•rlvt-s one only directly with a region of country capable of supplying 
the largest amount of trade, but with the numerous railroads now in 

C*in^eM in the south and west. The length of this road will not be 
from 500 miles. It will traverse, as is well known, a very fertile 



294 AMBRBWa' REPORT ON 

and productive region, and at its northern terminus will be brought 
into communication by railroad with every portion of the country. It 
id believed that this road will exert a strong counteracting influence to 
the efibrts now made to draw off the trade of the Mississippi valley to- 
ward other cities. The whole line is now under survey, and will be 
placed under contract as soon as practicable, when the work of con- 
struction will be urged forward with the greatest possible dispatch. 

The other leading project, dividing the attention of the Stale with 
that described, is the New Orleans and Opehtuas railroad. The object 
of this road is to accommodate the trade and travel of the country 
traversed, and eventually to form the trunk of two other great lines ; 
one extending into Texas, with the expectation that it will eventually 
be carried across the continent to im Pacific ; and tbe other in a 
northerly direction, through Arkansas, to St. Louis. These extensions, 
however, form no pcut of the present project, which is limited lo the 
territory of the State. 

The route of this road traverses the great sugar-producing district of 
Louisiana, from which transportation to a market, on account of tbe 
impossibility of constructing good earth-roads, involves a heavy ex- 
pense and great delay. For the immense products of this portion of 
the State, the road will constitute a suitable outlet in the convenient 
direction of trade. The work of construction wiU be commenced im- 
mediatelv, as ample means are prepared for this purpose. 

The above are the two leading works of the State, and alone require 
particular description. Most of the projects that will be constructed 
within the State, for some years to come, will probably be based upon 
the above lines. 

The influence which railroads are calculated to exert upon the com- 
merce, and in this manner upon the public sentiment of a community, 
has been remarkably illustrated in the present condition of the trade of 
New Orleans ; and in the extraordinary revolution which a conviction 
of the necessity of these works, as a means of maintaining tbeif pros- 
perity and commerce, has efiected in the politcal organisation of that 
city and the State. So fcng as commerce was confined entirely to 
natural channels^ New Orleans occupied a position possessing greater 
advantages than any other city on this continent. She held the key to 
the commerce of its largest and roost productive basin, watered by 
rivers which afford 50,000 miles of inland navigation. This basin is 
now the principal producing region of those articles which form tbe 
basis of our foreign and domestic commerce. 

The ability, therefore, to monopolize this trade, will be the test of 
commercial supremacy among numerous competitors. Before the con- 
struction of artificial channels. New Orleans enioyed anaiural monopoly 
of the trade of the Mississippi valley. But it has already been demon- 
strated that in the United States natural channels of commerce are 
insufficiently matched against those of an artificial character* The 
progress of the latter has already made serious inroads upon a trade, 
to which the merchants of New Orleans formerly supposed they had 
a prescriptive right. There can be no doubt that this trade is to be 
turned toward the eastern cities, unless it can be restored to its old 
routes by the construction of channels better suited to its wants than 



OOLONIAL AMD LAMM TBADB. 295 

the Mittbuippi river and its tributaries. As already stated, the people 
neitber of riew Orleans, nor of the State, could be induced to act till 
the danger to be averted became imminent. But as, in the southern 
States, works of the magnitude proposed cannot be executed by private 
enterprise, it was found, so far as Louisiana was concerned, that neither 
the credit of the State, nor that of the city of New Orleans, could be 
made available to the works proposed; that of the State from a consti- 
tutional inhibition, and that ol the city because it had already been dis- 
hooored. Under these circumstances, it was felt that the first step to 
be taken was to remove the disability on the part of the State, and to 
restore the credit of the city to a point at which it could be made avail- 
able for the carrying out of plans designated to promote its growth and 
piosperity. Both oojects have already been accomplished. The con* 
stitution of the State has been remodelled, so as to permit extension of 
aid to railroad projects. A much greater change has been effected, as 
far as New Orleans itself is concerned. Up to a recent period that city 
was divided into three munidpaliltes^ each having a distinct political 
organization. Each of these municipalities had contracted large debts, 
tbe payment of which had been dishonored. Their credits, of course, 
coalu not be made available for any works of improvement. It was 
teen that the proper and onlv course for the accomplishment of the 
results aimed at, was to consolidate the difierent organizations into one 
body, and pay off old liabilities by new loans restmg upon the credit 
of the uJuH€ city. AU this has been effected. The result has been 
magical. The credit of the city has been completely restored. The 
new loan, to pay off outstanding liabilities, commanded a handsome 
premium, and the city is now in a position to extend efficient aid to her 
propositi w(irks. As the loss of her business and her credit could be 
directly traced to the indifference with which she regarded all works 
of internal improvement, she proposes to restore both by calling to her 
assistance all the agencies supplied by modern science in aid of human 
efibfts and in the creation of wealth. 

Id addition to the recent loan of $2,000,000 referred to, the city has 
▼need S2,(K>U,U00 in aid of the Sew OrUam and NashviUe, and $1,500,- 
UiNi to the Sac OrUanM and Opclou$as roads. These sums will proba- 
Uv be increased^ should it be found necessary to the accomplishment 
of' their olyects. Both works are to be pushed forward with all the 
dispatch called for by tlie exigencies demanding their construction. 

There are two or three short roads in operation in this State, of a 
local charactcT, and other lines are projected ; but they are not suffi- 
cieally matured to call for particular notice in this report. 



TEXAS. 



Population in 1850, 212.692. Area in square miles, 237,321 ; in- 
habitants to sc)uare mile, 0.89. 

The State of Texas has been too recently settled to allow time for 
the ooQstruction of extensive lines of railroad. It must, however, soon 
becoaie an active theatre for the progress of these works, which are 



296 AMDRBWv' mnpoBsr oh 

not only very much needed, but for which the topographical featorcy 
€ff the State are favorable. The surface of the greater part of it con-' 
rists of level, open prairies, which csm be prepared for the soperMruc* 
ture of railroads at a slight exj>ense. The soil is of great fertility, capa- 
ble of producing large quantities of sugar and cotton, which must olti- 
mately be forwarded over railroads to market, firom the absence of 
navigable rivers. 

The most prominent projects, at the present time, occupying the atten- 
tion of the people of this State, are the proposed road from Galvestoo to 
the Red river, and the extension westward of the New Orleans aniOpf 
bnuas railroad. The line of the former of these extends from GaWeston 
in a generally nortliem direction, between the Brazos and Trinity rivers, 
to the Red river, which forms the northern boundary of the Stale. It 
will be about fonr hundred miles long. Through its whole length it 
traverses a fertile region, well adapted lo the culture of cotton. This 
portion of Texas is entirely wanting in any natural outlet for its pn)ducts. 
it already contains a large and thriving population, capable of $«pply* 
ing a lucrative traffic to a road. Towards this project the Stale has 
made a grant of lands equal to 5,000 acres per mile of rood, and willy 
tf necessary, extend farther aid. These lands are a gratuity to the 
company constructing the road. Measures are now in progress which 
will probably result in placing the whole of this important work under 
contract. When completed it will prove of great benefit to the people 
upon its route, and to northern Texas ; will add a large area to the 
atx^i/ai&r cotton-producing district of the Southland will greatly increase 
the commercial importance of Galveston, the principal seaport of the 
State. 

The other work referred to traverses the State from east lo west, 
connecting at its eastern terminus with the New Orkams and Opehtaas 
road. The above is proposed, not only as an outlet for the trade and 
commerce of the central portion of the State, but as part of a great line 
of railroad connecting the Gulf of Mexico with tne Pacific. It is 
claimed that through Texas is to be found the appropriate line for socb 
a work. Should such prove to be the fact, the proposed line will coin- 
cide with the route of the ficui&nal road, as far as the territory of Texas 
is concerned. Apart, however, from all considerations of its becoming 
a portioa of the Pacific project, the necessity for a railroad traversing 
the State from .east to west is so urgent, that its speedy constroctioo 
may be considered certain. 

No State in the Union is making more rapid progress than Texast 
and the lapse of time will surely bring with it all the improvements we 
find in older States. The value of such works is fully appreciated, 
and there is every disposition to encourage their construction by liberal 
grants of land, of which the State holds vast bodies. The only re- 
maining work in progress in the State is the Buffalo^ Bayom% Brazot^ 
and Cdorado road, extending from Harrisburg, on Bufialo bayou, to the 
Brazos river, a distance of thirty-two miles. The object of this road 
is to divert the trade of that river to Galveston bay. This trade has 
already become important, and the above work will open fotr it an out- 
let in a convenient direction to the principal seaport ot the State* 

There are numerous other projects engaging tne attention of the peo* 



OOLOHIAL AMD hMLM TEAOS* 297 

pie in varkms porttons of the State; but there are none, except those 
described, of which the direction and objects are sufficiently de- 
fined* to fiill within the scope of this notice. When the great area of 
Texas, the favorable character of its territory for the construction of 
railroads, its resources, and the dense population it will soon contain, 
are taken into consideration, there can be no doubt that it will, ere 
lon^, become an active theatre of railroad enterprise and success. 

In addition to those named, the following projects are attracting 
more or U-ss attention throughout the State, viz : 

1. The Texas Western raihroad, to run from Corpus Christ! to such 
poinu on the Hio Grande as may be deemed expedient, in the direction 
of El Paso. 

2. The Goliad imd Ara4isa9 Bay railroad. 

3. The Lavaca railroad, to run up Guadalupe valley. 

4. The San Antonio and Mexican Qulf railroad, to run from some 
point on the coast between Galveston and Corpus Christi to San An- 
tonio. 

6. The Brazos and Colorado railroad, from Austin to Galveston bay* 

6. The Henderson and Burkville road, from BurkviUe to Henderson. 

7* The VickUmrg and Austin City road. 

8. The Vlclalmrg and El Paso road in about 22^ latitude. 



ARKANSAS. 

Populauon in 1830, (Territory,) 30,388; in 1840, 97,574; in 1850, 
209,639. Area in square miles, 52,198 ; inhabitants to square mile, 
4.01. 

This 8tate has heretofore been regarded af too remote, and too thinly 
settled, to become the theatre of lailroad enterprises. A number of 
important projects, however, are now attracting great attention and 
interest among her people. The leading of these are the prf)posed 
road from Little Rock to the Mississippi river, opposite Mempnis, with 
a branch to Helena ; a road from Little Rock to Shreveport, on R(*d 
river ; and the line running from St. Louis to New Orleans. Tlie pro- 
jec*ts are rapidly assuming a definite shape. The want of a dense 
population, and consequently of means for the execution of enterprises 
of magnitude, may, for the present, delay the construction of roads in 
this State ; but, as in other western 8tates, they will follow close upon 
the wants Imd the ability of the people of Arkansas to construct tlicm. 



TENNESSEE. 



Bopolauon in 1830, 681,904; in 1840, 829,210; in 1&50, l,0U2,625w 
Area in square miles, 45,000 ; inhabitants to square mile, 21.98. 

The remarks by which the notice of the Kentuckv improvements is 
prefaced are appropriate to tliose of Tennessee. l*he early projects 
of this State were equally unfortunate ; they shared a similar fate. 



296 andrbwb' bbpobt <m 

and produced the same results, so far as the public mind was con- 
cerned. It required the same efforts to restore to the people of the 
State confidence in their ability to execute these works, and arouse the 
public mind to a sense of their value. This object has been fully ac- 
complished- An elaborate system has been devised, adapted to the 
wants of every portion of its lerrilory, and toward the construction of 
it the State guaranties a credit to the amount of $8,000 per mile, 
for the purchase of iron and equipment, upon the condition that the 
companies prepare the road-beds, and defray all other charges of 
construction. The State retains a lien upon the whole property, as 
security for the amount advanced. The companies embraced in the 
internal improvement act are the following: The Chattanooga and 
Charleston, the Nashville and Northwestern, the Louisville and Nash- 
ville, the Southwestern, the McMinnville and Manchester, the Memphis 
and Charleston, the Nashville and Southern, the Mobile and Ohio, the 
Nashville and Memphis, the Nashville and Cincinnati, the East Ten- 
nessee and Virginia, the Memphis, Clarksville, and Louisville, and the 
Winchester and Alabama railroads — ^making, in the aggregate, about 
1,000 miles of line. This act is believed to be judicious on the part of 
the State, as it wiU secure the construction of most of the projects 
coming within its provisions, without the risk of loss. By the use of 
the credit of the State, railroad companies will be enabled to save a 
Iare;e sum in discounts and commissions, which other roads are com- 
pelled to pay, upon the sale of their own securities. 

The most prominent road in the State, at the present time, is the 
Nashville and Chattanooga railroad, connecting the above places by a 
line of 151 miles. Chattanooga is already connected by railroad with 
the cities of Charleston and Savannah. About 100 miles of the above 
road are completed, and it is expected that by the first of January next 
the Tennessee river will He reached, and that the whole line will be 
completed in a few months after that event. 

The above road is the appropriate extension of the Georgia and South 
Carolina lines into the Mississippi valley, to which it opens an outlet 
on the southern Atlantic coast. For the want of other lines of com- 
munication, the Mississippi river and its branches have been the outlet 
of the trade of Tennessee. The completion of the roads now in pro- 
gress will liberate this trade from the long circuit it has been compelled 
to take, by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, to market, 
and bring it in direct communication with its best customers, the cotton 
producing portions of the southern States. 

The road is important, not only for the reasons stated, bift as a con- 
necting link between two great systems of railroad occupying the 
northern and southern States. At Chattanooga and Winchester this 
road will connect with the railroads of Charleston, Georgia, and Ala- 
bama. Its northern terminus, Nashville, is the radiating point of a 
number of important roads, all of which will soon be in progress, ex- 
tending towards Cincinnati, Louisville, Evansville, and the Mississippi 
river. 

This road has communicated a new impulse ; and, in fact, it may be 
fiaid to have given birth to most of the important projects in progress 
in the central portion of the State. It constitutes the channel of com- 



OOUmXAL AMD LAKB TBADB. 299 

« 

imiaicatian with other roads, and supplies them with necessary outlets 
and connexions ; without which there would be no sufficient induce* 
ment to warrant their construction. It has been prosecuted with vigor 
and energy, and its affairs have been managed with an ability that has 
contributed not a little to raise the confidence of the southern people in 
their capacity to undertake and prosecute successfully railroad enter- 
prises. 

Raikoadi m East Tcntustee. — ^The eastern portion of the State of 
Tennessee has no ^;eographical connexion witn the rest of the Slate, 
and its railroad projects make up no part of the general system. The 
most important of these projects are the East Tennessee and Georgia, 
and East Tennessee and Virginia roads. Together they traverse the 
entire State from north to south, by a line of about 240 miles, of which 
15 miles lie within the State of Georgia. 

Easi Tmnciiee and Georgia Railroad. — This road commences at 
Daltrm, and is completed to Xoudon, on the Tennessee river, a distance 
of 80 miles. It is in progress to Knoxville, its northern terminus, a 
brther distance of 30 miles, making the whole length of its line 110 
miles. This was one of the early projects of the South, under the title 
of the Hiwauee railroad, which broke down after the expenditure upon 
It of a large sum. A few years since it was recommenced under 
new auspices, and has been carried forward successfully to its present 
termination. 

Eati Ttmneuee and Virginia Railroad* — The line of this project com* 
mences at Knoxville, where it will form a junction with the road above 
described, and extend in a northeasterly course to the Virginia State 
line, a distance of 130 miles. Here it will meet the Virginia and Ten- 
nessee railroad. The entire line of the former is under contract, to be 
ready for the iron as soon as the connecting roads shall be opened. 
The line of the East Tennessee and Virginia road could not be brought 
into profitable use, and would, in fact, hardly be accessible without the 
opemng of the connecting roads above referred to. In addition to the 
general provisions of the State, in aid of railroads, the sum of S3U0,000 
was granted to this road for the purpose of building several expensive 
bridges. It is believed that the work will be completed within three 
years from the present date. 

The above roads traverse a very fertile, but comparatively secluded 
portion of the country. In addition to its agricultural resources, it is 
rich in the most valuable minerals. Its great distance from market has 
proved a serious obstacle to its prosperity ; but, with the avenues which 
the above roads will supply, it must soon become one of the flourishing 
portiofis of the country, and the seat of a large manufacturing, as well 
as an agricultural interest. 

The above roads derive their chief public consideration from their con- 
nexion with the great national line which has been already described* 
and of which they form an important link. This great line will form 
the shortcut and most direct route between Mobile and New Orleans* 
and the North ; and must consequently become one of the most im- 
portant routes of travel in the whole country. The lower part of this 
line will undoubtedly be connected with Chattanooga by a sliort brancbt 
giving connexion with the roads intersecting at that pomt 



300 Ajammwa^ 

The Tennessee and Alabama road is a work of much consequence^ 
as it will be connected with the Nashville and Chattanooga road at 
Winchester, with the Memphis and Charleston at Huntsville, and with 
the Alabama and Tennessee at Gunter's Landing. From Winchester 
to Huntsville the distance is about 46 miles. For this distance the 
whole line is under contract, and well advanced towards completion. 

From Winchester a road is also in progress 4o McMinnville, a distance 
of about 35 miles. From this point it is proposed to extend a railroad 
northerly, through Central Tennessee, by way of Sparta, for the puj> 
pose of forming a junction with the southern extension of the Lexing- 
ton and Danville railroad by way of Burkesville, Kentucky. This is a 
project entitled to State aid. It will be seen that, with its connexions, 
It would form a direct route for a railroad between the northern and 
southern Stales. 

Another proposed line, radiating from Nashville, is the Nashville and 
Northwestern railroad, extending firom that city to the Mississippi river, 
near tlie northwestern ansle of the State. This project also is entitled 
to State aid, and is regarded as essential to the system which Tennessee 
has proposed for herself. Its line traverses an excellent region of country, 
and would furnish an outlet for it in the direction either of Nashville or 
of the Mississippi river. The portion of this line towards Nashville 
is an expensive one ; and this fact may, for the present, delay the com- 
mencement of the work. 

The internal improvement act of the State contemplates the con* 
struction of three roads extending from Nashville in southern and south- 
western directions — the Nashville and Southern, the Nashville and 
Southwestern, and the Nashville and Memphis roads. Of these the 
first-named has made the most progress, its route being under survej 
preparatory to placing it under contract. It is intended to make this 
road a portion of the New Orleans and Nashville line. Its line tra- 
verses one of the best portions of the State, able to supply abundant , 
means for the work, and its construction may be regaraed as beyond 1 
any reasonable doubt. 

The Nashville and Southwestern road will probably extend from 
Nashville to the bend of the Tennessee river. For a portion of the 
distance, this and the Nashville and Southern may be united in one 
trunk line. At the Tennessee river the above road will form a junction 
with the Mobile and Ohio road, and, through this, with the Memphis 
and Charleston road. By means of these connexions continuous lines 
of railroad will be formed, uniting Nashville with Memphis, New Or- 
leans, and Mobile. 

The Nashville smd Memphis road will take a more westerly direc- 
tion than either of the two last named. Its object, in addition, to the 
accommodation of the local traffic upon its route, is to open the shortest 
practicable communication between the capital of the State and its 
principal commercial town. The construction of this road is believed 
to be demanded on the considerations above stated. Its proposed line 
traverses a very excellent section, capable of a£R)rding a large trade ; 
and the city of Memphis must always remain the enfrepdi of a large 
portion of the mercnandise imported into the State, and the point to 



OOUNriAL AHB LASS TSADB. 301 

vhich roust be forwarded a large amount of its surplus products de* 
signed for exportation. 

The Nashville and Louisville road is a verj important work, and 
will be more particularly described with the roaas of the State of 
Kentuckyf a comparatively small portion only of the line of this road 
being in Tennessee. For this project sufficient means for construction 
have been provided, and the work is to be immediately placed under 
contract* 

The line of the Mobile and Ohio railroad traverses Westnm Ten* 
oessee from north to south, and will supply valuable accommodations 
lo that portion of the State. This road may be regarded as an Alabama 
project, and has been particularly described in the notice of the roads 
of that State. The Tennessee division is immediately to be placed 
Qoder contract, and as it runs through a rich planting district, abundant 
means can be readily raised for its construction, in addition to the State 
appropriation. 

The proposed Memphis, C larks viUe, and Louisville railroad is another 
important project in West Tennessee. It will probably intersect the 
Louisville and Nashville road at Bowling Green, Kentucky. In con- 
nexion with the latter, a very direct line of road will be formed be- 
twecn Memphis and Louisville, which will constitute a convenient 
avenue from the former city, in a northeasterly direction, nnd which 
will become a leading route of travel in the southwestern States. It 
traverses a fertile section of country, capable of supplying a lucrative 
traffic It is probable that this road may be constructed as a branch 
of the Louisville and Nashville road. 



KENTUCKY. 

Population in 1830, 687,917 ; in 1840, 779,828 ; in 1850, 9S2,40Su 
Area in square miles, 37,38U ; inhabitants to square mile, 2G.9*X 

This Slate commenced, ar>me years since, a system of improvi*ment 
feunded principally upon the plan of rendering navigable her principal 
rivers— the Green, Licking, and Kentucky. Although largo sums were 
ezpt^ndod upon these works, they have, with the exception of the im- 
prov€»m<'nls on the Green river, proved of little value. They are almost 
entirely unremuuerativc, as far as their tolls are concerned ; although 
the Green river improvements have been of great advantugt* to the 
country traversed by it^ in the outlet they have opened to a m;irket* 
As a system they have proved a failure, and all idea of the pn>8ecuiioo 
of works of a similar kind has long since been abandoned. 

Railroadt tf Kentuda^ 

LomimiUe and LexingUm raUroad.^^The only railroad in operation in 
the 8late is the line from Louisville to Lexingtons-made up of the 
Loaisville and Frankfort and Frankfort and Lezin^on mads. These 
riMds were commenced at an early period m the railroad history of the 
oovntrj : and it has been only after repealed efibrts and failures that 



i 



302 ahdrewb' bbfobt oir 

they have been recently completed. The projects shared the fate of 
all the pioneer western roads, having been abandoned, and their coin* 
pletion postponed for many years after they were commenced. The 
length of these roads is 93 miles, and the cost about $2,500,000. The 
disastrous results which attended the enterprises referred to exerted a 
most injurious effect upon the public mind of the State. Discouraged 
by the failures which nad been sustained, the people became almost 
indifferent to the subject of internal improvements, except so far as the 
construction of Macadamized roads was concerned, for the number and 
excellence of which the State is justly celebrated. When the public 
mind of the West was again turned to the subject of railroad construe* 
tion, it wsis with the utmost dij£culty that the people of Kentucky 
could be convinced of the importance of these works, or induced to 
take any steps toward their construction. The losses suffered on ac- 
count of the Louisville and Frankfort, and Frankfort and Lexington 
railroads, were fresh in mind ; and the people distrusted the success of 
the new projects from experience of the old. The example of the 
neighboring States, whose success in their recent efforts demonstrated 
the capacity of the West not only to build railroads, but to supply a 
lucrative traffic to them, and the rapid progress of those regions of 
country enjoying the advantages of these works, gradually inspired 
confidence, and aroused the people to action ; and the State of Ken- 
tucky is now one theatre of the most active efforts to secure the con- 
struction of railroads. Every part of the State is fully alive to the 
subject, and its surface will soon be as thickly checkered with lines as 
are the States of Ohio and Indiana. 

The leading lines in the State, now in progress, are — 

1. The LauisciUe and NcuhviHe railroad. — The line of this road will 
be about 180 miles long. Its route has been determined, and will pass 
through a very fertile portion of the State, capable of supplying an 
immense traffic to a railroad, and entirely wanting in suitable outlets to 
markets, excepting that portion of the route near Bowling Green. The 
connexions it will form will be of sufficient importance to give the 
work a national character, as it will probably be the most conspicuous 
connecting link between the roads of the two extremes of the confed- 
eracy. The road is to be placed immediately under contract ; and as 
ample means are already provided for this purpose, its construction, at 
the earliest practicable period, mav be set down as certain. 

A very important branch from the above road— exceeding in length 
*ven the main trunk — ^is the proposed Memphis, Clarksville, and Louis^ 
ville road, which has already been described under the head of " Ten- 
nessee." This road will probably leave the Nashville and Louisville 
road at Bowling Green. It will be seen that the two would form a very 
direct line between Louisville aud Memphis. The Memphis extension 
is regarded with great favor by the people of Louisville, and by the 
friends of the Louisville and Nashville projects. As a large portion o 
the proposed extension is embraced in the State of Tennessee, it will 
come in for the State aid ; and as it traverses a rich section of country, 
and will receive the efficient support of Louisville, there can be no 
doubt of its speedy construction. 

Another line of road proposed, for the purpose of conitecting Cin- 



dnnati with NashviQei and attracting much attention in central and 
southern Kentucky, is composed of the Covington and Lexington line, 
through the towns of Bowling Green, Kentucky, and Gallatin, Ten- 
nessee. A reference to the annexed map will at once show the import- 
ant relation it bears to the railroad system of the whole country. The 
city of Nashville is to be the centre of a great southern system of rail- 
mads radiating in every direction toward all the leading southern cities 
situated on the Atlantic coast and the ^ulf. In a few months this city 
will be in direct communication, by railroad, with the cities of Savan- 
nah and Charleston. Roads are also in progress to Mobile and New 
Orleans, to various points on the Mississippi, and to other portions of 
the State. The city of Looisville will be no less favorably situated, 
with reference to the railroads of the northern and eastern States. On 
the north and west, tlie New Albany, and Salem and Jeflfersonville 
roads, will open a communication witii the roads of Ohio, Indiana, and 
Illinois, and with the leading cities of all these States. On the east, 
the line of railroad to Lexington will connect with all the railroads radi- 
ating from that point, some of which will open outlets to the eastern 
States, and to the great Atlantic markets. 

The cost of this road will amount to about $5,000,000. Sufficirnt 
means have been already provided to wjuront its construction. The 
city of Louisville has subscribed to its stock to the amount of $1,000,000, 
and the counties on its line have taken stock with equal liberality. The 
route* traversed by this road runs through one of the most fertile and 
densely settled portions of the State. 

The Covitfgton and Lexington^ and Danville amd Na$hville. — The two 
first links, having an aggregate length of 136 miles, are already in 
progress. Active measuies are in progress to secure the necessary 
means for the last. This route will pass through Glasgow, an import- 
ant town in southern Kentucky. The upper portion of this line may 
be made the trunk of two important branches, one extending nearly 
direct in a southerly course through the State of Tennessee, (taking the 
towns of Sparta and Winchester m its route,) to Huntsville, Alabama, 
where it wtll form a junction with the Memphis and Charleston road ; 
thenoe it will be extended to Gunter's Landing, in order to connect with 
the Alabama and Tennessee river road. The portion of this line from 
Winchester, south, is already in progress. The Tennessee division is 
embract*d in the general facility bill. At Winchester, this line will 
have a southeasterly outlet, by means of the Nashville and Chattan<x)ga 
railroad* 

The other branch referred to is the proposed road to be constructed 
throagh southeastern Kentucky and eastern Tennessee, to Knox vi lie, 
there to connect with the lines of railroad centring at that point. The 
importance of this route, for a railroad, has always been reco^ised, 
and that section now under discussion formed a part of the old Cin- 
cinnati and Charleston project, which attracted so much attention 
through the southern and western States many years since, and which 
has been referred to in another part of this n^port. Men^un^s are in 
progress to secure the means for this line. The great obstacle in the 
way of its immediate construction is the scanty |x>pulation and want 
of means on die line of the route. The importance of this link, how- 



304 AHiMlBVS* BSB0E9 OK 

ever, to the connexion lines, now on the eve of completion, masl se- 
cure to it such foreign aid as shall he necessary to its success. 

The next line in order is the Maymlle and Lexington railroad* Tbis« 
though started as a local project, is now proposed as a part of a great 
through line, connecting the roost remote portions of the country. At 
Lexington it will form ajunction with all the lines centring at that point* 
From its eastern terminus, Maysvilie, the Maysville and Big Sandy 
railroad will carry it forward to Portsmouth, on the Ohio river. From 
the latter place the Scioto and Hocking Valley railroad is in pi ogress, 
which pursues, for some fifty miles, the same general direction with the 
connecting Kentucky line, till it forms ajunction with the Hillsboro* and 
Cincinnati, and Cincinnati and Marietta roads, the former of which is 
to constitute the extension, westerly, of the Baltimore and Ohio, and 
the latter of the Pennsylvania Central road. To the mouth of the Big 
Sandy river, the Maysville and Big Sandy railroad will connect the 
former with the Virginia Central road, which it is propos<*d to carry 
across the* mountains, terminating on the Ohio, at this point These 
combinations will secure to the Maysville and Lexington road an im^* 
portant place in a great line of railroad, traversing the country from one 
extremity to fhe other, in the convenient direction of business and travel. 
With the exception of the Maysville and Big Sandy road, all the links 
necessary to this great line are in progress. The Maysville and Lex- 
ington railroad will probably be opened for business duiing the year 
1863. . 

Lexington and Big Sandy railroads — This proposed road is attract- 
ing much attention in Kentucky, particularly that portion of the State 
to be traversed by it. By reference to the accompanying map, it will 
be seen that it would form a convenient portion of the great line of road 
just referred to. Measures are in progress to raise the means nece9* 
sary for its construction, with gooa promise of success. As a local 
work, it will prove to be of great benefit to the country traversed, de- 
prived as it is of suitable and convenient avenues to market. 

Henderson and Nashville railroad* — This line is the legitimate exten- 
sion, southward, of the Wabash Valley railroad. As a connecting link 
between other roads, a reference to the annexed map will give a better 
idea of its importance than any description. The southern shore of 
Lake Michigan will attract to itself all the lines of railroad running finom 
the Gulf of Mexico in a northerly direction. Between this lake and the 
cities of New Orleans and Mobile, the great route of travel will prob- 
ably always be by way of Nashville. The route will, apparently, be 
the shortest, and most convenient and agreeable to the traveller, whether 
for business or pleasure. It coincides with the great route through the 
Wabash valley, and has the advantage of taJking in its course the lead- 
ing commercial towns in the interior of the country. These facts must 
always attach particular importance to the Henderson and Nashville 
railroad as a through route, and in this respect it can hardly be ex- 
ceeded by any road of equal length in the United States. In a local 
point of view the road is important, and its prospects flattering, aa it 
traverses a region of great fertility, and already distinguished for the 
extent and value of its productions. 

A roud is also in progress from Louisville to ShelbyviUe, which may 



COUnOAls AMD LAKB TRADB* dU5 

eventually be extended to Frankfoit. A road is also proposc^d from 
HaiTodsburg to Frank((>rt« Another is projected from Paris, on the 
MaysviUe and Lexington road, via Georgetown, to connect with the 
Louisville and Franktort railroad, for the purpose of cutting off the de- 
tour by way of Lexington. 

The only project ren^aining to be noted is the Louisville and Cincin- 
nati road, wliicn is now beginning to attract much attention, not only 
in the Slate, but in the above cities. The necessity of the road is daily 
becoming more and more apparent. Cincinnati and Louisville are somx 
to become central points m widely extended and distinct systems of 
roads, extending to the great lakes on the one hand, and to the Gulf 
of Mexico on uie other. The public convenience and the wants of 
coaunercc require that this connecting link should be supplied. The 
Iravc'l Ixnwecn tlie above cities is already great, and is carried almost 
<mtir(*ly upon steamboats. The time now occupied by a trip is about 
li^elve hours. The distance by river is 150 miles. By the proposed 
rooci^ it would be reduced to ninety-five miles, and the time to four 
hours. Active measures are now in progress to provide the necess&ry 
means for this work, and to place it under contract. 



OHIO. 



Population in 1830, 937,903; in 1840. 1,519,467; in J 850, 1,980,408. 
Area in square miles, 39,964 ; inhabitants to square mile, 49.55. 

In considering the works of improvement projected in the interior, 
tar the purpose of opening outlets lor products, a marked difierence is 
fiNind between such and works constructed by our Atlantic cities 
far tbc purpose of securing to themselves the interior trade of the 
country. Although these last were designed to reach and accommo- 
date this trade, they took their character and direction rather from the 
sappoacd advantage they were to secure to the cities which mainly fur- 
niMied the means lor their construction, than from that to the country 
traversed. As far as practicable, they aimed at a monopoly of all the 
trade within their reach ; but, with roads projected in the interior lor the 
purpose of openinj^ ou/lett to a market a different principle prevails. 
The ruling motive m such a case is, so to shape the project as to secure 
tlie cheapest accc$t to the best market, or to a choice of markets, and to 
f'ftcapc the monopoly which the markets themselves sought to im{H>se. 
Tbe leading improvements projected in the interior, therelbre, often 
have a more national character, and are constructed with more reler- 
eooe to tbe wants of the whole community, than those of the East* 

Tbe value of works fiiciUtatiiig and cheapening transportation can 
be fully estimated only when they are considered in reierence to that 
portioo of our population residing in the interior. As already stated, 
have few maraets, and those far removed from the great producing 
The early settler in the western States of nect»ssity engaged 
ia agricultiiret and so long as he whs without fieans of forwarding his 
snrpIiM to a market, the gratification of his want3 was limited to what 
hia own bands could supply. The time bad not arrived for a diversity 

20 



306 ANDRBWS' RBPOaT ON 

of pursuits in his own neighborhood, and he was too remote to avail 
himself of those of the older States. The cost of transportation placed 
it beyond his means to purchase from abroad, and his surplus was, 
iheretbre, comparatively worthless after the supply of his own imme- 
diate wants. Thirty years ago, the West offered but few inducements 
to the settler, as he was compelled to sacrifice all the social and many 
of the physical comforts afforded in the less fertile, but better settled 
and richer Stales of the East. Without variety of industrial pursuits^ 
and without commerce, no amount of surplus could add much to his 
wealth or his means of enjoyment. This portion of the country there- 
fore advanced very slowly, until the construction of the Erie canal, by 
which a market was thrown open, and its vast productive capacity ren- 
dered available. An instantaneous and mighty impulse was imparted 
to it, under the influence of which all its interests have moved forward 
with constantly accelerating pace up to the present time. 

The completion of the Erie canal, in connexion with the great lakes, 
gave a navigable water line from New York to Chicago, a distance of 
1,500 miles, and opened a market to the whole country within reach 
of this great water line. In order to profit by this outlet, the western 
States lying upon the lakes immediately commenced the construction 
of similar works to connect with it the more remote portions of their 
territory. At that period, canals were regarded as the most approved 
mode of transportation. Hence the system of internal improvement in 
the West almost exclusively embraced the construction of canals. The 
early projects of the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, were, with a 
very few exceptions, of this character, though their further progress has 
since been entirely superseded by raQroads. 

In reviewing the public works of the West, the State of Ohio, in 
some respects, constitutes an appropriate starting point, as she was the 
first to enter upon, and the only one to execute, what she originally pro- 
posed. After a severe struggle, her great system of canals was com- 
pleted, and the result has been to place her immeasurably in advance 
of all her sister States in wealth, in population, and in general pros- 
perity. The rapidity of her progress has been the marvel of the coun- 
try. In a very few years she rose from obscurity to the first rank 
among her sister States in population, in wealth, in credit, and in con- 
sideration both at home and abroad. 

Canals of Ohio. 

Ohio canal — This work was commenced in 1825, and was com- 
pleted in 1832. It extends fi'om Portsmouth, on the Ohio river, lo 
Cleveland, on Lake Erie, a distance of 307 miles. It ascends the val- 
ley of the Scioto nearly to Columbus, when it takes an eastern direc- 
tion, striking into the valley of the Muskingum, passing through the 
towns of Hebron, Newark, Coshocton, New Philadelphia, and Massil- 
lon, in this valley. Crossing the summit of Akron, it falls into the val- 
ley of the Cuyahoga river, wnich it pursues to Cleveland. The highest 
point in the canal at Akron is 499 feet above the Ohio river at Ports- 
mouth, 405 above Lake Erie, and 973 above the Atlantic ocean* 



OOU>NIAI« AND LAKE TRADE. 3U7 

The canal is 4 feet deep, 40 wide, has 147 locks, and an aggregate 
locka^ of 1,220 feeL 

This canal has several branches or navigable feeders, of which the 
following are the principal : 

The Columbus branch. — This branch extends from the point at which 
die canal leaves the Ohio valley to Columbus, a distance of 10 miles. 

The Lancanter branch. — This is a lateral branch, extending from the 
main trunk southerly to the town of Lancaster, the capital of Fairfield 
county, a distance of 9 miles. 

The Al/tcns extension or Hocking canal is a prolongation of the Lan- 
caster branch. It has a southeasterly course through the counties of 
Fair6eld, Hocking, and Athens, to the town of Alliens, a distance of 
about 56 miles. 

The ZnntsviUe branchy extending from the main canal to the town of 
Zanosville, on the Muskingum river, a distance of 14 miles, connects 
it with the Muskingum improvement^ by means of which another channel 
is opened to the Ohio river at Marietta. 

The Walhonding branch extends from the main canal, near Coshoc- 
ton, upon the Walhonding river, a distance of 25 miles. 

The Miami canal. — This work extends from Cincinnati to Lake Erie, 
al Manhattan, a distance of 27U miles. The principal towns tlu*ough 
which it passes are Hamilton, Dayton, Troy, Sidney, Defiance, and 
Tiiledo. Tliis last town is generally considered as the northern termi- 
nus of the canal, although it is carried to Manhattan, 4 miles below it. 
This canal was commenced in 1825, and completed in 1832. It has a 
width of 40 and a depth of 4 feet; its summit-level is 510 feet above 
Cincinnati, and 411 feet above Lake Erie, and the number of its locks 
IS 102. This canal, from Lake Eri« to the Indiana State line, forms 
tlie lower trunk of the Wabash and Erie canal, extending to Evans- 
%ille, on the Ohio river. There are also connected with mis canal in 
ilhiu branch lines measuring 45 miles in length. 

The following table shows the length and cost of the Ohio canals 
roostructed by the State: 

LsDffdi. Cod. 

The Ohio canal and branches 340 J4,t)95,203 

The Walhonding canal 25 607,2(» 

Ttie Miami canal and branches 315 7,454,726 

The Hocking Valley canal 56 975,480 

The Muskingum improvement 91 1,627,318 

827 miles. 15,359,005 

In addition to the above works, o^iicd by the Slate of Ohio, are the 
ft Jlowing private works : 

Tiie Sttndy and Beater canal. — This work commences at Bolivar, on 
the Ohio canal, and ext(*nds to the Ohio river, at the mouth of the 
Braver ri%'er, a distance of about 76 miles. The cost of tliis work was 
aUnat S2,000,(K)0. A portion of it is in the State of Pennsylvania. 

Thi' Mahoning canal. — This canal commences at Akron, pursues the 
k-ft liank of the Cuyahoga river, running tlin>ugh tlie town of llavonnu, 
tlieucc into and along the valley of tlie Mahoning to its couiluence with 



308 ANDREWS* RBPOHT ON 

the Beaver canal, in Pennsylvania, a short distance from the State line* 
The length of this canal is about 77 miles, and its cost somethii^ like 
$2,000,000. It was, before the construction of railroads in Ohio, and 
still is, an important channel of communication between Pittsburg and 
Cleveland and the interior of Ohio, and supplies the latter city with 
the important article of coal, which is found m the greatest abundance 
and of the best quality in the Mahoning valley. 

In the vast number of railroad projects which have sprung up in Ohio 
within a few years, and which are absorbing public attention, toe canals 
of the State have sunk into comparative insignificance. The former 
liave, however, been the great cause of its unexampled prosperity, as 
they supplied the demand of its people for a cheap and comparatively 
expeditious route to market, and enabled them to turn to immediate 
account their large resources. It is probable that they may still con- 
tinue to be the carriers of the more bulky and less valuable kinds of 
property, and in this manner prove of utility, thoogh of smaller com- 

{>aratlve importance. Although railroads may take from the canals a 
arge portion of their traffic, the former will probably develq> a still 
larger trade in articles of merchandise, for wnich the canals are the 
appropriate channels ; so that the interests of the two systems of im- 
provement, instead of clashing, will be found to be in strict harmony. 
The canals, unfortunately, are not first-class works, so far as their con- 
struction and capacity are concerned, and daring periods of great 
drought occasionally fall short of water. 

Railroads o/OhitK 

The railroads of Ohio may be taid to belong to hoo distinct and well 
defined periods in the history of tlie internal improvements of the Slate. 
The Jirst class includes those commenced during the great speculative 
movement of 1836 and 1837, which were, for a considerable lapse of 
time, the only projects of the kind attempted in the State. These 
were — 

1. The Uule Miami railroad, commenced in 1837 and completed in 
1846, was originally laid out with a flat rail, which has since been re- 

S laced by the heavy H or T rail. It extends from Cincinnati to Spring- 
eld, a distance of 84 miles, and has cost, up to the present time, about 
$2,500,000. 

2. The Mad River and Laie Erity commenced in 1836 and completed 
in the latter part of 1846, extends from Sarulusky, on Lake Erie, to 
Springfield, a distance of 134 miles, where it forms a junction with the 
Little Miami road, constituting a continuous line of railroad from Luke 
Erie to the Ohio, which was the first to connect these water-courses. 
A portion of this road was opened in 1838w It was originally laid with 
a flat rail, which has since oeen replaced by one better adapted to a 
heavy traffic. 

3. The Martifietd and Sandusky railroad was commenced in 1836, and 
a portion of it opened in 183& It was completed to Mansfield in 1847. 
Like all the early Ohio railroads, it was first laid with the fiat bar, 
which has since given place to the heavy raiL 

4. The Lake Erie and Katamazoo extends fix>m Toledo, oo Lake 



COUnriAL AND LAXB TBADB. 309 

Erie, to Adrian» where tt forms a junction with the Michigan Southern 
railroadv to which it fomis an outlet to the roads of Ohio. The length 
of this road is about 33 miles. It was commenced in 1836, and com* 
plrtod in 1845. Its superstructure was, in the outset, a flat rail, which 
tuu recently, since the completion of the Michigan Southern road, given 
place to a heavy bar. 

These arc the only roads commenced, under the stimulus of the 
f[teal movement already referred to, the orieinal plans ibr which were 
linallv accomplished. All other projects fell to the ground in the com* 
mcrcial re%iilsions which (bllowea. These failures, and the long delay 
in completing the roads already described, were in part owing to the 
financial embarrassments which succeeded, but j'et more to the limited 
amount of capital, and to the want of engineering skill and experience 
brought to bear upon them. Notwithstanding all the embarrassments 
and losM'S to which they were subjected, it is believed that they are all 
DOW yielding a profitable return u|K>n their entire cost. 

It may not here be out of place to remark, that the numerous failures 
to the first cflc)rts of the new States to construct works of internal im- 
prorement were not the result of accidtnty but a matter of nccesgity. 
The schemes were all premature ; neither the means, nor the engi- 
neering and practical talent, essential to success, existed. The coun- 
try bad not been settled a length of time sufficient to designate the sites 
that were to become the great depots of trade, or the convenient routes 
fi^r travel and business. At this distance of time, it is esisy to see that 
the failure of many of the works undertaken in the West and South, 
oot only by the States but by individuals, was unavoidable; and 
that with the lights we now possess, their construction would have 
been postponed until a condition should have arisen more favorable to 
•uccesA. These failures were no just cause of reproach to the »^tates 
in which they occurred, except so far as the debts created have been 
repudiated, or no provisions made for the liabilities as they fell due. 

These reverses cut short the progress of railroads and canals, with 
a few exceptions, for a number of years. The people were dis- 
heartened, and in many cnses disgusted, with their ill success, and 
became comparatively indifferent to the subject of internal improve- 
oients. Yeiu's elapsed before the western Slates recovered from the 
disastrous effects of the previous reverses, in which nearly every indi- 
%'idual in the community had been involved. Indeed, it required 
years to replace the various losses sustained. When this was aecora- 
plisb(*d, and the lapse of sixteen years had brought a larger population, 
increased production, and ampler means, the necessity of avenues, 
suitable to the increasing wants of the country, came to be more and 
more strongly ft*lt. To meet this demand, the works now in progress 
were commenced. These movements constitute the n/ir era in the 
hittfyry of our internal improvements. Both the old and the new sys- 
tem bad its peculiar characteristics. The first proposed in the newly 
settled States either anticipated the wants of tlie country, or wa.^ in 
advance of the conditions necessary to success. It was bornnvcd 
frcJOD the old, and applied to the new States, where an entirely difI<T- 
cDt state of things existed ; and was, in fact, an attempt to apply a 
priDciple dedttceu firom known data to circumstances wholly uncertain. 



310 ANDRBWS' REPORT ON 

The works more recently commenced rest on a very difierent founda- 
tion. They were constructed, and are adapted, to supply wants which 
actually exist. An unsound policy has given place to one perfectly 
healthy and legitimate, following requirements, and controlled by 
wants, the extent and nature of which are well understood and 
defined. 

The railroads in progress and operation in Ohio at the present lime 
make an aggregate length of line of about 3,000 miles; the face of the 
country favoring their construction in every part of it. These projects 
are pretty uniformly distributed over the State. There are no lines 
of pre-eminent importance, because travel and commerce are not, a&in 
some other States, forced into particular channels by the natural con- 
figuration of the country. So homogeneous are the physical characteris- 
tics of the different portions of the western States, that a detailed de- 
scription of one line of road will serve to give a distinct idea of all. In 
this region, local considerations are a sufficient inducement to the con- 
struction of numerous and important lines, and frequently a throus'h 
route is made up by a combination of what were in the outset entirely 
distinct and separate projects. In noticing the roads of Ohio, therefore, 
an effort will be made rather to give a clear idea of the whole system, 
than to burden the report with similar details of different projects. 

In addition to the roads of exclusively local character, there are nu- 
merous great lines traversing the entire State from north to south and 
from east to west. These great lines or routes are composed as 
follows : 

Through-line^ running from north to south- 

1. Composed of the Cincinnati, HamiUon and Dayton, and Mad Bmr 
and Lake Erie railroads. 

2. Composed of the iMile Miama, Columbus, and Xenia, and Clect- 
land and Columbus railroads. 

3. Composed of the Mansfidd and Sandusky, Columbus and Lake Eri^y 
and Scioto and Hocking Valley railroads. 

4. Clevdand and WeUsvUle railroad. 

6. A fifth line will soon be added to the above, formed by the Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton and Dayton, and the Dayton and Michigan roads, now 
in progress from Dayton to Toledo. 

6. An additional line will probably be formed without much delay ; 
the lower portion of it composed of the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Day- 
ton, or the Little Miami, the central portion of the Springfield, Mount 
Vernon and Pittsburg, and the northern division of the Cleveland and 
Pittsburg, and Akron Branch railroads. It is proposed to extend this 
branch so as to form a junction with the Ohio and Pennsylvania roads, 
probably at Wooster. 

It is also probable that a railroad will be constructed in a short 
period from Cleveland to Zancsville, and thence southward to the Ohio 
river, either at Marietta or Portsmouth. Measures are also in progress 
to construct a road from Columbus, down the valley of the Scioto to its 
mouth. The above roads would form two additional north and south 
lines. Efforts are also making to construct a road from Dayton to Gia- 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADB. 311 

dnnatiy between the Litle Miami and the Cincinnati^ Hamilton and 
Doffton* Should they prove successful, a portion of another through- 
line will be formed* 

Through-lintt running from east to toett. 

1. Composed of the Cleveland^ Painesville and Ashtabula^ and the 
Junction railroads. This line will follow the lake shore for its whole 
distance. From Cleveland it will be carried westward by another line 
composed of a portion of the C/ere/aii<2 an^ GJumOuSy Bind Toledo^ AV- 
waik and Clerdund. The whole of tliis last named line will l>e in 
operation during the present year. 

2* Composed of the Ohio and Pennsylvania^ and the BiUefontaine 
and Indiana roads. Both of these are well advanced towards com- 
^tion, and it is intended to have them in operation by the first of 
January nexu 

3* Composed of the Ohio and Pennsylvania^ and the Ohio and Indiana^ 
extending from the western terminus of tlie former to Fort Wayne, 
Indiana* 

4. Composed of the Stuebenalle^ Indiana and Columbus^ and the 
Columbus^ Piqva^ and Indiana roads. These will form a continuous line 
of raih'oad through Ohio, and also from Philadelphia and Baltimore, to 
tbe Mississippi river, having a uniform gunge throughout. 

From Columbus an additional line will be formed by means of tbe 
Columbus and Xenia^ the Dayton and London^ and the Dayton atid West- 
em roads. 

5. Composed of the Ohio Central and Columbus^ and Pi^ua and In* 
ma roads. An additional line from Columbus, by the line running 

tlm>ugh Dayton, is described above. 

6. Composed of the Ohio Central^ and tlie Cincinnati^ Wilmington 
and Zanesrille roads. 

7. Cincinnati and Mnrrielta railroad. It is also contemplated to ex- 
tend tliis road to Wheeling, thus forming a continuous line from 
Cincinnntti to Wheeling under one charter. 

H. Ililisboro* and Cincinnati railroad, extending from the Ohio river, 

3>posite Parkersburg, is proposed as the direct continuation of ihe 
altiitiore and Ohio railroad to Cincinnati. From the latter place all 
the roads terminating there will be carried to tbe Indimia iState line, 
by the Oliio and Mississippi railroad. 

Tlie pr€*at lines which have been thus briefly described embrace the 
most im{N»rtant projects in tbe i>tate. All of them present tlie same 
general ciiaracteristics. The results achiev<»d by tbe lines in op<Taiion 
may be safely predicated of those in progrc\ss ; and these so well illus- 
trate the value of such works to the conununity, and as invc stinents of 
capital, that a detailed account of their objects, cost, and pros|M*(live 
revenues, is unnecessary. Reference to tbe annexed maps will, taken 
in omnexion with t^he hi^ory of the roads in operation, convey a suffi- 
ciently correct idea of tlie various projects that com|K)sc tbe system 
above described. 



312 ANDRBWS' BBPOBT ON 

There are many roads in progress not particularly connected with 
the above lines, the objects ol which require a brief notice, viz : 

Ohio and Mississippi railroad ; the leading object of which is the 
connexion of Cincinnati and St. Louis, the two great cities of the Mis- 
sissippi valley, by the shortest practicable line. A glance at the map 
wull sufficiently demonstrate the value of such a work to the commerce 
and travel of the country. At the present time the communication 
between these cities is carried on by means of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi rivers, and it is well known that the navigation of these is always 
seriously obstructed and often totally suspended at certain seasons 
of the year. At best, the route is tedious and expensive, and un- 
comrortable at all times, and often very unhealthy. The distance by 
water is more than twice as great as by land. A direct Une of railroad 
between these great cities is one ranking first in importance among our 
leading works. It is easy to see that the principal routes of travel 
must be those connecting great cities by the shortest lines, since the 
travel, whether of business or of pleasure, necessarily tends from one to 
another of these. Familiar illustrations of the fact wuU readily occur 
to every reader. In going westward, Cincinnati is a necessary point 
in the route of every traveller. That city, also, is consequently a con- 
verging point of the great lines of road leading w^estward from the east- 
ern cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. After 
reaching Cincinnati, another leading point toward which travel is 
attracted is St. Louis. Hence the necessity of the above road, and the 
important relations it bears to the railroad system of the country, and 
to the great routes of travel. 

The length of this road will be about three hundred and thirty miles. 
For the greater part of this distance the route is very favorable to 
cheap construction. Through its whole length it traverses a fertile and 

E reductive region, without any outlet except that formed by the Wa- 
ash river, which the above road crosses at Vincennes. In addition to 
its through-travel, this road will be the channel of a vast local traffic ; 
and these, when combined, cannot fail to yield a lucrative income. 

The whole road is under contract for completion within two years 
from the first of January, 1853 ; and the work of construction is in 
rapid progress. The project has received the hearty co-operation and 
support of the cities of Cincinnati and St. Louis, the former having 
subscribed $600,000, and the latter $500,000, to the work, in their cor- 
porate? capacities, in addition to large private subscriptions. 

By the people of Baltimore, the above work is regarded with hardly 
less favor than by Cincinnati and St. Louis. By the former, it is re- 
garded as the direct extension westward of their great line, which is to 
vbe carried forward to Cincinnati by the Hillsboro' and Marietta roads* 
It will be seen that these three roads make up one grand and synunet- 
rical line, of about nine hundred miles, extending from tide-water to 
Aho. Mississippi river. 

The Hnmilton and Eaton road, extending firom Hamilton to Rich- 
mond, Indiana, though a valuable local work, derives its chief import- 
ance from the fact that it constitutes the trunk of two extensive lines 
in progress, the Indiana Central and the Cincinnati and Chicago roads* 
both of which connect with it at Richmond. This road has just been 



OOLONIAL AMD LAKB TKABB* 313 

opened for travel. The connecting lines above-named arc in process — 
tlie former ibr its entire length, and the latter as far as the Wabash 
rivrr, to Logansport* 

TIm* GreemtUte and Miami road extends from a point on the Dayton 
and Western road, about fifteen miles vest of Dayton, to Union, the 
eastern terminus of the Indianapolis and Bellcfontuine road* It occu- 
pies at present a conspicuous position, from tlie fact that it is the first 
Ohio n)ad to form a connexion with those of Indiana. It is already in 
operation to Greenville, from which point the work is in rapid progress ; 
9o that the simultaneous completion of this and the louianpolis and 
Bellefontaine road, as far as Union, may be expected by the first of 
Df'cember next, giving an outlet by railroad from Jeflersonville, (oppo- 
site Louisville, Kentucky,) Terre Haute, Lafayette, Madison, and no- 
merous fither important points in Indiana, to the railroads of Ohio, 
and, consequently, to tliosc of the eastern States. 

The Iron railroad is a short road, connecting the numerous iron manu- 
facturing establishments of southern Ohio with the river. This road 
will probably be extended northward, to form a connexion with the 
Scifitu and Hocking valley railroad. 

By the Cleveland and Mahoning road, it is proposed to open a new 
channel of communication between Cleveland and Pittsburg, through 
the valleys of the Mahoning and Beaver rivers. One of the principal 
o)>jects in its construction is to open a new outlet for the coal-fields of 
the Mahoning valley, from which Cleveland is now chiefly suppUed 
with coal. Measures arc in progress to place this work immediately 
under contract. 

A line of road of considerable importance is also proposed, com- 
mrncing near Mansfield, and extending in a generally northeasterly 
direc'tion, through Warren to the Ohio State line, to be continued 
tlirou;;h Pennsylvania to the Erie road at or near Olean, constituting a 
iM*w line of communication between the railroads of Ohio and those of 
the East* 



INDIANA. 



Popolauon in 1830, 343,031 ; in 1840, 685,860; in 1850, 988,416. 
Area in square mil<*s, 33,809 ; inliabitants to s<}uare mile, 29.23. 

Tbe State of Indiana, in emulation of the example of her sister 
States, commenced, in 1836, the construction of an elaborate system of 
internal impn>vement, of which a comparatively small portion onlv has 
been accomplished. It consist(*d partly of canals, and partly oi rail- 
roads. The canals proposcnl were the Wabash and Erie, the Central, 
ll»e White Water, tlie Terre Haute and Eel River, and a canid from 
Kort Wayne to Michigan City. The railroads propost»d to be* con- 
>tnjcte<l by the State were the Madison and Indianapolis, and the 
Lafiyette and Michigan. 

The fVabash and Erie cansd is the most important of the works of 
public improvement undertaken in the State. It commences at tbe 
Ohio State line, and extends to Evansville, on the Ohio river, a distance 
of three hundred and seventy-nine miles, and lour bundled and sixt^- 
•evcn miles from Toledo, on Lake Erie. When completed, it wdl 



314 ANDREWS* BBPORT ON 

form one of the longest lines of canal in the world. From Toledo to 
Fort Wayne it has a depth of four feet, and a width of sixty. Below 
this point, it is only three feet deep and forty-five wide. Its locb 
admit boats of a capacity of about sixty tons. It is to be opened for 
traffic through its whole length in the ensuing spring. 

This work was completed by the State as far as Lafayette, a dis- 
tance of two hundred and thirty miles from Toledo, and two hundred 
and forty-nine from the Ohio. When the State became, from the em- 
barrassment of its affairs, unequal to its farther construction, a condi- 
tional agreement was made with the bondholders of the State for its 
completion ; the latter reserving the right to resume the work, upon the 
payment of the sum which the bondholders had agreed to receive in 
addition to the cost of completing it. It is believed that the canal will 
again pass into the hands of the State, by the ultimate payment of the 
whole of her debt. Although the construction of the canal was one of 
the causes of the financial embarrassments of the State, the work has 
proved one of the eflBcient means by which she has recovered from 
them and reached the high position she now holds as a leading State in 
the confederacy. As far as excellence of soil is concerned, no State 
possesses superior resources. The canal opened an outlet for her pro- 
ducts, and gave her the use of means, which up to its opening lay dor- 
mant, from the difficulty and cost of reaching a market. The rapid 
increase in the exports of Indian corn will illustrate the value of im- 

Erovements which facilitate transportation. The exports of this article 
om the Wabash valley, from insignificance, rose to millions of bushels 
in a very few years after the opening of the canal ; and Toledo, its 
terminus on Lake Erie, is now tne chief port of export for this article. 

* Railroads in Indiana* 

The failure of the State to carry out her proposed system of public 
improVfements, and the financial troubles in which she became involved, 
put an end for a time to all enterprises of the kind, whether of a public 
or private character. Some years were required to make good the 
losses resulting from the great expansion of 1836-'37, and to allow the 
public mind to recover from the discouraging influence of the reverses 
sustained. As in Ohio, lapse of time brought greater means, a more 
enlarged capacity to supenntend and execute works of magnitude, l)et- 
ter defined objects, and a traffic necessary for the support of extensive 
lines of improvement. The system proposed by the State was, in fact, 
in advance of the conditions required to sustain it. It anticipated a 
state of things which did not exist. In commencing the new move- 
ment, which has resulted so successfully, her people have followed and 
not anticipated their wants. They have taken up only such enterprises 
as were sanctioned by the clearest evidence of their necessity, and 
which could command sufficient support to insure success. The result 
has been uniformly favorable ; and the State of Indiana, which but two 
or three years since had hardly a mile of railroad within her limits, 
now takes ranl^ with our leading railroad States, and is soon to be third 
or fourth in the extent of her works. Her credit and means have od- 



OOLOMIAL ▲NO LAKB TRADB. 315 

▼anced with equal pace, and, though one of the new States, she already 
occupies a prominent position in the confederacy. 

There is no State in the Union that presents so symmetrical a system 
of railroads as Indiana. Nearly all her great lines radiate from the 
geographical centre and capital of the State. By this means they are 
all brought into intimate business relations with one another, an arrange- 
roent which must promote to a ^at degree the advantages of each. 
Indianapolis is soon to be the point of intersection of eight important 
roadfitViz: the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis, Lawrenceburg 
and Indianapolis, Central, Bellefontaine, P(tu, Lafayette, Terre Haute, 
and the New Albany and Sidem roads. All ihcs^e roads will be carried, 
in iheir respective directions, to the boundary lines of the Slate. Their 
focus is in the great lines of railroad running from the eastern States to 
the Mississippi river, and from the Ohio to the great lakes. It is 'impos- 
sible to conceive a system better devised for the promotion of the inter- 
ests of the people of the State, or of the railroad companies. 

All of these great lines, while they have their appropriate and ample 
belu of fertile, productive, and well-settled territory for local tramc, 
occupy important routes for through business and travel. The Jefller- 
•onvdle opens a communication between the central portions of the State 
with Louisville, the second city of the Ohio valley ; tlie Madison and 
Indianapolis forms a similar connexion with Madison, an important 
ti>w^n, iavorably situated on the Ohio river for commanding the trade 
of the interior ; the Lawrenceburg forms the connecting line between 
Indianapolis and Cincinnati; the Central is the direct extension, west- 
ward, of the leading lines running through central Ohio ; the Indiana- 
polis and Bellefontaine opens the outlet to the great lakes and the lines 
of n>ad traversing northern Ohio ; the Peru coiuiecls the capital and 
crntral portions of the State with the Wabash canal, which is now the 
irreat commercial avenue for the State ; the Lafayette connects the most 
important town in the northwestern part of the State with the central 
pnrticjns, and will soon constitute a link of the great line extending to 
Chicago ; the Terre Haute is the connecting line between the railroad 
system of the State and St. Louis and the railroads of Illinois; the New 
Albany and Salem will connect the cities of Louisville and N(»w Albany, 
and the lower portions of the State, with the interior, by a line lying to 
we«l of the Jeflersonville road, and will also constitute an unbroken line 
of w»me two hundred and eighty-five miles between Lake Michigan and 
the < >hio river. 

With the exception of the New Albany and Salem, all the alwve n)ads 
having the same general direction may be said to be comph^menls of 
each other. The Central and the Terre Haute roads constitute, in a 
boMiiTiis and commercial point of view, one line ; so with the Lawrence- 
burg and Lafayette, and the Jeil(*rsonville and Peru. In this manner, 
a system of railroads will be found adapted to promote the highest gcN)d 
of all the merob(*rs to it, and to develop to the utmost the wealth and 
refTHirrcs of the State, and at the same time fitted to become a portion 
of a still wider system embracing the whole country. 

Tlip system we have described occupies an area in the central por- 
tions of the State about one hundred and fifty miles sc^uare. In length 
of line and relative importance, there is great uniformity in the variuua 



316 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

roads that compose it. They all occupy favorable routes ; are all cal- 
culated to benefit each other ; and will be rivals for the same trade ia 
a slight degree only. The northern and southern portions of the Stale 
will also be well supplied with railroad accommodations. In the 
southern portion, the most important road in progress is the Ohio and 
Mississippi, which traverses it from east to west. This work has already 
been suffaciently noticed under " the railroads of Ohio." The south- 
western corner of the State is traversed by the Evansville and Illinois 
road, which is already completed to Princeton, and is in progress to 
Terre Haute. When this last point is reached, a connexion will be 
formed with the Central system, which will be brought into communi- 
cation with Evansville, the most important and flourishing town upon 
the lower Ohio, and also with a railroad now in progress leading from 
Henderson, upon the opposite bank of the river, in Kentucky, to Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, in oraer to connect with the roads terminating in that 
city. 

The New Albany and Salem road is an important work for southern 
Indiana. At or near Orleans it will form a connexion with the Ohio 
and Mississippi railroad, and will thus constitute a convenient and direct 
route between the cities of New Albany, LouisviUe, and St. Louis. 
This road will also supply railroad accomodations to an extensive and 
important, but comparatively isolated portion of western Indiana. In 
the northern part of the State, it will perform a still more important 
office in opening, and that shortly, a communication between the cen- 
tral and northern portions of Indiana and the city of Chicago. The line 
of this road extends from New Albany to Michigan City, (with a branch 
to Indianapolis) and thence to Chicago, making its entire length about 
three huncired and fifteen miles. A part of this line will be composed 
of the Crawfbrdsville and Wabash road, which has been merged in the 
former. Three distinct portions of it are in operation, viz : from New 
Albany to Orleans ; from Crawfordsville to Lafayette ; and fi"om Michi- 
gan City to Chicago. The unfinished portion is well advanced, and 
much of it will be finished before 1853, when the whole will be com- 
pleted. 

An important work in the northern part of the State is the Indiana 
Northern road, and which will be noticed with the Michigan Southern 
road, of which it forms a part. These two roads constitute a leading 
line, as they unite the most southerly portions of Lakes Erie and Michi- 
gan, two important points in the geography and commerce of the 
country. The great lakes occupy a basin extending 500 miles from 
north to south, and oppose an insuperable barrier to the direct extension 
westward of the lines from the northern States. All these are deflected 
southwardly, to avoid Lake Michigan. Such is the fact with a large 
number of roads in reference to Lake Erie ; consequently, a line con- 
necting the southern shores of these lakes cannot fail to be a work of the 
first importance, not only to the travel and commerce of the country, 
but to its business and revenues. The great favor with which this pro- 
ject is regarded by the public is undoubtedly due in part to the above 
considerations. The Northern Indiana road traverses a portion of the 
State celebrated for its fertility, which will secure to it a large local, as 
well as through traffic. 



COLOiriAL AND LAKE TSADB. 317 

Amnn^ the proposed roads, probably the most important is the Wa* 
bash V\Hlley line, which is to extend to Tok>do, Ohio, to the bound^iry 
line of Illinois. A glance at the accompanying map will •convey a 
b(*tfrr idea of the value of such a work, and the intimate relation it 
will bear t«> the commerce and travel of the country, than any attempted 
df^scription. It will be seen that Toledo is the most snlirnt {X)int on 
Lnke Erie for all the country lying to the west and southwest of it. 
It has already become a place of great commerce, by means of the 
Wabash canal, and must always be a leading p)int in the routes both 
of business and travel. A line of railroad connrcting Toledo and St. 
Loui< would coincide for a long distance with the course of the Wa- 
bash river. The valley of this river is celebrated for its fertility, and 
is filled with large and ilourishing towns, which owe their existence and 
traflic to the canal, and are the depdts of trade for the surrounding 
country. In this manner an ample business has been already devel- 
oped tor the support of a first-class railroad. 

Another important project is the projected road from Fort Wayne to 
Chicagf). This is propos<»d as the legitimate extension of the Ohio and 
Indiana railrrmd, which has already been noticed under the roads of Ohio* 
Tliose roads would constitute a direct line between tlie great city of 
tin' Northwest and the railroads of central Ohio. The importance of 
8ur*h an avenue must be apparent upon the slightest examination of 
the probable routes of travel and trade in the W< st. The great tide of 
emiuration which is flowing thither from the middle States and Ohio is 
directed upon Chicago, which is the great ppint of its distribution over 
tbe unoccupied lands of the new States. This city must also become 
an important business and commercial point t(>r all the western Slates* 
Theaoiwe line is also regarded as the appropriate extension to Chi(*ago 
fif the great Philadelphia and Haltimore lines, which will be extended 
tf» the eastern terminus of the former, in central Ohio. 

An im{K)rtant road is in progress, commencing at Richmond, the 
western terminus of the Davton and Western, and Hamilton and Eaton 
HKul^, and extending to the Wabash river, at Logansport, which it is 
mtencknl ultimately to carry forward to Chicago. As a through-route, 
it 4 object is to connect Cincinnati and Chicago. Locally, it may be 
regnrdt*d as a Cincinnati roa<l, penetrating a very rich and productive 
nettifiQ of the State. It is under contract from Richmond to the Wa- 
bash, by way of Newcastle. It will be seen that, for the country tra- 
verB«*d, it will constitute a very direct and convenienwoutlei to its great 
markets Cincinnati ; and it is so situated as to command, to a great ex- 
tent, tbe traffic of the territory lying to the north of its line. The route 
pmpos<*d by this road, it is believed, will constitute the shortest route 
between Cincinnati and Chicago. 

It is also proposed to construct a branch from the Jeflersonville road, 
commencing at or near Columbus, and extending as far north as Union, 
tb^ eastern terminus of the Indianapolis and Bellefontaine road, and 
fkrobably to Port Wayne. This extension is favored by the city of 
Looisville, Kentucky, as afibrding means of connecting herself with 
tbe roads running east and west through Ohio, and of securing a por- 
liaa of their trade and travel, which ot^rwise would be drawn to Cin- 
cmnatL 



318 ANBBEW8' REPOBT ON 

The braoch to Fort Wayne would probably run through Muncie, on 
the Bellefontalne road, and in this manner a connexion would be formed 
between Fort Wayne and Indianapolis. The route for such a road has 
been surveyed and found favorable, and active measures are in progress 
to raise the necessary means for its construction. 

The above are the leading projects of the State. There are several 
others of minor consequence, among which may be named the Shelby- 
ville, Knightstown, and Rushville branches. There are others pi*o* 
posed, but not sufficiently advanced to call for particular notice. 



MICHIGAN. 

Population in 1830, (Territory,) 31,639; in 1840, 212,267; in 
1850, 397,654. Area in square mdes, 56,243 : inhabitants to square 
mile, 7.07. 

The State of Michigan, so early as 1836, while in her very infancy, 
matured and commenced an elaborate system of internal improvements, 
by means of railroads and canals. Of the latter none have been con- 
structed : in fact, they were hardly commenced. Of the great lines of 
railroads, two, the most important, have been completed, with some de- 
viation from the original plans. 

1. The Michigan Central railroad commences at Detroit, and runs 
generally in a western direction, to Lake Michigan. It is then de- 
flected southward and carried around the southern shore of Lake 
Michigan to Chicago, the whole length of line being 282 miles. It 
was completed to Lake Michigan, at New Buffalo, two or three years 
since, but was extended to Chicago within a few months only. This 
work is in every point of view most important, saving the necessity ot 
a long and expensive detour by way ot Mackinaw, in travelling from 
east to west, and havirig proved of great convenience to the travelling 
and business public. This road was commenced by the State of Michi- 
gan, under whose auspices about 125 miles of the eastern portion of it 
were constructed. The State becoming embarrassed in consequence 
of the injudicious management of her affairs, the road was sold to a 
private company in the latter part of 1846, by whom the work of con- 
struction was immediately resumed, and prosecuted with great vigor to 
its termination, aU Chicago. Since its completion it has proved very 
productive. Its importance a^ a great through-link between the East 
and the West will be greatly increased by the constiuction-of the great 
Western railroad of Canada, which will be completed during the coming 
year. When that road shall be opened, a direct route, in connexion 
with the above roads, will be afibrded to the travel from the eastern 
States to Chicago, the great central point of the northwestern trade and 
travel. • 

2. Michigan Scntthern Railroad. — Like the Central road, the Micbigafl 
Southern was formerly a State work, and as such was opened to Adrian, 
36 miles from Monroe, its eastern terminus. On the failure of the State, 
its farther progress was abandoned ; but after a lapse of some years it 
was sold to a private company, by whom it has, in connexion with the 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 319 

ladiana Northern road, been recently extended to Chicago. The dis* 
tanoe between the termini is 243 miles. It was originally iuteiuiid to 
carry Uiis road through the southern tier of counties to New Builulo; 
but this plan was abandoned by the present company, and, alttT run- 
ning about 130 miles in Michigan, the line was deflected into Indiana, 
and on this portion constructed under a charter granted by that State. 
This road is also connected with Toledo, on Lake Erie, and will be 
sboctly connected with the railroads of Ohio; and it may be confidently 
expected that by the first of January next a continuous line of railroad 
will exist from New York to Chicago, a distance of nearly 1,000 miles. 
The Miciiigan Southern and Indiana Northern may both be regarded as 
belofiging to one interest, and as forming in fact one line. Though re- 
cently opened for business, its prospects are very favorable. In the 
bands of its present managers, it has been i>rosecuted with energy and 
success ; ana, as the general direction of its line coincides with the 
xiuthem sliores of Lakes Erie and Michigan, it is difficult to find a 
more important line of road. Its success smce its opening fully justi- 
fies the sagacity and foresight of the parties by whom its extension was 
plamied and executed. 

Tlie local trade both of the Central and Southern roads is supplied 
by un ample belt of fertile, well-settled and highly productive country, 
which alone would yield sufficient support, entirely independent of 
through traffic. Botli are intended to form important parts of inde- 
pendent through-routes from Boston and New York to Chicago— one 
itn the north,* the other on the .south shore of Lake Erie — and must 
becnme intimately identified with important routes of commerce and 
iraveL 

A railroad from 6reen Bay to Lake Superior is an important pro- 
ject, and will prove of great convenience to the raining districts on the 
soutlicm shores of the latter, which for a considerable portion of the 
year are inaccessible. This work is indispensable to the proper devel- 
opment of the vast mineral resources of that great region. Its route is 
tbe best that could be adopted for immediate exigencies. The line of 
the road is under survey; and it is believed that its construction will 
br inimediately commenced, an amount of business being already de- 
veloped on its northern terminus sufficient to furnish a considerable 
traffic. 

A road is also proposed, and will, undoubtedly, in a few years be 
coQMnicted, extending from Detroit to Toledo, with # view to enable 
the Great Western railroad of Canada to form a connexion witli the 
lioea of the United States. 



ILLINOIS. 



Population in 1830, 167,445; in 1840, 476,183, in 1^50, 8M,470. 
Area in square miles, 55,405; inhabitants to the s<]uare mile, 15.36. 

There is a remarkable similarity belwren the histories of the States 
fiT Indiana and Illinois, so far as their re.4{>ective systems of internal 
improvements arc corcemed. Both systems were comrnt^iced al>out 



320 ANDRBWS' RBPOBT OS 

the same period ; both States became involved in similar financial em- 
barrassments ; and both abandoned the prosecution of their respective 
works — most of which have been either discontinued entirely, or have 

{assed into private hands. While this parallel exists between the two, 
Uinois labored under the disadvantage of being a much newer Stale, 
possessing smaller means, and consequently requiring a longer time to 
recover from her embarrassments. As in her farst efforts she imitated 
the examples of Ohio and Indiana, so she is aeain following closely in 
their footsteps, in the new career upon which she has just entered. 
The Illinois and Michigan Canal. — This canal is almost the only im- 

!)rovement which Illinois has to show for the vast debt she has incurred 
or her public works. It has passed into the hands of her bond-holders, 
and has been completed by them in a manner very similar to its kindred 
work, the Wabash and Erie canal. It extends irom Chicago to Peru, 
at the head of navigation on the Illinois river. It was commenced in 
1836, and completed in 1848. It is 60 feet wide, and 6 feet deep. 
The locks have a capacity for boats of 150 tons. Its length is 100 
miles, and its summit-level is 8 feet only above Lake Michigan. The 
original plan was to feed it directly from the lake ; but as this involved 
a very large expenditure, it was abandoned. 

The canal was opened in the fall of 1848, since which time it has 
done a successful business. Like the Wabash canal, its direction coin- 
cides with the usual route of commerce and travel. It is hardly possi- 
ble to conceive a more favorable route for such a work. It connects 
the lakes with the navigable waters of the Mississippi at their nearest 
approach to each other. Between these great water-courses an im- 
mense trade must always exist. The former penetrates high northern 
regions, and the latter traverses a country abounding in many tropical 
productions. With the canal they constitute a natural route of com- 
merce ; and as the eastern are the great markets for the products of 
the western States, this work must form one of the leading channels of 
commerce between these two divisions of the country. All that was 
wanting to secure a large portion of the products of the Northwest to 
the lake and Erie canal' routes was an outlet for them. This the Illi- 
nois canal first supplied. The effect of its opening has been, in fact, 
to turn an immense tide of business from its old channel, by the Missis- 
sippi river, to the new one by the lakes. 

The influence of this work is already seen in the impulse it has given 
to the growth anil trade of Chicago ; in the change it has effected in 
the direction of the products of Illinois, and other western States, to 
market, and of merchandise imported into the same sections of country. 

Were its capacity equal to the business which will soon be tfirovvn 
upon it, and were the Illinois and Mississippi navigable at all seasons 
ol the year, there can be no doubt that the canal would be able to en- 
gross a large portion of the trade of the country west and southwest 
of Lake Michigan, and north of the Ohio and Missouri rivers. As it 
is, it is preparing the way for a great diversion of that trade to the 
lakes and tne northern route. The railroads now in progress in Illi- 
nois will soon come to its aid, and supply the want of an uninterrupted 
navigation in the western rivers. 



OOUmUI* AMD LAKS TBAOB. 321 

Railroad$in IttimnM* 

The qrstem of improvements first proposed by the State in eighteen 
bnndred and thirty-six contemplated a very large number o? rail- 
roads, traversing every portion of the State. The more important 
of these were the Ilhnois Central, the Edwardsville and Shawnee- 
towo, the Quincy and Danville, the Alton and Terre Haute, the 
Mount Carmel and Alton, and the Peoria and Warsaw roads. After 
the expenditure of large sums upon these lines they were all ultimately 
abandoned, and the improvements made have mostly fallen into tlie 
hands of private companies. No portion of any of the lines commenced 
has been opened, with the exception of the link in the Quincy and 
Danville rauroad, extending from Springfield to the Ulinois river. With 
a few exceptions, the work done upon tne various proposed lines is of 
little value to the companies which have resumed their construction. 

The recent railroad movement in Illinois dates only two or three 
years prior to the present time. It has the same general character as 
those already noted in Ohio and Indiana. The construction of roads 
in this State yb2/oii» instead o( anticipating the wants of the community, 
and proceeds in a legitimate and business-like manner, which promises 
the most satisfactory results. 

The State of Illinois is one of the largest States of the confederation 
in area, and probably is unsurpassed by any in the extent of her re- 
aonroes. Over her whole surface she has a soil of inexhaustible fer- 
tility, a large portion of which covers vast beds of coal, in connexion 
with an abundant supply of iron ore. The richness of her lead mines 
is well known. Her commercial advantages are equal to those of 
any western State. Upon her western boundary is the Mississippi river; 
opon her southern, and a large portion of her eastern border, are the 
Cmio and Wabash. The northern part of the State is washed by Lake 
Michigan, which is accessible by ships of three hundred tons burden 
from the ocean. Her central portions are penetrated by the Illinois 
river, one of the most favorable in the West for the purposes of 
navigation. All these water-courses afibrd convenient outlets for tlie 
products of her soil, and contribute incalculably to her prosperity. 

The city of Chicago has now become, and must always remain, the 
emporium of the State. It is the great pivot upon which the rail- 
road system of the State turns. Most of the Unes in progress are 
constructed with express reference to this point. * All running in a 
northerly and southerly direction look to that city as the northern 
Icnninus. The same may be said of those traversing the northern 
portion of the State in an easterly and westerly direction. The princi- 
pal exceptions to this rule are trie Ohio and Mississippi railroau, run- 
ning from Cincinnati to St. Louis, the Terre Haute and Alton railroad, 
■nd the proposed roads from Peoria and Springfield to Lafn^'ette, in 
Indiana. There will undoubtedly be other roads constructed m difler- 
cm portions of the State, having no direct reference to Chicago ; but 
such only are referred to aa are already in progress. 

The great line, traversing the State from north to south, will be the 
Illinois Central railroad. This road was commenced by the State in 
lh37, but was soon abandoned, with all other projects of a similar 
21 



382 ANBRBW8* VBtOBLT UK 

character. It commences at Cairo, at the Junction of the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers ; and, after running in nearly a direct northerly course 
for about 120 miles, divides into two branches, one branch running to 
the extreme northwest comer of the State, by way of Peru, on the 
Illinois river; and the other in a very direct course to Chicago. Its 
whole length will be 700 miles — a greater extent of line than any other 
chartered line in the United States- The construction of this road is 
secured by recent munificent grants of lands by the general govern- 
ment, which amount to 2,500,000 acres, most of which lie upon the 
immediate line of the road. The road will be completed in about four 
years from the present time ; and, when constructed, will constitute a 
grand central avenue through the State, from north to south, which 
must in the end become the trunk of many connecting and dependent 
roads. 

The progress made by the Central road, and the certainty of its 
early completion, has given a great impulse to the public sentiment of 
the State in favor of similar projects. Numerous lines are in progress 
or projected in every portion of it. The line itself will supply a vast 
amount of railroad accommodation to the people of Illinois. As a 
State work it is a magnificent project. It is equally conspicuous as a 
part of a great national line. In connexion with the Mobile and Ohio 
railroad it forms- a direct and uniform line of railroad, extending north 
and south for a distance of more than 900 miles, traversing, in this dis* 
tance, great varieties of climate and production. By taking the above 
route a traveller may pass from latitude 29^ to 42<^ north in a little 
more than 24 hours. A road possessing such advantages cannot fail 
to command an 'immense traffic and travel, in addition to its local re- 
sources. 

With the exception of the Central railroad, most of the great routes 
of travel and commerce through the State must run from east to west. 
The more important of these are the following : 

Galena ana Chicago. — This is the longest line of railroad in operation 
in the State. It is now completed to Rockford, a distance of 95 
miles. At Freeport, 124 miles from Chicago, it will form a junction 
with the Illinois Central road, by which it will be carried forward to 
Galena, 180 miles fi-om its eastern terminus. This road has been one 
of the most successful and productive works of the kind in the United 
States. It was not embraced in the original system marked out by 
the State ; and affbrds a striking illustration of the wisdom of adapting 
railroad projects to the known wants of business, rather than of at- 
tempting to anticipate such wants by the construction of a system 
founded on doubtful contingencies. 

The easterly portion of the above line forms the trunk of two other 
roads, one of which, the St. Charles branch, extends from its junction 
with the Galena and Chicago road, in a very direct course, to the 
Mississippi river, at Albany; and the other, the Aurora brancli, which 
is under contract, to Galesburg, (the northerly point on the Peoria 
and Oquawka railroad,) a distance of about 125 miles. This road 
will be carried still further, in a southwesterly direction to Quincy, 
by means of the Central Military Tract and the Northern Cross 
roads, also in progress of construction. The distance from Quincy to 



COLOmAL AJID LAMM nUBB* 323 

Oalesbura, by tbe above road, is about 120 miles, making the entire 
disfanrr between Chicago and Quincy about 280 miles. It is under- 
stood that the Michigan Central railroad will extend efficient aid to the 
last named line. 

The Galena and Chicago railroad has exerted a very decided influ- 
ence in promoting the growth of the city of Cliicago, which advanced 
in popublion from 4,470 to 40,000 from 1840 to 1852. 

Rock bland and Chicago railroad, — This road follows the valley of 
the Illinois and its branches, from Chicago to Peru, a distance of 100 
miles ; from which place it takes a more westerly direction, to Rock 
island, a distance of eighty miles, making the whole length of line 180 
miles. The first division to Peru will be completed by the first of 
January next, and the whole in season for the winter business of 1853. 
It is, in many respects, an important line. It will connect Chicago with 
tbe head of navigation on tne Illinois river, between which points 
an immense travel and trade must always exist. It has the great 
advantage of striking the Mississippi river upon the same parallel of 
latitude with the southern shores of Lakes Erie and Michigan, and at 
the best point for bridging that river below St. Anthony's Falls. Rock 
island is very nearly in the same parallel with Council Blufis* the pro- 
poaed point for carrying a railrosid across the Missouri, running west- 
ward toward the Rocky mountains* The grade and curves of this road 
are fiivorable, and it will undoubtedly become one of the most important 
avenues of trade and travel extending westward from Chicago. The 
means for its construction are furnished chiefly by eastern capitalists, 
who took up the project on account of the strength of its position. 

Peoria and Oquawka railroad* — ^The next line of railroad travers- 
ing tbe State, from east to west, is the Peoria and Oquawka, commenc- 
ing at the Mississippi river opposite Burlington, the largest and most 
cimmercial town m Iowa, and running to Peoria, on the Illinois river. 
Tbe distance between the two points is about 80 miles. From Peoria 
it is proposed to extend this road easterly, striking the Wabash valley 
at Lafayette, or at Logansport, or at both these places. The first 
diviiiion only of this great line, extending fi-om the Mississippi to the 
lUinnist is m progress. But when the importance of the proposed ex- 
tension is considered, and the relation it will sustain to the railroads of 
the Slates lying eastward, no doubt can be entertained of its commence- 
ment and construction at no distant day. 

Narikem Cron railroad. — This name is usually applied to the line of 
road commencing at Quincy, on the Mississippi river, extending to the 
Indiana State line near Danville, Illinois, and running through Nuplcs, 
Springfield, and Decatur. This is one of the projects embraced in the 
State system of improvements ; and upon it a much larger amount of 
work was done than upon anv other line. The work executed by 




|)ring- 

field and Meredosia railroad, has been completed. The poruon of 
tbe above line from Quincy to the Illinois is also in progress, by 
another company. From Springfield eastward, the work of iH)nstruc- 
ciuQ is also about to be resumed. From Decatur, two branches will 



i 



324 ANBRBWS' BBFOBT Oft 

probably be constructed, one extending to Terre Haute, and tbe other 
in a more northerly direction towards Lafayette It may be stated, 
that tbe westerly division of this road, extending from Quincy to Clay- 
ton, will form the base of the line of railroads now in progress to 
Chicago, under the title of the Central Military Tract and Aurora 
Branch railroads, already referred to. 

Alton and Sangamon railroad. — ^This important line of railroad ex- 
tends from Alton to Spring&eld, the capital of the State, a distance of 
72 miles. It has been recently opened for business. It forms an 
appropriate outlet from the central portions of the State to the Missis- 
sippi river. Its local consequence is greatly increased by the prospect 
01 its becoming a link in the line of railroad from Chicago to Alton and 
St. Louis. By reference to tbe annexed map, it will be seen that 
Springfield lies very nearly on a direct line between the above cities* 
The division of this line from Springfield to Bloomington is already 
under contract, from whence it will be carried direct to Chicago, or 
unite with the Rock Island road at Morris. This connexion would 
form a very direct and convenient route between the termini named. 
The cities of Chicago and St. Louis will probably always remain (with 
the exception of Cincinnati) the great cities of the West ; and tbe line 
that will connect them possesses, to a certain extent, a national im- 
portance. The fact that it connects Lake Michigan with the Missis- 
sippi on a great and convenient route of travel between them, cannot 
fail to give it rank among our leading works. 

In the central portion of Illinois are several lines having a general 
eastern and western direction. Among the more important of these 
may be named the Western and Atlantic, the Terre Haute and Alton, 
and a road from Terre Haute to Springfield, the capital of the State. 

The Atlantic and Mississippi road is now the only link wanting in a 

f[reat chain of railroads extending from St. Louis to the Atlantic. Its 
ine is identical with the convenient route between that and all the 
leading eastern cities. It may be regarded as the Mississippi trunk of 
all the roads in central Ohio and Indiana running east and west. The 
importance of this road to the general system of the country is well 
shown by the accompanying map. The city of St. Louis is one of the 
great depots of trade in the interior, between which and the Atlantic 
cities there exists a vast commerce and travel. As a throucii-route, 
there is none in the country offering better prospects of a lucrative 
traffic. It is regarded with great favor by the public, and there can be 
no doubt that its stock will be eagerly sought by eastern capitalists. 
The whole line will be placed immediately under contract for comple- 
tion, within the shortest practicable period. 

The country traversed by the road is a very fertile portion of the 
State, and will supply the usual amount of local traffic for a western 
road. 

Terre HaiUe and Alton railroad. — This project has the same general 
direction and object with the one last described. One of the leading 
objects in its construction is to promote the increase of the city of Alton, 
its Mississippi terminus. It traverses a fertile and well cultivated por- 
tion of the State, and is sufficiently removed from the Mississippi and 
Atlantic to command a large local trade. The whole line of this load 



OQLOiriAL A«n LAKB TBADB. 325 



is nnder contract for completion within three years from this time, and 
several portions of it are m progress. 

The proposed road from Terre Haute to 8prin^eld, it will be seen, 
is an important link to connect the roads of Indiana with the Central 
lilinois and with the Northern Cross roads. Measures are in progress 
b» place this road under contract, which promise its speedy completion. 

A railroad is also proposed from Mount Carmel, on the Illinois river, 
to Alton. This is one of the projects which were included in the State 
cnrstpm of 1837. A portion ot the eastern end of this line was graded 
by the State. These improvements have gone into the hands of a pri- 
vate company, by which the road will be completed from Mount dar- 
HK'l CO Alton, a distance of about twenty miles. This road will proba* 
hiv be extended to Princetown, Indiana, in order to form a connexion 
«'ith the Evansville and Illinois road. 

The Ohio and Mississippi road, one of the most important projects 
in the State, has already been noticed under the head of Ohio. 



MISSOURI. 



Po|ialation in 1830, 140,455 ; in 1840, 383,702 ; in 1850, 382,043. 
Area in square miles, 67,380 ; inhabitants to square mile, 10.12. 

No effort was made in this State toward the construction either of 
railroads or of canals till within a recent period. This was partly 
outng to the fact of its being a frontier State, in which the necessity of 
nilroads is less felt, than in those so situated as to become thorouffh- 
fares for their neighbors ; and partly to the sparseness of the population 
in nearly every portion of the State. At the session of the legislature 
of 1851, llje State agreed to lend its credit for two great lines of rail- 
mad : the Pacific road, commencing at St. Louis, and running to the 
«i ^t line of the State, on the south side of the Missouri river ; and the 
liumibal and St, Jo$eph^$ road, extending from the Mississippi to the 
Misisoari, on the north side of the latter, and connecting the places 
nnmed. The amount of aid voted was $2,000,000 to the ibrmer, and 
91,500,000 to the latter; the loans not to become available until each 
nimpany should have obtained $1,000,000 of private stock, and then 
only ao fast as equal portions of stock subscriptions should be paid up 
and rxpcfided. When either company shall nave expended $50,000, 
tb(-y are entitled to call upon the State for its bonds to an e(|ual amount, 
b^ necurity for which the latter holds a lien upon the road and all the 
pmperty of the companies. The State aid will probably be increased 
Ui meet one-half the cost of both roads. Althougn local considerations 
are the primary motive in the construction of the above roads, the pro- 
fr ctnrs look to their ultimate extension to the Pacific ocean. Although 
ihrir eastern termini are somewhat widely separated, they approach 
each other as they proceed westward, and would meet Wyond the 
MisMiuri river, if prolonged in their general directions. As local roads, 
clinr are of great importance. They will, when completed, add much 
lo die convenience of the emigrant and pioneer, by materially reducing 
the loqg and tedious journey on foot from the Mississippi to the western 



326 amdrbwb' kbpoet oir 

boundary of our settled territory. In connexion "with the great lines of 
railroad lying to the east, they would form a part of a line across the 
continent, from one ocean to the other. Every mile we advance west- 
ward, is so much gained toward the accomplishment of a work destined 
to be the crowning achievement of modem energy and science. Pri* 
vate enterprise wul soon have accomplished so much, as to leave the 
portion that must devolve upon the general government a compara- 
tively easy task. If private companies with their unaided means can 
accomplish more than half of this work, certainly what remains is not 
of sucn vast magnitude as to intimidate the collective energies and 
power of a great nation. 

Rapid progress is now making in the construction of the above roads ; 
and there can be no doubt of their speedy completion. 

In addition to the original object of the Pacific railroad, its eastern 
portion will probably be made the trunk of a branch extending to the 
mineral districts of the southwestern portions of the State, which are 
extremely rich in iron, lead, and copper. These great resources still 
remain undeveloped, from the want of a suitable outlet, which the 
above road will create ; and measures are now in progress for its con- 
struction. It is also proposed to make this branch a portion of a great 
line from St. Louis to New Orleans, upon the west side of the Missis 
sippi. This latter project is attracting much attention, and though the 
means do not now exist for its construction, the eventual realization of 
this project can hardly be doubted. 



WISCONSIff. 

Population in 1840, (Territory,) 30,945; in 1850, 305,191. Area 
in square miles, 53,924 ; inhabitants to sauare mile, 5.65. 

The State of Wisconsin, though in 1840 it numbered only 30,000 
inhabitants, is already in possession of a fiist-class line, a considerable 
portion of which is in operation — the Milwaukie and Mississippi rail- 
road. This line of road commences at Milwaukie, the leading town in 
the State, and extends in a westerlv direction, running through the 
capital to the Mississippi, at Prairie clu Chien, a distance of about 200 
miles. It is already in operation to Whitewater, a distance of 50 miles, 
and will be completed to Rock river during the coming autumn. It was 
commenced in 1850, and owes its birth and prosecution to the enter- 
prise and capital of the city of Milwaukie. It is the most northerly 
railroad yet projected, running from Lake Michigan westward, with the 
advantage ot offering the cheapest outlet for all the country lying north 
and west of its terminus on the Mississippi river. It traverses a most 
beautiful region of country, and bids fair to become a successful and 
lucrative road, as it occupies a favorable route, and will be constructed 
at low cost. It is distinguished by being constructed at a much earlier 
period in the history of a State than any similar work; and it is cer- 
tainly a wonderful illustration of the rapid growth of the Western coun- 
try, that in the short space of ten years a wilderness has been reclaimed 
and brought into high cultivation, and been filled with a thriving and 



OOLOMXUi AMD hAMM tRADM. 327 

profperous people, in possession of all those contrivances in aid of 
labor and in promotion of social and material advantages, the results of 
modem science and skill, and of which many richer and older commu- 
nities have not as yet availed themselves. As the tide of emigra- 
tion moves westward, it carries with it all the distinguishing character- 
istics of the eastern States ; so that a person may travel to the very 
verge of western settlement without being conscious of any change, 
save in the natural features of the country. 

Another important line projected in Wisconsin is the Fond du Lac 
and Rock Iliver Valley railroad, extending from Fond du Lac, on Lake 
Winnebago, in a southwesterly course to Janesville, whence it takes a 
southeasterly course to Chicago. The entire lencth of this road is about 
215 miles* It is in course of construction at both ends, and a portion of 
the line, near Fond du Lac, will soon be in operation. From Fond da 
Lac, it is in contemplation to extend a branch to the western extremity 
of Lake Superior, for which a favorable route is said to exist. This ex- 
tension would even now be of great utility in giving access to the vast 
extent of fertile country lying west of the great lake, which is becom- 
ing an attractive field for emigrants ; and should Congress favor this 
proposed line by a grant, its immediate construction would be the re- 
sult. Such a road will ultimately be found indispensable to the settle- 
ment of a large portion of the Mmnesota Territory, and will probably 
receive encouragement from the general government, for the purpose of 
promoting this object and opening to a market an important and valu- 
able portion of its domain. 

The whole route of the Fond du Lac and Rock River Valley railroad 
rans through an extremely fertile country. One of the objects of the 
road, firom which it will derive lucrative employment, is in the distrir 
botion over the State of the lumber which grows upon the rivers flow- 
ing into Lake Winnebago. Works are now in progress which will 
soon allow vessels navigating Lake Erie to reach Lake Winnebago, 
adding much to the business and prosperity of the above road. 

Works are also in progress for unituig the Wisconsin and Fox rivers 
by a canal, which shall admit steamboats of the capacity of those 
navigating the rivers. By reference to the maps it will be seen that 
these rivers approach each other very nearly, the distance between 
them being less than two miles, and the separation consisting only of a 
strip of low land, submerged at high water, and allowing the passage 
of small boats from one to the other. This canal is nearly com- 

Sledf and when opened will allow the passage of steamboats Irom the 
es to the Mississippi river. 

A railroad is also proposed from Dubuque, on the Mississippi river, 
to Lake Michigan, passing through the southern tier of counties in the 
State. Such a road would make the town of Janesville a point from 
which it would be carried forward, by roads in progress, to the towns 
of Chicago and Milwaukie. 



328 AHBRBW8* RBPORT ON 

IOWA. 

Population in 1840, (Territory,) 43,112; in 1850, 192,214. Area in 
square miles, 50,914; inhabitants to square mile, 3.77. 

No railroad has yet been commenced in Iowa, though several coix>- 
panics have been organized for their construction. It will be recollec- 
ted that some ten years since the State had only about 50,000 people. 
It has now probably about 300,000, most of whom are settled in the 
neighborhood of navigable rivers ; and on this account the necessity of 
railroads has not been so much felt as^ it would otherwise have been. 
As Iowa is one of the most fertile States of the West, ranking amonff 
the first in extent and natural resources ; and as the surface of its sou 
is well adapted to the cheap and expeditious construction of railroads* 
and the State is filling up with great rapidity, with an enterprising and 
vigorous people, we cannot expect that she will long be behmd her sis- 
ter States in the construction of works so important to the prosperity 
and progress of any people. 

The most imporlant ot the proposed roads in Iowa are the lines lead- 
ing from Rock Island to Council Blufis ; from Dubuque to Keokuk ; and 
firom Burlington to the Missouri river. The first of these extends west 
upon the parallel of the southern shore of Lake Michigan. Rock Island 
is believed to be the best point for the passage of the Mississippi river, 
and Council Bluffs for that of the Missouri. These facts show the pro- 
spective importance of this line. 

The object of the Dubuque and Keokuk line is to cut off'the bend in 
the Mississippi river, and to avoid the rapids, which are a serious ob- 
struction to navigation. 

, The project from Burlington to the Missouri has the same general 
object as the Rock Island and Council Bluffs road. No one of the 
above projected improvements has been commenced, though measures 
for the purpose are in progress. 



RAILROADS IN THE BRmSH PROVINCES. 

As the provincial railroads are to be intimately connected with those 
of the United States, a brief notice of the former will be appropriate to 
this report. 

A few railroads^ only have been constructed in the British provinces, 
for the reason that these works were not particularly required to aid 
in the improvement of property ; the numerous rivers, lakes, and bays 
supplying cheap and convenient media for this purpose. The principal 
settlement* of New Brunswick and. Nova Scotia are upon the imme- 
diate borders of navigable tide-water. The narrow belt of arable land 
to which the population of Canada is confined is traversed for its entire 
length by the lakes and the St. Lawrence river. The various water- 
courses described will continue to be the principal channels and routes 
of commerce, even after the construction ot railroads parallel with them. 

The roads in progress and contemplated in the provinces, tlierefore, 
are, with one or two exceptions, being constructed chiefly with a view 



COLONIAL AND I^AKB TBADB. 329 

to passenger traffic. They are fortunate, however, in the fact that 
their lines correspond to routes over which already passes a large 
travel, and which the roads themselves must immensely increase* 

Of the roads under consideration, the most important, in some re- 
spects, is the St. Lawrence and Atlantic, extending from Montreal to the 
boundary line of the United States, a distance of about 130 miles, 
when it connects with the Adantic and St. Lawrence railroad, extend- 
ing to Portland. This work was briefly described in the notice of the 
roads in the State of Maine. The original object in its construction, 
as far as the Canadas were concerned, was to open a winter outlet for 
the trade of Montreal, and in this manner to add to the business of the 
Canadian canals, by which unbroken navigation from the upper lakes 
is secured to the city. These works have, to a certain extent, failed to 
realize their highest usefulness, or to justify public expectation, for 
want of an avenue to the Atlantic coast other than through the Gulf of 
6l Lawrence. The navigation of the St. Lawrence being closed for a 
considerable portion of the year, the late receipts of produce have to be 
held till spring before they can be sent to a market The losses arising 
from this delay, embracing the charges for Warehousing, interest, in* 
sorance, &c., and the decline in the price of the staple, which is oilen 
ruinous to the holder, have tended to turn this trade into other chan- 
nels, to restrict the business of this route, and to increase that of its 
great rival, the Erie caaal. To remedy this evil, by securing an unin« 
terrupted communication at all times with navigable tide-water, is one 
great object of this proposed road. There can be no doubt that this, 
or a work similar in character and objects, is necessary to secure all 
the results anticipated from the canals. 

The St. Lawrence and Atlantic road is in operation to Sherbrook, a 
distance of 91 miles from Montreal, and is in a state of such forward- 
ness that no doubt is entertained of its completion by July next. 

The Quebec and Richmond railroad is a work designed to place the 
city of Quebec in the same relation that Montreal sustains to the St. 
Lawrence and Atlantic railroad, and at the same time with the latter, 
to unite these cities by a continuous railroad line. From the isolated 
position of Quebec in the winter season, this road will prove a great 
Dcoetit to her commerce, as well as a ereat convenience to the travel- 
ling and business community. Its entire line is under contract, to be 
completed early in 1854. 

Another proposed work attracting great interest in Canada is the 
line extending from Montreal to Hamilton, following the immediate 
bank of the St. Lawrence and of Lake Ontario. This road would run 
parallel with the great route of commerce in tlie Canadas, is rec{uired 
by the wants of travel, and in the winter season would be the channel 
of a large trade. It must at all seasons of the year command a lucra- 
tive traffic from the numerous cities and villages through which it 
would pass. This work has now come to be considered indispensable 
to the interests of Canada, and is to receive such aid from the govem- 
ment as will secure its speedy construction. It is to be placed under 
contract without delay. 

The Great Western railroad, traversing the peninsula of Canada, is 
of the most important works in the provmces. It extends from 



330 ▲MDRBWS' BBFOET ON 

Niagara Falls, by way of Hamilton, to Windsor, opposite Detroit, a dis- 
tance of two hundred and twenty-eight miles. It traverses a country 
the fertility and productiveness of which is not exceeded by any por- 
tion of Canada or the United States. Its chief public attractions, how- 
ever, are the relations it bears to railroads in the United States. It 
will be seen by the accompanying map that for the railroads of New 
England and central New York it cuts off the long circuit by way of the 
southern shore of Lake Erie between the East and the West. On this 
account the road has received important aid from parties in the United 
States interested in having it opened. Ample means are provided for 
this work, and it is expected that it will be completed by the first of 
January, 1854. 

The Buffalo and Brantford railroad was projected for the purpose of 
securing to Buffalo the trade of the country traversed by the great 
Western, and with the additional object of placing that city en roiUe of 
the great line of travel between the eastern and western States. Buf- 
falo is the largest town within reach of, and affords, probably, the best 
market for, the Canadian peninsula, with which it wul be conveniently 
connected by the above road. This city, too, is a necessary point in 
the route of nearly every person visiting any portion of the country 
bordering Lake Erie, and it is highly important that egress should be 
had from it in every direction. The road is in progress, and wiU be com- 
pleted simultaneously with the great Western. 

The chartered line of this road extends to Goderich, on Lake Huron, 
to which it will probably be extended soon after reaching Brantford. 

The Toronto and Lake Huron road connects Lake Ontario with 
Lake Huron by the shortest practicable hue b^twedn the two, and will 
form for persons going to Lake Superior or Lake Michigan, by way of 
Mackinaw, a much shorter line than by way of Detroit. In this respect 
it bids fair to occupy an important relation to a leading route of travel 
and commerce- It traverses, too, a very fertile district, alone capable 
of supplying a lucrative traffic. A portion of this line is opened for 
business, and the unfinished part will oe soon completed. 

A road is also under contract from Toronto to Guelph ; but as this is a 
work of local importance, a particular description of it is not required. 

The roads connecting Montreal with those of New York and Ver- 
mont are sufficiently noticed with the works of those States. 



LOWER PROVINCES. 

European and North American railroad. — ^Under this title is embraced 

! the proposed road extending from Bangor, Maine, and Halifax, Nova 

Scotia, a distance of about five hundred miles. The principal object 

k to be efiected by its construction is to constitute it a part of the great 

line of travel between America and Europe. The distance from New 
York to Halifstx is equal to one-third of the entire distance from the 
former to Liverpool; and as the proposed road pursues the same gen- 
eral direction with the route of the steamers, some of which touch regu- 
larly at Halifax, it is believed that this portion of the route to Europe 



OOUnOAL AMD LAU TEADK. 8S1 

would be made by railway. It was upon this assumption that the above 
project was proposed. As far as tne provinces are concerned, it has 
met with great favor, as it is believed it will develop the abundant re* 
sources known to exist within them, and secure those social advantages 
which are intimately connected with the progress of comparatively iso- 
lated districts, in population, commerce, and wealth. The New Bruns* 
wick portion of the above road is already under contract to a company 
of eminent English contractors, and the work in progress. Measures 
are also in progress to the same end as far as the Nova Scotia division 
is concerned. The greater part of its line through both provinces tra- 
verses a region much more fertile and productive than any considera- 
Ertion of our eastern States, from which it is believed a large and 
ble business will be secured both to the road and to the cities of 
X and St. John. 
A project for a railroad from Halifax to Quebec, skirting the shores 
of the gulf and river St. Lawrence, has recently attracted much atten* 
tioQ throuflhout the provinces, as well as in England, but this project 
may now be regarded as abandoned. A portion of the northern end 
of this line may be constructed down the St. Lawrence for a distance 
of about one hundred miles below Quebec. It is also proposed to ex- 
tend a branch from the European and North American railroad along 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Bathurst. A road is also in progress from 
St. Andrews to Woodstock, on the river St. John; but as its importance 
is mainly locals a particular description is not required. 



BCOIfOMICAL VIEW OP THE RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Tbe first step toward a correct idea of our railroads, as far as their 
uses, objects, costs, and results, are concerned, is a thorough under- 
standing of the social and industrial character of our people, the geo* 
graphical and topographical features of the countrVi tne uniformity in 
tne pursuits of the great mass of our people, ancl the great distance 
that separates the consuming from the producing regions. 

Assuming the occupied area of that portion of our territory east of 
the Rfx:ky mountains to be 1,100,000 square miles, at least 1,050,000 
are devoted to agriculture, while not more than 50,000 are occupied by 
tbe manufacturing and commercial classes. These compose a narrow 
belt of territory Tying upon the seacoast, extending from Baltimore to 
the eastern part of Mame, and are more widely separatt^d from the 
great producmg re^ons than any other settled portion of the country. 
The great peculiarity that distinguishes our own from older countries 
is, that we have no intirior markets. The greater part of our terriu>ry 
has not been long enough settled for the development of a varuiy of in* 
dustrial pursuits, which constitute them. So entirely are our people 
devoted to agriculture, and so uniformly distributed aro they over the 
whole country 9 that some of our largest States, Tennessee and Indiana 
ibr instance. Lad no towns in 1850 containing a population of over 
10,000. 

This boroogcneousness in the pursuits of the great mass of our peo» 



332 ANDREWS* REPORT ON 

pie, and the wide space that separates the producing and consuming 
classes, as they are popularly termed, necessarily implies the exvorta- 
Hon of the surplus products of each. The western farmer has no nome 
demand for the wheat he raises, as the surplus of all his neighbors is 
the same in kind. The aggregate surplus of the district in which he 
resides has to be exported to find a consumer ; and the producer for a 
similar reason is obhged to import all the various articles that enter into 
consumplion which his own industry does not immediately supply; and 
farther, as the markets for our agricultural products lie either upon the 
extreme verge of the country, or in Europe, the greater part of our do- 
mestic commerce involves a through movement of nearly all the articles 
of which it is composed. 

In older countries this necessity of distant movement, as will be the 
case in this, in time, is obviated by the existence of a great variety of 
occupations in the same district, which supply directly to each class 
nearly all the leading articles that enter into consumplion. 

It is well known that upon the ordinary highways the economical 
limit to transportation is confined within a comparatively few miles* 
depending of course upon the kind of freight and character of the roads. 
Upon the average of such ways, the cost of transportation is not far 
from 15 cents per ton per mile, which may be considered as a suflS.- 
ciently correct estimate for the whole country. Estimating at the same 
time the value of wheat at $1 50 per bushel, and corn at 75 cents, and 
that 33 bushels of each are equal to a ton, the value of the former 
would be equal to its cost of transportation for 330 miles, and the latter 
165 miles. At these respective distances from market, neither of the 
above articles would have any commercial value, with only a common 
earth road as an avenue to market. 

But we find that we can move property upon railroads at the rate 
of 1.5 cent per ton per mile, or for one-tenth the cost upon the ordinary 
road. These works therefore extend the economic limit of the cost of 
transportation of the above articles to 3,300 and 1,650 miles respec- 
tively. At the limit of the economical movement of these articles upon 
the common highway, by the use of railroads, wheat would be worth 
$44 50, and corn 922 27 per ton, which sums respectively would rep- 
resent the actual increase of value created by the interposition of such 
a work. 



OOU>irUIi AMD LAMM TBABB. 



ass 



The followtiiff table will show the amount aaved per ton, by trans- 
portation by railroad over tbe ordinary bighwaya of tbe country : 

SlaUwuni skewing the value of a Urn of wheals and one of com^ at gwem 
poimis from market^ at affected by coet of trantportatum 6y railroads 
and over the ordinary road* 



TrmntportatioD bj rail- 
roftd. 



VftliM at market , 

10 milat from market. 
90. do........ 

4o!!!I!!!do.!!!!!!!! 

50.... 
€D.... 
70.... 



!do. 



.do. 



80. 

90. 
100. 
110. 
190. 
130. 
140. 
15il. 
I«|J. 
170. 

190. 

dcio. 

210. 

2io. 



.do. 



.do. 



...... 



........... 



9IU. 
2S0. 
960. 
270. 
^». 
990. 
SW). 
310. 

aio. 



.do.. 

.do.. 

.do*. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do. 

.do.. 

.do. 

.do.. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 




|49 50 
49 35 
49 20 
49 05 
48 90 
48 75 
48 60 
48 45 
48 90 
48 15 
48 00 
47 85 
47 70 
47 55 
47 40 
47 25 
47 10 
46 95 
46 80 
46 65 
46 50 
46 35 
46 20 
46 05 
45 90 
45 75 
45 60 
45 45 
40 30 
45 15 
45 00 
44 85 
44 70 
44 55 



|94 75 
24 60 
24 45 
24 30 
24 15 
24 00 
23 85 
23 70 
23 55 
23 40 
23 25 
23 10 
22 95 
22 80 
22 65 
22 50 
22 35 
22 90 
22 05 
21 90 
21 75 
21 60 
21 45 
21 30 
21 15 
21 00 
20 H5 
20 70 
20 55 
20 40 
20 25 
20 10 
19 95 
19 80 



Traneportaiion bj ordi- 
nary highway. 



Wheat. 



Com. 



11- 



f49 50 


I24 7S 


48 00 


23 25 


46 50 


21 75 


45 00 


90 9» 


43 50 


18 75 


42 00 


17 25 


40 50 


15 75 


39 00 


14 95 


37 50 


12 75 


36 00 


11 95 


34 50 


9 75 


33 00 


825 


31 50 


6 75 


30 00 


595 


28 50 


3 75 


27 00 


225 


25 50 


75 


24 00 


.......... 


22 SO 




21 00 




19 50 




18 00 




16 50 




15 00 




13 50 




VI UO 




10 50 




9 00 




7 50 




6 00 




4 50 




3 00 




1 50 













The value of landK is afTocted by railroads in the same ratio as their 
vroductu F(»r iiKst;inco, lnii<ls lying upon a navigable water-course^ or 
111 the irnrmMliale viriniiy cifa market, may be worth, for tlie cuhure of 
wheat* S10(). Let the average crop be estimated at 22 bushels to the 
nere, valued at $«'33, and the cost of cultivation at $15, this would leave 
$1» per acre as i\\v. net profit* This quantity of wheat (two-thirds of 
a u>n) could be transixirted 330 miles at a cost of 10 cents p<.T mile, or 
S3 30, which wciuld leave $14 70 as the net profit of land at that dis* 
tanee from a markta, when connected with it by a railroad. The value 
•f the laud, therefore, admitting the quality to be the s:mie in ixnh cases, 
wr)uld bear tbe same rati4> U> tue assumed value of $100, as tlie value 
of its producU, $14 70 does to $18, or $82 per acre ; which ia an 



334 ahbrbwb' bbport or 

actual creation of value to that amount, assuming the correctness of 
the premises. The same calculation may, of course, be applied with 
equal force to any other kind and species of property. The illustration 
given establishes a principal entirely correct in itself, but of course 
liable to be modified to meet the facts of each case. Vast bodies of 
the finest land in the United States, and lying within 200 miles of navi* 
^able water-courses, are unsaleable, and nearly, if not quite, valueless 
tor the culture of wheat or corn for exportation, from the cost of trans* 
portation, which in many instances far exceeds the estimate in the 
above table. Under such circumstances products are often fed out to 
live stock, and converted into higher values which will bear transport- 
ation, when the former will not. In this manner, lands are turned 
into account, where their immediate products would otherwise be value- 
less. But in such cases, the profit per acre is often very small; as, in 
the districts best adapted to the culture of corn, it is considered more 

firofitable to sell it for 25 cents per bushel than to feed it out to animals, 
t will be seen that at this price thrice its value is eaten up by the 
cost of transportation of 165 miles. 

In this manner, railroads in this country actually add to the imme* 
diate means of our people, by the saving efiected in the expenses of 
transportation, to a much greater extent than cost. We are, therefore, 
in no danger fi'om embarrassment on account of the construction of 
lines called for by the business wants of the community, as these add 
much more to our active capital than they absorb. Only a very few 
years are required to enable a railroad to repay its cost of construction 
m the manner stated. 

Railroads in the United States exert a much greater influence upon 
the value of property, than in other countries. Take England for ex- 
ample. There a railroad may be built without necessarily increasing the 
value of property or the profits of a particular interest. Every farmer 
in England lives in sight of a market. Large cities are to be found in 
every part of the island, which consume the products of the different 
portions of it almost on the spot where they are raised. Railroads 
are not needed to transport these products hundreds and thousands 
of miles to market; consequently they may be of no advantage to 
the farmer living upon their lines. So with many branches of manu- 
factures. These establishments may be situated immediately upon 
tide-water, and as the fabrics are mostly exported, they would not be 
thrown upon railroads in any event. Such works may exist in that 
country without exerting any perceptible influence in adding to the value 
of the property of a community. The cases of the two countries would 
be parallel, were the farmer in the neighborhood of Liverpool compelled 
to send everything he could raise to London for a market, or were their 
manufacturing establishments so far from the consumers of their goods, 
that their value would be sunk before these could be reached. We 
have in this country what is equivalent to manufacturing establishments 
in Great Britain, in good order and well stocked for business, a fertile 
soil, that will produce bountifully for years without rotation or dress- 
ing. All that the farmer has to do is to cast his seed on the soil and 
to reap an abundant crop. The only thing wanting to our highest 



COUmiAL AUD LASS TRADB. 336 

prosperity is markets, or their equivalents, railroads, which give access 
to them* 

The actual increase in the value of lands, due to the construction 
of railroads, is controlled by so many circumstances, that an accurate 
estimate can only be approximated, and must in most cases full iar 
short of the fact. Not only are cultivated lands, and city and village 
lotSt lying immediatelv upon the route affected, but the real e9tate in 
cities, hundreds and thousands of miles distant. The railroads of Ohio 
exert as much influence in advancing the prices of real property in the 
dty of New York, as do the roads lying within that State. This fact 
will show how very imperfect every estimate must be. But taking 
only the farming lands of the particular district traversed by a railroad, 
where the influence of such a work can be more directly seen, there is 
DO doubt that in such case the increased value is many times greater 
than the cost of the road. It is estimated by the intelligent president 
of the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad, that the increased value 
of a belt of bnd ten miles wide, lying upon each side of its line, is 
eoual to at least $7 50 per acre, or $96,000 for every mile of road, 
wnich will cost only about 920,000 per mile. That work has already 
created a value in its influence upon real property alone, equal to about 
five tiroes its cost* What is true of the Nashville and Chattanooga 
road, is equally so, probably, of the average of roads throughout the 
country. It is believed that the construction of the three thousand 
miles of railroad of Ohio will add to the value of the landed property 
in tbe State at least five times the cost of the roads, assuming this to 
be 960,000,000. In addition to the very rapid advance in the price of 
farming lands, the roafls of Ohio are stimulating the growth of her cities 
with extraordinary rapidity, so that there is much greater probability 
that tbe above estimate will be exceeded, than not reached, by the 
actual fact« We are not left to estimate in this matter. In the case 
of tbe State of Massachusetts, what is conjecture in regard to the new 
States has with her become a matter of history. The valuation of that 
Sute went up, from 1840 to 1850, from 9290,000,000 to $580,000,000— 
an tromens<* mcrease, and by far the greater part of it due to the nu- 
merous railroads she has constructed. This increase is in a much 
greater ratio to tlie cost of her roads than has been estimated of those 
fifOhio. 

We have considered the effect of railroads in increasing the value of 
p roperty in reference only to lands devoted to agriculture ; but such 
results do not by any means give the most forcible illustration of their 
use. Ail acre of farming land can at most be made to yield only a 
small annual income. An acre of coal or iron lands, on the other hand, 
may pnNluce a thousand-fold more in value than the former. These 
d«*po#ites may be entirely valuel(*ss without a railroad. With one, 
••very ton of ore they contain is worth one, two, three, or fonr dollars, 
Bs the case may be. Take for example the coal-tields of Pennsylva- 
nia* The value of the coal sent yearly from them, in all the agencies 
h is called upon to perform, is beyond all calculation. rjxmthiA article 
arp based <mr manufacturing establishments, and our povcriimi'nt and 
mf-rrhant Mramships, representing valuf*s in thfir various rrlaiioiis and 
ramifications, equal to thousands of millions of dollars. Without coal 



336 ANDBBWS' BBFOBT ON 

it is impossible to conceive the spectacle that we should have presented 
as a people, so entirely different would it have been from our present 
condition. Neither our commercial nor our manufacturing, nor^ conse- 
quently, our agricultural interests, could have borne any relation ^hat* 
ever to their present enormous magnitude. Yet all this result has been 
achieved by a few railroads and canals in Pennsylvania, which have 
not cost over $50,000,000. With these works, coal can be brought 
into the New York market for about $3 50 per ton ; without themi it 
could not have been made available either for ordinary fuel or as a 
motive power. So small, comparatively, are the agencies by which 
such immense results have been effected, that the former are com- 
pletely lost sight of in the magnitude of the latter. 

What is true of the Pennsylvania coal-fields, is equally true of all 
others to a greater or less extent. The coal-fields of Alabama may be 
made to bear the same relation to the Gulf of Mexico and to the manih 
factures of the southern States, as have those of Pennsylvania to the 
North. The Gulf of Mexico is to become the seat of a greater com- 
merce than the world ever yet saw upon any sea ; and this commerce, 
and all the vast interests with which it will be connected, will to a 
very great extent owe its development and magnitude to the coal-fielcb 
that slope toward the gulf. 

UfCOMB OF OUR RAILB0AD8. 

Having shown the influence of our railroads in creating values, 
which greatly exceed their aggregate cost, the next point to be con- 
sidered is the income of these works. 

As both the income of our roads and the influence which they exert* 
in increasing values, must bear a close relation to each other, the facts 
that have already been established in reference to the latter necessarily 
involve the idea of a large business upon our roads. The value of 
lands depends upon their capacity to yield a very large surplus for 
transportation. 

There is no other country in the world where an equal amount of 
labor produces an equal bulk of freight for railroad transportation. 
One reason is, that the great mgiss of our products is of a coarse, bulky 
character, of very low comparative value, and consisting chiefly of the 
products of the soil and forest. We manufacture very few high-priced 
goods, labor being more profitably employed upon what are at present 
more appropriate objects of industry. The great bulk of the articles 
carried upon railroads is grains, cotton, sugar, coal, iron, live stock, 
and articles of a similar character. The difference between the value 
of a pound of raw and manufactured cotton is measured frequently by 
dollars, yet both may pay the same amount of freight. Wheat, corn, 
cattle, and lumber, all pay a very large sum for transportation in pro- 
portion to their values. 

Again, for the want of domestic markets, the transportation of many 
of our important products involves a through transportation. Take, for 
instance, a cotton-producing State like Mississippi. Nearly the whole 
industry of this State is engaged in the cultivation of this article. Of 
the immense amount produced no part is consumed or used within the 



COUmiAL AND ULMM TSADK* 337 

State. The entire staple goes abroad ; but as the aggre^j^ate industry of 
the pfwple is confined to the production of one staple, it f allows that all 
articles entering into consumption must be imported ; so that, over the 
channels through which the cotton of this State is sent to market, an equal 
value or tonnage must be imported, as the case may be. This necessity, 
both of an inward and outward movement, equal to the whole bulk of 
the surplus agricultural product, is peculiar to the United States, and 
is one of the reasons of the large receipts of our roads. While this is 
the case, it is equally true that newly settled sections of country will 
often supply a larger amount of traffic than an older one. There can 
he no doubt that an equal amount of labor would produce lour times 
as much com and wheat in Illinois as in Massachusetts ; consequendy, 
a man living in the former would contribute four times as much busi- 
nr^s to a railroad as one in the latter. In clearing the soil, it often 
happens that the transportation of lumber supplies a larger traffic for 
two or three years than agricultural products for an equal length of 
time. 

It is, therefore, a great mistake to suppose that, because a country is 
n^w, it cannot yield a large traffic to a railroad. In the southern and 
western Slates only one year is fi-equendy required to prepare the soil 
tf»r crops, which may be renewed, the same in kind, for a long series of 
y« .irs. The amount raised, and consequently the surplus, is much 
larger in the more recent than in the longer settled portions of the 
'i»untry. In the more recent, too— the number of inhabitants being 
:ne same in both cases — the amount sent to distant markets is greater 
:rrim the fact that there is no diversity of pursuits, which in older com- 
munities supply from a limited circle nearly all the prime necessaries 
(>t life that enter into consumption. In newly settled districts, all these 
Lte often imported fro.n distant markets at a very heavy cost of trans- 
jwirtation. 

The general views above stated, in reference to the earnings of the 
railroads in the United States, are fully borne out by the result. In* 
%f-«iments in these works have probably yielded a better return, inde- 
pendently of the incidental advantages connected with them, than the 
"rdtnary rates of interest prevailing throughout the country. Such is 
the case with the roads of Massachusetts, the State in which these 
wrirks have been carried to the greatest extent, and have cost the most 
per mile, and amongst which are embraced a number of expensive and 
unproductive lines. 

The following statement, compiled from official returns, shows the 
« rfst, expeniu*s, anri income of all the railroads of this State for four 
w.ars previous to January 1, 1852: 



Ymn, C<wt. 



1«^1 146,777,009 

I«i50 ^ 51,ty<5,556 

1461 56,106,(MI3 



§3/284,933 ' 16,067,164 



3,410,3:14 ■ 6,300,1 
4,009,tM7 7,307,348 



T«UJ 154,768,648 

22 - - 



10,698,104 : 19,6S5,16B 

i 



338 andrbwb' bbpobt on 

The above table includes several expensive works opened too 
recently for the development oft' a larger business, and of course preaents 
a much more unfavorable view of the productiveness of these wodu 
than would be shown by an average for a longer period. 

The most productive railroads in Massachusetts are those conDectiog 
the manufacturing and commercial towns, while the most unproductive 
are those depending upon the agriadtural interests for support. The 
agriculture of this State supplies nothing for export; on the contrary, 
there is hardly a town that does not depend upon other and distant 
portions of the country for many of the more important articles of 
food. The small surplus raised is wanted for consumption b the im- 
mediate neighborhood of production. Where there are no manufactu* 
ring establishments upon a route, the movement of property upon New 
England roads is limited, and hence the comparative unproductiveness 
of what may be termed agricvIiurcU Unes. In the eastern States other 
sources of business make up for the lack of agricultural products for 
transportation, and the aggregate investment is productive. In ibe 
southern and western States the soil supplies a very large surplus 
for exportation, affording often, per mile, a greater bulk for transr 
portation than is supplied to eastern roads, either from agriculture, 
manufacture, or commerce. The cost of the former, however, will not 
on the average, equal one-half that of the latter ; and as the rales of 
charges are pretty uniform upon all, and if anything higher upon the 
ioutkern and western than upon the eastern roads, the revenues of the 
former must of course be very much greater than the latter. Such is 
the fact. The greater income of the one results, both from a larger 
traffic, which the western country in particular is adapted to supply* 
and from the higher rates of charges in proportion to the cost ol'the re- 
spective lines of the two different sections of the country. Numerous 
illustrations of this fact might be readily given. The earnings of the 
Cleveland and Columbus road have been greater than those of the 
Hudson river since the opening of their respective lines, though the 
former is only 135 miles long and cost $3,000,000, while the latter is 
144 miles and cost $10,000,000. Railroads in the newly settled por- 
tions of the country, as a general rule, command a much larger traffic, 
and of course yield a better return upon their cost, than those of the 
older States. Assuming the revenues per mile of the roads of the two 
divisions of the country to be equal, tneir net income will be in the 
ratio of their cost, which may be stated at two to one in favor ot 
western and southern roads. 

MODE OF CONSTRUCTXOIC. 

By far the greater number of our roads in progress are in the interior 
of the country — in our agricultural districts, that do not possess an 
amount of accumulated capital equal to their cost. A business adequate 
to the support of a railroad may exist without the means to construct 
one. The construction of a railroad, too, creates opportunities for in- 
vestment which promise a much greater return than the stock in such a 
work. While, therefore, our people are disposed to make every reason- 
able sacrifice to secure a railroad, they prefer, and in fact they find it 



COUmUl, AKD IsMMM THADB. 339 

more ibr their interestt to borrow a portion of the amoant required, 
than to invest the whole means directly in the project. 'I'hey can heir 
ter afibrd to secure the co-operation of foreign capital^ by offering high 
pretniums for its use, than to embarrass themselves by making a per- 
manent investment of too large a proportion of their own immeaiate 
means. These facts sufficiently explam the reasons why the borrowing 
of a considerable portion of the cost of our roads has become so univer- 
sal a rule. 

It is only by the co-operation of capitalists residing at a distance, and 
having no interest in the collateral advantages due to railroads, that the 
great majority of our works could have been consu^ucted. In the outset, 
muney was lumished slowly and cautiously, and then only upon the 
tnost unquestioned security. As the result began to demonstrate the 
safety and productiveness of these investments, capital was more freely 
aflbrdod, and became less exacting in its conditions. The result has 
been, that a confidence in the safety of our railroads, as investments of 
capital, has become general, not only in this country, but in Europe ; 
and companies whose means and prospective advantages entitle them 
to credit, find no difficulty in borrowmg a reasonable sum upon the 
security of their roads, with which to complete them. The amount 
usually borrowed for our roads in progress averages from $5,000 to 
u> $10,000 per mile. The general custom requires that a sum equal to 
the one sought to be borrowed shall be first paid in, or secured for con- 
struction. A road that will cost $20,000 per mile is considered as suf- 
ficient security for a loan of $10,000 per mile ; and as the cost of new 
works will not much exceed the former sum, the latter is not, as a 
g**neral rule, considered so large as to create distrust as to the safety of 
Uie investment, on account of the magnitude of the loan. 

This rule, which establishes the proportions to be supplied by tliose 
engaged in the construction, and capitalists, is well calculated to pro- 
m<iie the best advantage of both parties. The fact that the people on 
ilw line of a contemplated road are willing to furnish one-half of the 
mi»ans re<]uisite for construction, and to pledge this for an equal sum to 
<*omplcte the road, is sufficient evidence that in the opinion of such 
p-ople, the construction of such work is justified by a prospective busi- 
nf-^^. The interest they have in it also is a sufficient guarantee that its 
.'ifikir^will be carefully and prudently managed. The large amount 
paid m and at stake divests the project of all speculative features. Where 
tht* advantages and success are merely contmgent, prudent persons do 
not usually hazard large sums. The lender has, therefore, all the 
;:iiarantees of safety, both from the character of the project and its 
prrwpeciivc income and proper management. 

it is on this account inat the credits furnished by municipal bodies 
for the construction of railroads should be resorted to only in extreme 
«*iuie8. Individuals making up the aggregate community may be in- 
duced to vote the credits ot the latter in aid of a project, when they by 
DO means could be induc(*d to venture their own capital in its success. 
In this manner projf*cts may be set afoot the consummation of which 
nrr not justified by these commercial and pecuniary considerations, 
which are the onlysafo guides of action in such cases. Railroads are 
purely commerdat enterprises, and their construction should be made to 



340 



ANDRBW8 aSPOKT 09 



depend upon the same rules of conduct that control the buildiug of 
ships, or the erection of manufacturing establishments. 

The safety of the securities offered to the public will be readily seen 
from a comparison of the earnings of our railroads with the sum necessary 
to meet the interest on the loans. Allowing the sum borrowed to equal 
$10,000 per mile, it would require from $600 to $700, according to the 
rates,* annually, to meet the accruing interest. But the net earnings of 
our new projects more than treble this amount, leaving for dividends od 
stock a sum equal to double that paid on loans. That such will be the 
result, as far as our new and less expensive works are concerned, for 
some years to come, till a greater abundance of money shall have 
lowered the rates of interest, and the competition of new works shall 
have reduced the rates charged for persons and property, there cannot 
be a doubt. 

Below is given a table of the gross and net earnings of several of our 
new roads, and of the same class as those that are now coming into 
market for money : 



Roadt. 



^Cleyeland and Columbus, 

Little Miami 

Columbus and Xenia . . . . 

Michigan Central •• 

Madison and Indianapolis 



Total earnings, 
as per last re- 
port. 



$341,680 96 

487,815 89 

211,631 37 

1,100,043 00 

386,078 00 



Net earnings. 



$339,969 28 
297,457 57 
150,055 58 
461,364 80 
185,080 60 



Per mils. 



11,710 
3,541 

2,778 
2,116 
2,378 



* For six months only. 

Cost of Railroads in the United States, 

With the exception of those in the States of Massachusetts and New 
York, it is difficult to get at the exact cost of our roads. The com- 

1>anies within the States named are required by law to return to their 
egislatures the cost of their respective lines- To ascertain the cost of 
other roads, resort must be had to the published statements of their 
affairs. These statements, though generally to be relied upoli, are 
uniform neither in their character nor in the time at which they make 
their appearance ; and some of our largest companies make no exhibit 
of their affairs save to their own stockholders. 

It may be here stated that it is in the power of the general govern- 
ment to supply the lack of information which at present exists in refer- 
ence to our railroads, by requiring all companies with whom controcls 
are made for transportation of tne mails to return to the Post Office 
Department full and accurate statements of their cost, income, debts, 
expenses, &c., Sec. Such returns, made in a proper manner, would 
be exceedingly advantageous in many points of view. They would 
show annually the extent to which these works are carried, their cost, 
income, expenditures, mode of conducting the various works, &c., tec* 
The returns of their business operations would afibrd a greht amount 



OOLOMIAL AND I.AXB TBAOB- 341 

of uaeful iDfonnation» in reference to the internal commerce of the coun- 

y» which could be obtained from no other sources* The great lack 
correct statistical knowledge upon this subject is felt andacknowl- 
edged by all ; and there seems to be no other mode of obtaining this 
correctly than by the one pointed out. The returns, too, by collecting 
all the existing information upon the subject of railroad management, 
could not fail to exert the most beneficial influence, by making public 
whatever is valuable in the experience of each company. 

The cost of our roads depends very much upon the character of the 
country through which they are built. Those in the New England 
States are the most expensive, not only from the greater difficulty 
of construction, but from the greater cost of richt of way, land, &c. 
The general surface of the country is unfavorable. It becomes better 
adapted to these works on going south, though the roads of all the 
eastern States, as far south as Maryland, cost much higher, per mile, 
than those of the southern or western States. The dtfiercnce in the cost 
bet ween the roads of the two sections of the country is confined princi- 
pally to the items of grading, bridging, and lands. In the States of 
Indiana and Illinois, the cost of these items, upon long and important 
lines, will not often exceed $5,000 per mile; while in the eastern States 
the average for the same is four or five times greater. The Mississippi 
valley consists of an immense plain, presenting but a few obstacles to 
the easy construction of a railroad. The same may be said of the 
greater portion of the southern Atlantic and Gulf States. Throughout 
the country, except in the eastern States, the lands reouired for right of 
way, depots, and stations, arc either given ffratuilously, or are had at 
vrry low cost; the owners I)cing sufficiently remunerated in the inci- 
<it^fital advantages resulting from these works. 

The average cost of the roads of the States of Maine, New Hamp- 
hhire, V\»rmont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Ilhode Island, New York, 
NfW Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, is not far from $40,000 per 
mile. The cost of those of the Slates not enumerated is not far from 
$2i>,(KK) per mile. Tlie average for the whole country will not exceed 
$JU,(MX) per mile, including full equipment, and everything necessary 
iin their efficient operation. This would give for one road, completed 
and in pn>gress, the following as the total cost: 

Rijads completed, 12,82U miles, at $30,000 per mile.. $384,630,000 
Iboads in process, 12,628i miles, at $20,000 per mile . 252,560,000 

Total 637,190,000 



It is believed tliat aii extent of line e(|ual to the whole numbtT of 
miles iif>w in operation will be completed within three years from the 
pre««*ni time, at which period the cost of our roads will (^ual the above 
»um. 

The prol)able extent to which the construction of railroads will be 
ultimately increasc*d in this country, is an interesting subject of specu- 
latii*n. At the pres<*nt tine the^ are very unequally distributed. In 
Massachusetts, for instance, we find one mile ot' railroad to every six 
scpiare miles of territory. The same ratio applied to the area in which 



342 ANDREWS' EBFORT OK 

these works are in progress, would give 183,000 miles of railroads 
against 26,000 miles, which is not far from the extent of line in opera- 
tion and progress at the present time. It would give to the State of 
Ohio nearly 7,000 miles, where there are not one-half of this number 
either in operation, in progress, or contemplated. It would give to 
lUinois 11,000 miles, and nearly the same amount to Virginia. Both 
of these States have not more than 4,000 miles in operation and pro- 
gress. 

There can be no reason why the State of Ohio should not, in time, 
and in fact as soon as they can be reasonably constructed, have the 
same number of miles of railroad, in proportion to its area, as Massa- 
chusetts; nor why the western States of Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri should not have the same number of 
miles of railroad, their areas compared, as Ohio. They are equally 
well adapted to these works, and the same necessity exists for their 
construction in the former as in the latter. The only element wanting 
to secure a similar result is time, which will supply population, and 
develop their resources to an equal extent. There is no reason why 
railroads should not keep pace with the progress of the States in popu- 
lation and wealth, nor why, when they have reached the present posi- 
tion of Ohio, they should not boast an equal number of miles of rail- 
road. 

The area of the States above named is equal to 400,000 square 
miles. To supply these with railroads, to the same extent that we 
now find in Ohio, including those in progress, would require 26,000 
miles of road. The same ratio that we find in Massachusetts would 
require more than 66,000 miles. Now, no one acquainted with the 
resources and wants of the southwestern States, and the character of 
their people, can doubt that, in time, an equal area will call for an equal 
extent of lines, and that the construction of these roads will proceed 
with equal pace with their population. 

The probable rapid expansion of these works is well shown by a 
comparison of Georgia with other southern States. In the former there 
are about one thousand miles of road in operation, all of which are lu- 
cratively employed. Now, the States of North Carolina, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Kentucky will all compare fa- 
vorably with Georgia in population, in wealth, in extent, and in natural 
resources. Railroads are just as much needed by the former as by the 
latter. They would cost no more per mile. They would pay equally 
well, and would accomplish as much in improving the condition of their 
people. But the aggregate length of line of all these States is not equal 
to the extent of railroad which we find in Georgia. Here, then, is a field 
where at least five thousand miles of railroad are shown to be needed, 
for no one can doubt that railroads in the States named will be equally 
as useful and productive as those of Georgia. 

But even Georgia is very poorly supplied with railroad facilities. 
Not one-half of her territory, and hardly one-half of her population, are 
within reach of them. A very large proportion of her products are 
wagoned, or sent down her rivers at great expense, to inconvenient 
markets. Her area is at least eight times greater than that of Massa- 
chusetts. The latter State has one mile of railroad to every six square 



OOLQirLAI. AMD LAKB TBABB. 



34a 



miles of territory. The same ratio would give to Georgia 9,600 miles 
of railroad, equalling two-thirds the whole extent of lines in the United 
StateSt and to the States named, including Georgia, (embracing an area 
of 390,000 square miles,) more than 65,000 miles of railroad. There 
can be no doubt that, in the States named, ten thousand miles of rail- 
road are needed to meet the immediate commercial wants of the people, 
and that this extent of road would find lucrative employment. 

Talmlar $UUemeni ihowing the number of miles of railroad in progreu and 

in operation in the United Siatet* 

MAINE. 



Rotdt. 



Aadroaeoffui and Kennebec .. • < 

AUantic and St. Lawrenee 

Bockfield branch 

Baafor and Piermta4|iuf 

Kennebec and PorUand < 

Beih branch. •.•••••••.••••.••. 

Portland, Saoo, and PortamouUi. 

Calaie and Baring.. . • 

MeHiiee port ^ .< 

York and Comberland 



and Kennebec 



Total, 



MilM in 
operttion. 



55 

ISl 

13 

13 

60 

9 

51 

6 

8 

10 

90 



365 



Mileein 
progreei. 



30 



43 

'55' 



1S8 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Bo^oo, Concord, and Montreal. 



C«Miecd and Claiemont... 

Cooftoeook Valley 

Great Felb and Conway . . 
ManclMoter and Lawrence. 
K«w llampehire Central.. < 

Xottlkem 

Fortanonth and Concord . . 

Salliran , 

Wilton 



Aehoelot. 



While Moonlain. 



Total. 



71 
28 
35 
25 
14 
13 
26 
26 
89 
47 
25 
15 
54 
33 
16 



500 



23 



90 






344 



ANDRBWS' RBPORT ON 



VERMONT. 



Roads. 



Miles in 
operation. 



Miles in 
pro^reM. 



Connecticut and Paasumpsic River 

Rutland and Burlington.. 

Vermont Central 

Rutland and Washington 

Vermont Valley 

Bennington branch 

Western Vermont 

ToUl. 




MASSACHUSETTS. 



Berkshire 

Boston and Lowell 

Boston and Maine 

Boston and Providence 

Stoughton branch 

Boston and Worcester 

Cape Cod branch 

Dorchester and Mikon 

Eastern 

Essex (Salem to Lawrence) 

Fall River 

Fitchburg 

Fitchburg and Worcester 

Jjowell and Lawrence 

Nashua and Lowell 

New Bedford and Taunton , 

Newburyport 

Norfolk County 

Old Colony (Boston to Plymouth). 

Petersboro^ and Shirley 

Pittsfield and N. Adams 

Providence and Worcester 

South Shore 

Stony Brook , 

Western (Boston to Albany) 

Worcester and Nashua , 

Vermont and Massachusetts , 

flousatonic branch 

South Reading branch 

Salem and Lowoll , 

Grand Junction , 

Harvard branch 

Lexington and West Cambridge. . . 

Connecticut River. 

Troy and Greenfield 

South Reading branch , 

Charles River oranch 

Stockbridge and Pittsfield 

Palmer and Amherst 



Total 



21 
28 
83 
53 
4 

69 

28 

3 

58 
21 
42 
67 
18 
13 
15 
33 
15 
26 
45 
23 
20 
44 
11 
13 
117 
46 
77 
11 
9 
17 
7 
1 
7 
52 



9 
22' 



1,128 



42 

12 
'25' 

79 



OOUXKIAI. AMD UUD TEAPB. 



M» 



RHODE ISLAND. 



RomU. 



. Hartford, and FidikiU 
ToUl... 



m 



operaUon. 



50 



50 



Mileain 



39 



39 



CONNECTICUT. 



Hartlbffd and New Haven 

Hartlord, ProTidence, and Fiahkill 

H«Hatonic 

MiddJeCown branch 



New Hav«n Ouial 

New London, Willimantic, and Palmer. 

New London and New Haven 

New York and New Haven. . . • • 

Nofwirh and Woroeeter 

CoUinerille branch • .. . 

Air-line 



Daaborr and Norwalk . 
Middletown branch 



ToUl. 



63 
50 
98 
10 
69 
45 
66 
50 
76 
66 
11 



94 
10 



630 



96 



109 



196 



NEW YORK. 



Albaaj and SchenecUdr 

Albany and Weet Su>ckbridge. 

Attica and Boffalo 

B«&lo and Niagara Falls 

Ca jufa and Sueqaehanna 

Httdoon and Berkshire 

Hodno River 



bland 

NeW York and Erie 

5«w York and Harlem. . . . 

Noftfaem 

O—t f f u and Svracoae. . . . . 
RaMeelaer and Saratoga . • 
Rocheeler and Syracuse . . . 
Saraiofa and Washington . 
eefntaga and Schenectady. 
Srbenoctady and Troy . . . . 
FfcsnuetrlrT and Jordan . . . 
Syraruaeand Utiea 



•» 



Buffalo and Rochester 

Trey and Grvenbuah 

I'taca and Schenectady 

Watertown and Rome 

Albany and Northern 

Albany and 8i]ei|uehanna 

BoAJo and State Line 

Bttlblo and New York 

Boflalo, Commg, and New York 

Caaandaigna and Elroira 

Flattsburg and Montml 

EecheeUr and Niagara Falls. . . . 
^TffT**^ aad Waihmgtoo. • 



17 

38{ 

311 
99 
33 
311 
144 
3 

9M 

464 

130 

118 

35 

39 

104 

391 

99 

*5* 

53 

14 

76 
6 

7H 
97 



69 
90 
45 
67 
95 
76 
64 



r 



• • 



33 
143 



87 



t 



S46 



ahpbswb' sbvosv cm 



NEW YORK— Coatinued. 



Roads. 



Sackett'B Harbor and EIFiBburg 

Troy and Boston 

Canandaigrua and Nia^ra Falls. . . • . 

Syracuse and Binghamton • • . 

Sodus Bay and Southern ........... 

Potsdam, Watertown, and Southern. 

Lake Ontario and Auburn 

Grenesee Valley 

Buffalo and Olean 

Lebanon Springs 



ToUl. 



Miles in 
operation. 



33 



2,148i 



Miles in 
progrw. 



17 
8 
97 
76 
35 
75 
75 
100 
75 
53 



874 



NEW JERSEY. 



BeMdere and Delaware 

Burlington and Mount Holly . . 

CSsmden and Amboy.. 

Morris and Essex 

New Jersey 

New Jersey Central 

Trenton branch 

Union , 

ToUl 




PENNSYLVANIA. 



Alleghany Portage 

Beaver ^feadow 

Carbondale and Honesdale 

Cohxmbia and Philadelphia 

Westchester branch 

Coming and Bloesburg 

Cumberland Valley • 

Hazleton and Lehigh 

Little Schuylkill 

Extension to Tamenend 

Mine Hill 

Mount Carbon 

Pennsylvania • 

Philadelphia, Reading, and Pottsville 

Philadelphia and Norristown 

Germantown branch 

Philadelphia and Trenton 

Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore 

Schuylkill VaUev 

Summit Hill ana Mauch Chunk 

Whitehaven and Wilkesbarre 

WUliamsport and Elmira 

Franklin 

Dauphin and Susquehanna 

Strasbunr 

Lykens Valley 

Nesquehoning 

Room Run 

Chester Valley ^ . . . 

Lehigh, Delaware, Schuylkill, and Saaquehnma. 
Pine Grove « 




6 
86' 



39 
40 



OOUntlAI* AND LAXB rtLADB* 



347 



PENNSTLVANIA-CootiniMd. 



Roftdfl. 



ivar MMdow 

York ftad OirobcrUnd 

ombofy And Eii <.« > ••••••••••••• 

LAckawttBoa and Waitem 

CWuirii, WiUiansport, and Erie. 
Palf MB and SoMnehanna. •••••« 

Philadatphia andWMtoheiter 

pHUwrlrania Coal Company 

Hanpfiald 

AJk^Moj Valley 

Colombia bianeh 

Hanorer branch • 

ToA and Wrifhtirilla 

and Harriflbiirg 




_ and SUobenTille. 
Franklin Ctoal 



ToUl. 



DELAWARE. 



Miles in 
operation. 



Milee in 
program. 



IS 
95 



50 



47 



19 
13 
13 
37 



96 

18 



1,315 



940 

"93' 
48 
95 

"78 
180 



50 
49 



915 



Hev Cbetle and Franchtown. 
WUmingtoo branch ••. • 



Total. 



16 



16 



11 



11 



MARYLAND. 



Aaaapolieand Elkridfe.... 
Bahimera and Ohio 

Waehinfton braneh.... 

Fradarick branch 

BdttfliMe and Sueqoehanna. 

Weatmineter branch.. . . 



ToUL 



VIRGINIA. 



Riehmoodand Danville... 
Bi rlimo nd and Peterabarr . 

CbewHill 

Sooth 6id9 

Gap. 



Seaboard and Roanoke. 

AMoaatM 

W i B c hee t er and Potomac 

ViTfinla Central, incloding Blue Ridge. .. 

Virginia and Tenneeee 

Or^fe and Aleaandria. 

R j fhmen d, Fraderickeborf , and Potomac 
GfoeoTillo and Roanoke 



Totol. 



91 
304 
38 
3 
57 
10 



433 



65 
93 
15 
50 



60 
60 
9 
39 
104 
SO 
40 
76 
91 



694 



75 



75 



75 

• •••••••• 

75 



75 

155 

50 



190 
610 



348 



AMBRBWS' BBFOBT OIT 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



Roads. 



Gaston and Raleurh . . . . , 
Wilmington and Weldon. 
North Carolina Central. . . 
Weldon and Cleveland. . « 



ToUl. 



Mike in 
operation. 



87 
163 



249 



MilMfai 
prog] 



233 
25 



248 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



£k)utli Carolina .•••..•••■ •••••••■••••••■••••••■■••••••.... 


241 

163 

110 

25 

15 




Greenville and Columbia. ■••• •■•• •• 




Charlotte and South Carolina ..tt...T..r.t««*«t..... ■•••■...•..«. 




Kinjr'fl Mountain. .•..•••••• ••••■.•■••••■•.•••.•••■••••••• 




Laurens ...•.••■•••.•••••....-••••■.*. ......t..... ■••■•■....... 


16 


Soartanburir and Union •.••••■•••.••••• a^. 


60 


Wilminirton and Mannhester Trt-t«-tTtttt--rT*T*«-*t««.i*«** !■••«»• 


45 


117 






Total 


599 


193 







GEORGIA. 



Central 

Georgia 

Macon and Western • • • • 

Western and Atlantic 

Southwestern * 

Rome branch 

Muscogee • •.•...( 

Atlanta and Westpoint 

Milledgeville • • . . 

Eaton and Milledgeville. . ••..•...... 

Wilkes county 

Athens branch • 

Waynesboro' • • 

Savannah and Pensacola (estimated) . 
Brunswick and Pensacola (estimated) 



Total. 



191 

175 

101 

140 

50 

20 

51 

52 

17 



39 
21 



857 



59 



21 
35 



30 

18 



50 
300 

300 



803 



FLORIDA. 



St. Mark's and Tallahassee. 




ALABAMA. 



Montgomery and West Point. 

Mobile and Ohio 

Alabama and Tennessee 

Alabama Central 

Memphis and Charleston 

Girarid 



Total. 



88 
33 
40 



161 



30 
160 

50 
2811 
220 

7411 



OOUmnAL AHD VMMM TBADB. 



349 



Rotds. 



81. PraiicM and WoodTUIe 

Viekflbarf and Brandon 

Mobile and Ohio 

Mnaiarippi Central •. 

ChiaCoD and Jackaon 

New Orleane, Jackaon, and Northern. 



Total. 



Milee in 
operation. 



7 

S8 
60 



95 



Milee in 
pro^eea. 



273 

180 

35 

400 



878 



LOUISIANA. 



Ghrrolton - • « 

Cluiton and Port Hndeon. ...••.••.••. 

Lake Pontehartrain 

Mexican Gulf. • 

"New Orleant, Jackaon, and Northern, 
New Orleana and Opeloqeaa 



Total. 




* See Miauanppi. 



TEXAS. 



Bvftle Bay, Brasoe, and Colorado. 



TENNESSEE. 



Naahville and Chattanooga. < 
Eaat TenneeMO and C^eorgia 
Keel Tennevee and Virginia . 
Wineheeter and HuntariUe. 

MobUe and Ohio 

NtahTille Southern 

McMinnTille branch 



Total. 



105 
80 



185 



i 



54 

30 
130 

46 
1191 
100 

30 



509| 



KENTUCKY. 



Franklofft and Lexiiwton. 
Lookrille and PranJubrt. 
MajeriUeand Lexington. 
CoviagtoA and Lexington. 
Leciagten and Danville* • 
LonienUe and Naahville.. 

Mohile and Ohio < 

LoqwviUe and NaAviUe.. 

HheftTTille branch - 

fleadenon and Naebville. 



ToUl 



65 



94 



«■•••••••• 



J 



67 
97 



180 



18 
130 



ago 



AMDBBWa' BBPOBV OK 



MUaOUM. 



Roads. 


Milei in 
operation. 


MUmib 
prograa. 


P&cifie.. ■• • «• ••••••••••••••••■• 




815 


Hft.nni(Ml And St JoMDh'fl. - «*- 




300 




Total 










515 











OHIO. 



Cleveland and Columboa ...... 

ColombuB and Lake Erie 

Dajrton and Springfield branch, 

Findlay brancn. 

Little Miami 

Mad river .« • • < 

Sandusky and Mansfield.. . . .. . 

Xenia and Coliunbiis 

fiellefontaine and Indiana • . . • 

Cincinnati and Marietta 

Cleveland and Pittsburg 

Cleveland N. and Toleao 

Cleveland P. and Ashtabola. .. . 

Columbus U. and Piqua 

Cincinnati W. and ^anesville. • 

Cincinnati H. and Dayton 

Dajrton and Western 

Greenville and Miami 

Hamilton and Eaton 

Hillsboro' and Cincinnati , 

Iron 



Junction ••..... 

Ohio and Indiana • . • 

Ohio and Miasissippi 

Ohio and Pennsylvania • 

Ohio central 

Scioto and Hocking valley.. ............. 

Steubenville and Indiana 

Springfield, Mount Vennm, and Pittsburg. 
I>ciyton and Michigan 

Hudson and Akron branch 

Franklin and Warren branch 

Cincinnati and Dayton • . 

Carrolton branch • . . . 

Tuscarawas branch 



Total 



135 
60 
24 
16 
84 

134 
56 
54 



100 

'to 



60 
42 
20 
43 
37 
25 



134 
59 



1,154 



118 
265 



87 



103 
160 



11 



25 

110 

131 

30 

51 

83 

ISO 

150 

110 

140 

50 

30 

52 

20 

30 



1,854 



MICHIGAN. 



Central 

Southern 

Pontiac .•• 

Tecumseh branch. 
Erie and Kalamazoo. . 



Total 




COUMTUIt Mm IsAMM nUU>B« 



861 



INDIANA. 



Roads. 



MilMin 
opefmlion. 



N«w Albuijr and flftkio, with branch ronnd Lake JMichigaa. 

J«0moaTilIe 

Ma4«op and IndianopoHt - 

SlMlbfTiUe blanch 

RiabTilla branch 

Kn^utown branch 

lAVfvnceborf and IndianopoUa • 

Indiaaa Cantral 

Nvweaalla and Richmond 

lodiaaopolia and fioUefontaino 

Pfeni and IndkanopoUa ••• ••• •• 

Tarra Hauia and indlanopolis - ^ 

Erananlle and lUiooia 

Indiana Northom ••••••••••••••••.• •••• 

Ohio and Misiiiippi 

lafrjetu and iDdianopolla 

— Valloy 



ToUl.. 



ILLINOIS. 



Illinow Central 

Galana and Chicafo 

Rurk Utand and Qiicago. 
CraCrn] MitiUry Tract . . . 
Poecia and Oqoawka. . . •. 

<Huo and Mmimlppi 

^ortncm Oroaa. ••••••••< 

Suifamon and Morgan. . . 
Alton and Sangamon. . • • 

Aorora branch 

St. CJharlea branch.. 
OTaUon*9 Coal road .... 
BellTitl* and St. Louis. . 
Terra Haute and Alton.., 
MiiBianppi and Atlantic. 
St. l^QM and Chicago . . 
Ahon and Mt. Carmel . . 



Total.. 



WISCONSIN. 



140 
66 
66 
16 
20 
27 



83 

73 

26 

135 



63 



755 1 



Mileain 



175 



90| 
72 
100 



50 



74 



170 



900 



931 i 



92 
50 



54 

72 

13 

7 

8 



35 
131 
125 

85 
145 

54 



75 



3 



20 

165 

145 

75 

17 



296 



1,771 



Mihrankia and MiaaiaMppi 

Turn du Uc and Rock laland Vallej. 

Total 



50 



50 



150 
240 



i 



853 



AHDBBWS' RBPOBT ON 



RECAPITULATION. 



States. 



Maine < 

New HampBhire. 

Vermont 

MMBaohoMtts. . . 
Rhode Island ... 

Oonneeticut 

New York 

New Jersey. • . • . 
Pennsylvania.. . • 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina . . 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi.. .... 

Louisiana. ...... 

Texas 



Tennessee. 
Kentucky . 
Missouri . . 

Ohio 

Michigan . 
Indiana... 
Illinois . • . 
Wisoonsin , 



Total, 



Miles in ope- 
ration. 



365 

514 

439 

1,128 

50 

€30 

2,148i 

242 

1,215 

16 

433 

624 

247 

597 

857 

23 

161 

95 

63 



185 
94 



1,154 
427 

755| 

296 

50 

12,8082 



Miles in pro- 



128 
42 



79 

32 

189 

874 

65 

915 

II 

75 

610 

248 

193 

794 



641i 

, 878 
180 
32 
479i 
663 
515 

1,854 



933 

1,771 

390> 

12,613 



OOLaJOAL AMD LAKB TBADB. 353 



PART Y. 



CANADA. 

Area in acres : Canada East, 128«6d9«684 ; Canada West, 31,745,535 ; 
total, 160,405,219 acres. PopulaUon in 1851, 1,842,265. 

The province of Canada, one of the roost extensive, populous, and 
wealthy ofisboots of a colonizing nation, has been justly termed ** the 
brightest jewel iA the Crown of England." Though stretching in longi* 
tude from the centre of the continent to the shores of Labrador, and in 
latitude from the waters which flow into the northern ocean to the par- 
allel of Pennsylvania, it derives its importance not so much from great 
area, diversity of climate, and productions, as from geographical and 
commercial position. 

From tide-water upon the St. Lawrence to Lake Superior, this prov- 
ince adjoins, and even penetrates, so as to divide, one of the most com- 
mercial as well as important agricultural portions of the United States. 
The shortest land-route between the heart of New York and Michigan 
is through the peninsula of Canada West, which embraces one-hall^ the 
coast ot the most commercial body of fresh water on the globe. 

The ** diversity of production" ascribed to Canada may at first ap- 
pear incorrect, inasmuch as the name is associated with the rigors ota 
noftbem climate. This mistaken idea originated in the fact that the 
eastern or historical portion of Canada is ibremost in the mind — a part 
substituted ibr the whole; while tlie western or modern section ot the 

yrovince is known only to actual visitors. The romantic narratives of 
acques Carter and Champlain, the early trials and struggles of the 
Jesuit Fathers, and of Frontenac, De Sales, and others of the old no- 
blesse of France, with th^ stirring incidents of the wars of the Algon- 
iuins and Iroquois, have, to the great majority of the people of the 
'nited States, been the chief medium of information respecting this, 
England's most important colony. 

It is true that in £astem Canada there are extremes of climate un- 
known in the northwestern States. But it will be found that the mean 
temperature varies but little in the two regions. The intense cold of 
the winter makes a highway to the operations of the lumberman over 
and upon every lake and stream, while tlie earth and the gt^ms of ve- 
eeiation are jealously guarded from the mjurious eflects of severe frost 
by a thick mande ol snow. The sudden transition from winter to sum- 
mer, melting the accumulations of ice and snow in every mountain 
stieano, converts them into navigable rivers, downward^ ibr bearing, in 
the cheapest and most expeditious manner, the fruits of the lumber- 
man's wmter bbor to its market on tide-water. The ammencemeni of 
vegetation is delayed by the duration of the snow, but its maturity b^ 
reached about the same period as in the western country, because 
23 



364 AlVDRaWB* XSPORV CH 

has been a smaller loss of caloric during the winter, less retardation 
from a lingering spring, and more rapid growth from the constant action 
of a strong and steady summer heat* 

Whatever exceptions may be taken to the climate of Eastern Canada, 
it must be remembered that it embraces the greater portion of the white- 
pine-bearing zone of North America, the invaluable product of which 
can only be obtained by those conditions of climate, (the abundant ice 
and snow,) which have given it such imaginary terrors. There is 
scarcely one article or class of articles from any one country in the 
world which aiibrds more outward freight, or employs more sea ton- 
nage, than the products of the forests of British North America. 

While these conditions of climate and production give necessarily a 
commercial and manufacturing character to the eastern province, the 
milder climate and more extensive plains of Western Canada afibrd a 
field for agriculture, horticulture, and pastoral pursuits unsurpassed in 
some respects by the most favored sections of the United States. The 
peninsula of Canada West, almost surrounded by many thousand square 
miles of unfrozen water, enjoys a climate as mild as that of Northern 
New York. The peach tree, unprotected, matures its fruit south and 
west of Ontario, while tobacco nas been successfully cultivated for 

i rears on the peninsula between Lakes Erie and Huron. During the 
ast two years. Western Canada has exported upwards of two millions 
of barrels of flour, and over three millions of bushels of wheat, and at 
the present moment the surplus stock on hand is greater than at any 
former period. There is probably no country where there is so mudb 
wheat grown, in proportion to the population and the area under culti* 
vation, as in that part of Canada west of Kingston. 

The commercial position of Canada West as a ^^portage" or ^^step- 
ping-stone" between the manufacturing and commercial States on the 
Atlantic and the agricultural and mineral ones of the northwest, is illus- 
trated by the Welland canal, the Great Western, and the Ontario and 
Huron railways. 

Among the prominent features of Canada, her military position is 
worthy of notice. She is the most northern power upon this continent; 
and in configuration upon the globe she presents a triangular form, the 
apex of which forms the extreme southing, and penetrates the United 
States frontier; while the base is remote, and rests upon the icy regioof 
of the north. 

Flanked by the inhospitable coast of Labrador upon the east, and 
by the almost inaccessible territories of the Hudson's Bay Company on 
the west, she can only be attacked *'in front;" when, retiring into more 
than Scythian fastnesses on the Ottawa and Saguenay, and keeping up 
communication with the strong fortress of Quebec, she can mainfain 
prolonged and powerful resistance against foreign hostile invaders. 

Viewing Canada as a whole, it may be described as a broad belt of 
country lying diagonally along the frontier of the United States, frotn 
northeast to southwest, 6com Maine to Michigan, and between the 42d 
and 49th parallels of north latitude. The great river St. Lavrrenoe 
presents itself con^icuously as a leading feature in its physical ge(>» 

Sraphy, traversing, m a northeasterly course, the grand vail^ which it 
raios in its mighty career to the ocean. 



OOLOMAL JMD LAKM TBADB. 356 

The very beautiful map of the baam of the St. Lawrence bereuoto 
atppeodedy and prepared expressly for this report, by Thomas C. 
Keefer, eeq.* a civil engineer of high standing and eminent abilities, 
attach^ to the Canadian Board of Works, may be relied upon for its 
accuracy* 

An attentive consideration of this new and excellent map is respect- 
fully solicited* It presents many points of interest, exhibiting, as it 
doM, at one view, tne mighty Bl Lawience, the chain of ** fresh water 
Mediterraneans," of which it is the outlet, and which are indeed a geo- 
graphical wonder, as also their position and relation to the States of 
the West, and the vast and fertile valley of the Mississippi, with the 
various outlets to the sea, of this valuable section of North America* 

COMMBROB OF CANADA* 

Before the close of the last century the commerce of Canada had 
reached a respectable position* The St. Lawrence was then the only 
ODtl(*t of Canada, and also of that portion of the United States lying 
upon and between Lakes Ontario and Champlain ; and the port of 
Quebec received indifierently American and Canadian produce for ex- 
portaDon to the West Indies and British North American colonies. 

Although Upper Canada then scarcely pnKluced sufficient food to 
lupport her own immigration, the lower province was already a large 
exporter of wheat, and continued so until the ravages of the Hessian 
fly reduced her to her present position of an importer lh>m the upper 
province* 

Mr. Keeler, in his Prize Essay upon the Canals of Canada, says : 

^ A wise and liberal policy was adopted with regard to our exports 
previous to 1822* The products of either bank oi the St. Lawrence 
were indifierently exported to the sister colonies, as if of Canadian 
origin ; and those markets received not only our own, but a large share 
of American breadstufis and provisions. Our timber was not only ad- 
mitted freely into the British markets, but excessive and almost pro- 
hibitary duties were imposed upon iniportations of this article from the 
Baltic, for the purpose of fostering Canadian trade and British ship- 
ping* The Bntish market was closed, by prohibition, against our 
wheat utttil 1814, which was then only admitted when the price in 
KngUind rose to about two dollars per bushel— -a privilege in a great 
measure nugatory ; but the West Indies and lower provinces gave a 
iofficieot demand so long as the free export of American produce was 
permitted by this route. As early as 1793, our exports of flour and 
wheat by the Su Lawrence were as high as 100,000 bairels, and rose 
in 1802 to 230,000 barrels. The BeHin and Milan decrees, and £ng- 
Usb orders in council thereon, of 1807 ; President Jefferson's embargo 
of 18U8, with increased duties levied upon Baltic timber, gave an im- 
poUe to the trade of the St. Lawrence, so that the tonnage arriving at 
Qttebec in 1810 was more than ten times greater than in 1800. The 
war of 1812 and 1815 naturally checked a commerce so much de- 
peodent upon the Americans ; and we therefore find but little increase 
<«(* the tnonage arrived in 1820 over that of 1810. In 1822 the Canada 
Trade AcU of the imperial parliament, by imposing a duty upon Amer* 



356 ANDREWS* SBFORT ON 

ican agricultural produce entering the British American colonies and 
the West Indies, destroyed one-half of the export- trade of the 8t* Lau- 
rence ; and the simultaneous abundance of the English harvest forbade 
our exports thither. 

" As a recompense for the damage done hj the Trade Act of 1822, 
our flour and wheat, in 1825, were admitted into the United Kingdom 
at a fixed duty of five shillings sterling per quarter. The opening of 
the Erie and Champlain canals at this critical juncture gave a perma- 
nent direction to those American exports which had before sought 
Quebec, and an amount of injury was inflicted upon the St. Lawrence, 
which would not have been reached had the British action of 1825 pre- 
ceded that of 1822. The accidental advantages resulting from the 
differences which arose between the United States and Britain, on the 
score of reciprocal navigation, (which differences led to the interdiction 
of the Unitea Slates export trade to the West Indies, and reduced it 
from a value of $2,000,000, in 1826, to less than $2,000 in 1830,) re- 
stored for a time our ancient commerce. The trade of the St. Law- 
rence was also assisted by the readmission free in 1826 (after four 
years exclusion) of American timber and ashes for the British market, 
and by the reduction of the duty upon our flour for the West India 
market, and therefore rapidly recovered, and in 1830 far surpassed its 
position of 1820. 

"In 1831 there was a return to the policy which existed previous to 
1822. United States products of the forests and agriculture were ad- 
mitted into Canadayrce, and could be exported thence as Canadian pro- 
duce to all countries, except the United Kingdom ; and an additional 
advantage was conferred by the imposition of a differential dutyj in • 
our favor, upon foreign lumber entering the West Indian and South 
American possessions. Our exports of flour and wheat by sea in that 
year were about 400,000 bushels — chiefly to Britain, where a scarcity 
then existed, and for the first time exceeding the flour export of 180A 
This amount, in consequence of a demand nearer home, ana the ravages 
of the fly in Lower Canada, was not again exceeded until 1844- Be- 
tween 1832 and 1839 a scarcity and a great demand for breadstuffs 
arose in the United States, and the crops in England being unusually 
abundant between 1831 and 1836, the order of things in the St. Law- 
rence was reversed, so that in 1833 wheat was shipped fi^om Britain to 
Quebec. A farther supply came also from Archangel. These imports 
in 1835 and 1836 amounted to about 800,000 bushels. A similar 
demand in 1829 had turned our exportation of breadstuffs inland to a 
very large amount ; yet, notwithstanding these fluctuations of our ex- 
ports, the shipping and commerce of the St. Lawrence rapidly increased 
in importance and value, with no continued relapse, down to the year 
1842. The revulsion in 1842 was general, being one of those periodical 
crises which aifect commerce, but was aggravated in Canada by a re- 
petition of the measures of 1822, not confined this time to the provi- 
sion-trade only, but attacking the great staple of Quebec — ^timber. 
The duties on Baltic timber, in Britain, were reduced, the free impor- 
tation of American flour was stopped by the imposition of a duty 
thereon, and our trade with the West Indies annihilated by the reduc- 
tion of the duty upon American flour brought into those islands. By 



OOUmiAL AMD LAMM nUBB. 357 

imposing a duty of two shilliogs sterling per barrel upon American 
floor imported into Canada, and reducing it in the West Indies irom 
five to two shillings* an improvement equal to five shillings sterling per 
barrel was made m the new position of American flour exported from 
the Mississippi, Baltimore, and New York. The value of our trade 
with the West Indies in 1830 (during the exclusion of the Americans) 
amounted to 9906,000 ; and in 1846, it was $4,000. 

*♦ Our export to the lower provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick* 
Cape Breton, &c.) was at its highest point in 1836, since which time it 
has fluctuated, but never reached its position of that year. It will be 
remembered that at that time the Americans were importing bread- 
ttuBkj and could not, therefore, compete with Quebec in the supply of 
these provbces. The act of 1842 was nearly as destructive to our trade 
with tne gulf provinces as with the West Indies; but since the opening 
of our canals, there is a marked increase in this trade. In 1841 (belbre 
the passing of the Gladstone act) our export trade with the lower prov- 
inces was worth $456,000 annually, which amount fell off* to $204,000 
in 1844. In 1845 the enlarged Welland and Beauhamois canals were 
crpeoed, and since that period it has gradually recovered, so that, since 
the opening of the enlarged Lachine canal, it has exceeded its position 
of 1841, and is now increasing every year. As the interruption of our 
trade with the West Indies by the Canada Trade Act in 1822 was 
followed in 1825 by the permanent admission of our breadstufis into 
the British market, and by the concessions in 1826, so its second 
interruption, or rather destruction, in 1842, was succeeded in 1843 by 
the important privilege of exporting American wheat, received, under 
a comparatively nominal duty, as Canadian, without proof of origin, 
in the British market. This measure was a virtual premium of about 
six shillings sterling per quarter upon American exports to Britain 
through the St. Lawrence ; out, inasmuch as it was an indirect blow 
at the English Com Laws, it contained — ^like abombshell — the elements 
of its own destruction. This very partial measure rapidly swelled our 
exports of flour and wheat, so that in 1846 over naif a million of 
barrels, and as many bushels, of these two staples were shipped irom 
Canada by sea. 

•• The injury threatened to the timber trade of the St. Lawrence by 
the act of 1842 was averted by the subsequent railway demand in 
Eni^land, so that our exports of this article have been greater since tliat 
period than before. 

** In 1846 steps were taken in the British legislature which led to 
the withdrawal of that preference which the St. Lawrence had so 6t- 
fiilly ef^oyed as the route for American exports to England ; and the 
new system came into full operation in 1849. The intermediate demandi 
re<«ulung fn>m the failure of tlie potato crop, has thrown much unciT- 
cainty upon the final tendency of this im|M)rtant change in our relations 
with the mother country ; and as a necessary conse(|uence, tiie ancient 
wygtem of * ships, colonies, and comm(*rce' has fallen to the gniund. 
In 1847 the control of our customs was abandoned by the imperial 
legislature, and the Inst and most important measure, which has relieved 
us from the baneful efli*cts of the British navigation laws, came into 
operation on the 1st of January, 1850." 



858 ANimiswB' Bsvo&v cor 

It will thus be deen that previous to 1846 the oolonial pdicj of tiie 
British govemmenty althougn vacillating and contradictory, encouraged 
the sea-trade of Canada by •afibrding a market for her productions^ 
and discouraged exports inland to the United States. Likewise, by 
imperial control over the colonial tariff, the mother country established 
difierential duties against importations inland, thus throwing the stijp- 
ply of Western Canada into the ports of Montreal and Quebec and the 
contraband dealers on the western frontier. 

Nearly the whole revenue from customs being collected in Lower 
Canada, although an equal and even greater consumption was claimed 
for the upper province, a controversy respecting the division of this 
revenue oecame annually more and more severe, with the increased 
population and demands of Canada West, and was the subject of fre- 
quent appeal to, and of adjustment by, the mother country. The io- 
surrection of the French population, and consequent suspension of the 
constitution of Lower Canada, was taken advantage of to brinff about 
a legislative union of the two provinces, which accordingly took place 
in 1841, and put an end to the dispute about the division of the reve- 
nue. Perhaps the remembrance oi this altercation had some influence 
upon the subsequent action of the Canadian legislature upon the sub* 
ject of difieiential duties. The imperial government formally aban- 
doned all control over the Canadian tariff in 1847, and, in their next 
session, the colonial legislature aboUshed the differential and prohibi- 
tory duties on imports inland ; thus placing the mother country in the 
same relative position as foreigners. The commercial interest of the 
lower province yielded to this policy from sympathy with the free- 
trade movements in England $ while it is probaUe that the western 
province supported the measure as a means of emancipation from the 
monopoly of their imports by Montreal and Quebec. 

The repeal (by the abolition of the British Com Laws^ of all privi- 
leges in favor of Canadian breadstuffi in the British markets, the hos- 
tile tariff of the United States, and the trammelled condition of the St 
Lawrence navigation, (yet unfreed from the restrictions of the British 
Navigation Laws,) fell heavily upon the Canadians. The scanty sup- 
ply of vessels in the St. Lawrence, (hitherto a "close borough,*' for 
British shipping only,) and the abundant supply of outward freights 
afforded by the timber coves of Quebec, had so enhanced all other 
freight outward, that nothing but the premium offered by the British 
Corn Laws made the route through the St. Lawrence more favorable 
than by New York, even with the burden of the United States tariff. 
When, therefore, this premium was withdrawn, and the English roar* 
ket was no longer the most profitable, the exports of Canada West 
(the surplus-producing section of the province) turned toward New 
York. The proximity of this city to the wheat-exporting districts of 
Canada, and the facilities of exporting and importing in bond, bv New 
York canal and other internal artificial avenues, produced such a di- 
version of Canadian exports of flour and wheat that the quantity so sent 
to New York in 1860 exceeded, largelj^, that exported by sea through 
the St. Lawrence. 

The following statement will show the relative export of Canadian 
flour and wheat inland and by sea : 



OOUmUM* JkM» tSMM nUDB. 



350 



Flour mJ wheat expcfUd from Canada in 1850 and 185L 



Eiported to and thioofli— 



1850. 



Flour. 



Barrali. 



Wheat. 



Bnihok. 



1851. 



Flour. 



Barrela. 



Wheat. 



Bwhele. 



CMeoibarf .... 
Lake CKainplain< 



19,244 

260,872 
32,999 
90,988 



66,001 
1,094,444 



192,918 



10,860 

259,875 

90,609 

11,940 



101,655 

670. 209 

18,195 

6« 



Total eiported inland 
ana Quebec • • • •< 



404,103 
380,618 



1,353,363 

88,465 



313,284 
371,610 



790,678 
161,312 



IWal exported - . • • • 

in Inland export to United 
in tea export from Canada . . 



684,721 



1,441,828 



684,894 



90,819 
90,992 



951,990 

562,695 
72,847 



The following statement shows the amount of Canadian flour and 
i^dieat imported, the amount bonded for exportation, and the amount 
entered for consumption at each port of entry : 





ToUl imported 1851. 


Total bonded 1851. 


ToUl dutjr 
Flour. 


paid 1851. 


Forte. 


Floor. 


Wheat. 


Floor. 


Wheat. 


Wheat. 




Barrele. 


Bosheb. 


Barrel*. 


Buahele. 


Barrels. 


Boahela. 




10,860 
259, H75 

30,609 
•11,940 


101,655 

670. »n> 

18,195 
626 


10,763 : 88,316 

25H,657 1 661.409 

30.5H7 11-773 


97 

1,218 

22 


13.339 


Oeerwo 


8,793 


^^ A ^ t 




11,940 


-' F • • — 



626 









At ellMr porta 


313,284 1 790,678 


311,947 i 767,498 


1,337 

88 


23.1H0 
5,664 


\^^ 


' 






313,382 796,342 



311,947 767, 4U8 1,425 i 26,844 



• From Canada return of exports. 

It will be scon that there is a decrease in the importation from Canada 
io 1851, and an increase in her exports by sea, which do not, with 
respect to wheat at least, counterbalance the deficiency of inland 
exportfti As the Canadian wheat crop of 1851 exceeded that of any 
fiinner year, the presumption is that tne low prices which ruled during 
last year retained much of the surplus in the province. 

The fact, however, that, of the flour exported from Canada, the num- 
ber of liarrels which were sent to the United State* in IHfA) exceeded 
the total exports by sea in that year, and that in 1851 this was reversedt 



36G anbrswb' bbfobt on 

Is very significant, considering that the Canadians are now trading u^oa 
equal terms with the United States in the markets of the mother coan- 
try and those of other foreign States. To elucidate this, I must refer 
to the 

n^TERCOLONIAL TBADE. 

The export of flour fi*om Canada, bysea^ to the British North Ameri- 
can colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland, since 
1844, has been as follows : 

B«mk. 

1844 19,530 

1845 26,694 

1846 35,152 

1847 66,195 

1848 65,834 

]849 79,492 

1850 140,872 

1851 154,766 

The amount exported to these colonies, in bond, through New York 
and Boston, in 1851, was — 



\ 






7 




New York 

Boston 

Total 



Barrelt, 
86,689 
4,590 




6,798 



6,798 



making the total exports to these colonies 246,039 barrels — an increase 
of over twelve-fold in eight years. 

The substitution of Canadian for American flour in the consumption 
of the "lower colonies" has been brought about by the opening oi the 
ship-canals on the St. Lawrence, aided by a reciprocity arrangement 
between these colonies and Canada ; and because the exclusion of the 
latter from the American domestic market has forced Canadian flour 
through the St. Lawrence, to compete in the foreign markets of the 
United States. 

The articles of wheat and flour have been taken, for the sake of con- 
venience, to illustrate the export-trade of Canada, its direction and dis- 
tribution. The remarks above, however, apply to all other provisions 
of which she produces a surplus. 

In the import-trade, sugar, one of the leading articles of consump- 
tion, may be taken to illustrate a change as favorable to Canada as 
that in the export of flour. In 1849 the value of sugars imported from 
the United States was double that from the lower colonies. In 1851 
the value from the United States was 8258,848, and from the colonies 
$269,300. In 1849 nearly one-half of the sugar was imported, inland, 
from and through the United States — the proportion being 5,152,000 



COLONIAL Jam LAXB TSADB. 361 

pooodsv out of the total importation of 11,613,000 pounds. In 1850 
the importation rose to 15,7o6,000 pounds, of which the United States 
furnished 5,522,000 pounds, or a little more than one-third. In 1851 
the number of pounos imported was 20,175,046, of which 5,640,000 
pounds were from the United States, and 5,880,000 pounds from the 
lower colonies. 

The imports of sugar into Canada in 1851 were : 

Fnim British colonies *. $269,300 

United States 258.848 

Other foreign countries 226,316 

Great Briton 371,140 



44 
44 
44 



925,604 



With respect to the route of importation, the inland Import in 1849f 
as we have seen, nearly equalled tnat by sea ; but in 1851 the value of 
sugars ixnported by sea was $712,408, against 8278,468 by inland 
nnites« Cfanadian vessels load at the lake ports with breadstuffs and 

n visions, which they carry, without transnipment, to Halifax or St. 
in, Newfoundland, exchanging there for a return cargo of sugars* 
molasses, fish, and oils* This trade is, of course, confined to British 
vessels ; and as fish and other products of Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, and the flour, provisions, &c., of Canada, arc exchanged duty- 
free, a direct free-trade between the maritime and agricultural districts 
of British North America is now in fiiU operation, from which New- 
foundland only is excluded — the necessities of that government forbid- 
ding her from taking off the duty on Canada flour. Her fish and oil 
are therefore treated as forcim in the Canadian ports. 

The subjoiued statement shows the progressive imports into Canada 
of sugars from the British North American colonies: 

1849 jE28,716 $114,864 

1.S50 51,^17 205.268 

1»51 67,325 269,300 

It appears from the foregoing that the commerce of Canada is at 
present in a state of transition* No certain predictions can now be 
ofllered to show how far her eflbrts at commercial independence will be 
socc<*ssful, or what influence she may be enabled to exrrt over the gen- 
eral commerce of the western lakes and adjoining districts. A snort 
review of her position and resources will be the best mode of present- 
ing this question. 

THB COlOfBRCIAL P0BT8 OF CANADA. 

Q^hee. — In latitude 46<5 48' north, longitude 71<5 12* west. Popula- 
tion in 1851, 42,052. 

Quebec is the most ancient, as well as the most important, port of 
Canada, and embraces the outports of Gnsp^, New Carlisle, the Mag- 
dalen Islands, and several in the river below Quebec. The province 
of Canada extends eastward to the Straits of Belle-Isle, embracing the 



382 AM9BMWU* waowt OK 

island of St Paxil, (between Newfoundland and Cape Breton,) the 
Magdalen islands, the Bird rocks, and Anticosti. In the Magdaleos a 
sub-collector is stationed, who reported some 9226,000 worth of ei* 
ports in 1848; but no return of imports is taken, and no duties, appa- 
rently, are levied. The other islands are occupied only for light-houses 
and relief stations. 

The harbor of Quebec is not unlike that of New York — ^the island 
of Orleans serving as a barrier from a northeast sea, and, like Long 
Island, affording two channels of approach. A frontage of about fifteen 
miles on both sides of the river not only affords the necessary wharves, 
but coves of sufficient magnitude to float some thirty to forty millions of 
cubic feet of timber, about eighty millions of superficial feet of deals, 
besides staves, lathwood, &c. A fresh water tide, rising eighteen feet 
at "springs," offers no impediment to the shipment of timber, the great 
business of the port, the vessels so engaged being anchored in the 
stream, (which affords good holding-ground,) where their cargoes are 
floated to them at every tide. The tide extends ninety miles above 
Quebec, and the water does not become perfectly salt until an equal 
distance is reached below; thus there is a fresh-water tide of one hun- 
dred and eighty miles beyond the salt water, and sea navigation to 
Montreal, ninety miles farther, or two hundred and seventy miles from 
salt water. The river navigation may be said to terminate about one 
hundred and fifty miles below Quebec, (where pilots are first taken,) 
but the combined gulf and river navigation extends upwards of seven 
hundred miles before we reach the Atlantic, with which it has no less 
than three connexions. The most northern of these — ^the straits of 
Belle-Isle — is in navigable order about five months, and affords a pas- 
sage to Liverpool more than two hundred miles shorter than the route 
by Cape Race, making the distance from Quebec more than four hun- 
dred miles shorter than from New York. By using this passage the 
navigable route between the foot of Lake Ontario and any port in 
Britain is as short as that from New York harbor to the same port. 
The middle channel, by which the Atlantic is reached, is about fifty 
miles wide, and contains St. PauPs island, which, with its two light- 
houses, affords an excellent point of departure. By this channel Que- 
bec is brought nearer to any port in Europe, Africa, or the Indian 
<x;ean, than New York. The southern passage is known by the name 
of the Gut of Canso, and is invaluable to the fishing, coasting, and 
West India trade. 

The gulf of and river St. Lawrence have been most elaborately 
surveyed by the accurate and accomplished Captain Bayfield, Royal 
navy, an inspection of whose charts is indispensable to a correct appre- 
ciation of the commercial qualities of this navigation. The exclusive 
monopoly by British ships of this route hitherto, the buoyant character 
of the cargo— timber, the ignorance of the masters, and excesses of the 
men, have been more fruitml causes of disaster than the natural con- 
tingencies of the route. Heretofore, in many instances, old and un- 
serviceable vessels, commanded by men whose pay was less than that 
of a good mechanic, were sent out in September for a cargo of timber. 
A month of dissipation in Quebec sent the crew to sea diminished in 
numbers by desertion, with weakened physical powers, and insufficient 



OOLOnAL AMD LASB flUDB. 



363 



dotbing* Wfaeot therefore, the cold November blagts in the gulf were 
eooountered, for want of ordinary exertions, strength, and intelligence, 
the vessel went ashore. Notwithstanding, considering that over half a 
millioo of tons of shipping annually enter the St. Lawrence, it will be 
found that the per-centage of losses has been no greater than that of the 
British and Irish channeU, or the kejrs of Florida.* 

The tonnage inward and outward, by sea, from Quebec and Mon- 
treal, far 1851, with the number of disasters within the gulf and 
river, was as follows : 




traal. 
ToUl* 



nf#Amo« 



I 



e 



231 



I 



1,305 533,82] 



1,536 



589,481 



I 



17,765 
55,(>60| 2,181 



OUTWAttO. 



1 



o 



9 

I 



195 



l,394l 586,093 



37,568 



19,946| 1,589; 623,661120,8401 3,125 



19,300 
1,540 



TOTAL. 



•iil 



£ 



9,689 

436 



,84« 



I 



s 



1,119,914,37,065 
93,928^ 3,731 



i 



1,213,142(40,7861 



a 



11 



The disasters at Key West, for the same year, were about fifty in 
number, and on the upper St. Lawrence, between Lake Superior 
and Montreal, two hundred and sixty-three ; where, says the reporter, 
•«five steamers, three propellers, and thirty-seven sailing vessels went 
out of existence entirely. 

8ix hundred and eighty-eight sailing vessels, numbering 125,726 
tons, and four steamers, giving 1,462 tons, form the list of wrecks of 
vessels belonging to the United Kingdom for 1850. 

Such an extent of land-locked navigation as the St Lawrence pre- 
sents between the pilot-ground (near the Saguenay) and the Atlantic 
would be, in thick weatlier, or snow storms, considered hazardous, 
were it not for the great width of beating-ground, (nowhere less than 
twenty-five miles, and averaging over fifty,) the absence of all shoals 
or reefs in or near the channel, and the admirable soundings displayed 
by the charts. 

The trend of the Atlantic coasts of Newfoundland and Cape Breton 
converge upon St. Paul's island, a lofty and picturesque rock, for 
which a vessel may stand bold in a (bg. Inside of St. Paul's a bank, 
Willi sixty fathoms, leads, by a direct line on its outer edge, clearing 
Anticosti, into the chops of the Su Lawrence; northward of this 
line is deep water ; southward, regular soundings ; so that, in thick or 
foggy weather, the lead is an unerring guide. On entering the river 
the south shore gives uniform soundings all the way to the pilot-ground, 
the water shoaling so regularly that a vessel may at any point deter- 
mine her distance from the shore within a mile by the lead alone, 
while at all points she may approach this shore within this distance. 



*Bw Vui X Ibr maUmmuU of timber trade, end lowMfe emplojed. 



364 AMDBBWS' BBPO&T ON 

The admirable position of Pointe des Monts, (with a light-house one 
hundred feet arove the water,) projecting with a bold shore several 
miles from the general trend of the north shore, forms, with its anchor* 
age on both sides, a common point of departure for inward and out- 
ward-bound vessels. 

The recent application of steam to ocean commerce gready en* 
hances the value of this navigation ; particularly with reference to com- 
munication with Britain, the great centre of European steam navigation 
and commerce. The two great drawbacks to ocean steam navigation 
are, the quantity of fuel which must be carried and the resistance 
which a heavy sea offers to progress whether the wind be fair or foul. 
On the St. Lawrence route these are reduced to a minimum. The 
distance from the coast of Ireland to St. John, Newfoundland, or to 
the straits of Belle-Isle, is under 1,700 miles ; and coal is found in 
abundance, and of excellent steaming qualities, at several points in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The remainder of the voyage to Quebec 
will be made in conaparatively smooth water, as the steamer will run 
under the shelter ot either shore, according to the direction of the 
wind. 

This notice of the position of the port of Quebec with reference to 
steam navigation with Europe has been deemed essential at this time, 
inasmuch as the government of Canada are now receiving proposals for 
the establishment of a line of screw-steamers to ply upon this route 
during the season of navigation, and to communicate with the terminus 
of the railroads from Canada, at Portland, for the present, and Halifax 
as soon as the scheme of a grand intercolonial railway from Quebec 
to Halifax shall have been carried but. 

It may now be proper to allude to the inducements which lead to this 
course — in other words, to the 

SEA-TRADB OF CANADA. 

The great staple of Quebec is timber, and hitherto her trade has 
been chiefly confined to this staple, Montreal being thp point where 
the agricultural exports of the upper province are exchanged for the 
supplies of foreign goods required for the same districts. The timber 
IS chiefly supplied by the Ottowa river, (which, with its numerous and 
important tributaries, drains an area of over ten thousand square miles 
of the finest pine-bearing land,) and also from the north shore of Lake 
Ontario, which is drained by a remarkable cheiin of lakes emptying 
through the rivers Otonabee and Trent, into the Bay of Quinte, (thus 
escaping the open water of Ontario,) from which the rafts are floated 
to Quebec. Tnus, by the simple and inexpensive process of rafting, 
timber is borne by tlie current, at a cost of three or four cents per cubic 
foot, to Quebec, *from a distance of six hundred miles— even from the 
lands drained byHudson's bay and Lake Huron. The annual supply 
varies with the export, but seems capable of almost illimitable exten- 
sion. In 1846 the supply of square timber exceeded thirty-seven 
millions of cubic feet; that of sawed deals, sixty millions of feet, board 
measure ; besides some fifty thousand tons of staves, lath-wood, &c. ; 
the whole (at the usual rate of forty cubic feet to the ton) amounting to 



OOLOfllAL AND LAKB TRADB. 



365 



one million six hundred and fifty thousand tons, and worthi at the 
ruling prices of that year, between five and six millions of dollars* 
Reducing the cubic to superficial measure, for the sake of comparison 
with Albany and Banfi[or, the supply of square timber and deals 
(exclusive of staves, lath-wood, SccA brought to Quebec in that year 
exceeded five hundred millions of feet. The stock wintered over ex- 
ceeded twenty-one millions of cubic feet of timber, and the export 
twenty-fbur and a quarter millions, loading some thirteen or fourteen 
hundred vessels, of an aggregate tonnage of over half a millioui 

The following shows the number and tonnage of vessels inward 
and outward in Quebec, with the export of woite-pine timber, (the 
leading article,) for the last eight years : 



Tear. 



1M4 
1-45 

1-47 

I-4H 

1-49 



nrwARD. 



Veaelt. 



1,233 

1,489 
1,480 
1,210 
1,188 
1,184 
1,196 

i,ao5 



Tom. 



451,142 
576,541 
568,225 
479,124 
452,436 
465,088 
465,804 
533,821 



OCTWAftO. 



Is. 



1,239 
1,499 
1,467 
1,215 
1,194 
1,243 
1,275 
1,394 



Tons. 



• BXPORT OP 
, WHITS PIMB. 

Cubic root. 



453,894 
584,540 
572,373 
489,817 
457,430 
481,227 
494,021 
586,093 



11,950,438 
15,8-28,880 
14,39*2,220 
9,626,440 
10,709,680 
11,621,920 
13,040,520 
15,941,600 



The irrealef't number of ships outward in any year previous to 1851 
wa«? in 1845, when 1,499 cleared out, with a tonnage of 584,540. In 
1^51 t)ie number of vessels outward is less, but the tonnage is greater, 
llian that of any former year. It must be remembered tliat, since 
1M5, the duty upon Baltic timber in Britain has been reduced. 

The value of exports from Quebec depends upon the market price 
of timber, which ranges nearly one hundred per cent. It was great(*st 
in 1^<45, wlien the price of timber was highest, although the tonnage 
outward, which is the true measure of the commerce, was less than m 
1851. The progress of the imports is an index of the prospi'riiy of 
the port, as the articles are general merchandise, which do not fiuciuute 
as much in value as the exports* 

The following is a statement of imports for a series of years at the 
port of Quebec : 

1841 jE217,917 »871,(»8 

1842- 216,670 WKUWO 

1843 402,227 1,608,908 

1844 655.8()9 ^ 2,623,476 

1S45. 712,398 2,8-l»,592 

1M6- 750,983 3,(K)3,932 

1M7 796.917 3,187,668 

1H48. 674,208 2,25K),832 

lc49. ' 438,673 1,754,692 

1H50 686,441 2,745,764 

185L 533,904 3,335.616 



366 



▲mBBWS' B8PORT CM 



The progress of exports inlandy which for 1851 includes tran^t 
goods for United States, is.sbown as follows: 



Year. 



1649 
1850 
1851 



By sea. 



14,833,872 
5,027,180 
5,621,988 



Inland. 



#130,968 
162,912 
755,588 



Total exports 



^1,241,915 

1,297,523 
2,594,394 



#4,964,8n 

5,190,093 
6,377,576 



The imports of 1851 are exclusive of railway and other iron, im- 
ported in transitu, for western States, valued at 9750,000. 

The imports at Quebec in 1851 greatly exceed those of any former 
yeAr, and the whole business of the port, import and export, for the 
past year, probably equalled its best ones when imder the protective 
policy of the mother country. 

In order, however, to present the sea-trade of Canada, it becomes 
necessary to treat Quebec and Montreal as one port. The value of the 
exports of Quebec is generally more than double those of Afontreal, 
while the imports of the latter are double those of Quebec. This latter 
difference is sensibly lessening in favor of Quebec, as thai city is now 
becoming the p>int of transhipment for goods in transit to western 
States, which will relatively greatly increase the value of her imi^orts; 
while, as she will always be the timber mart, no corresponding decline 
of her exports is to be anticipated. Ships of the largest burden are 
brought up to Quebec by the tide, but the approach to Montreal is 
limited by the shallowness of water in Lake St. Peter, giving at low 
water only thirteen feet, and is burdened with a towage against the 
current of the river. The work of deepening Lake St. Peter is now in 
progress, with fair prospects of success, and in another year or two 
vessels drawing fifteen feet water may come to Montreal. 

Vessels loading at Montreal are fi-equently obliged to lighter a por- 
tion of their cargo through the lake, and are, therefore, re-cleared at 
Quebec. Again, imports in the large ships which stop at Quebec are 
lightered up to Montreal ; thus rendering it almost impossible to sepa- 
rate the commerce of the two ports. 

Again, by means of the ship-canals, the inland lake and river ports 
of Canada carry on a direct trade by sea ; and, although the regulations 
require their e^^rts to be reported at tide-water, their direct imports 
are not noticed at Montreal or Quebec, but are passed up under a 
*' frontier bond,'* and entered at the port of destination. 

In the following statement the imports in transit for the United 
States and those under frontier bond for Upper Canada ports are in- 
cluded: 



COLOmAX* AKD LAMM TBADB. 



367 



Onm trade of parts ef Montreal ami Qnebec^^b^forts and exports^ 1851. 



faapoffti at Quebec 

Inpoffts ftt MontiwiK ••••••••••• 

Inportc direct per inUnd ports, 
DOt reported olMwliero* ••••••• 

Total Import! at and throof^ 
Mimtnal and QiMboc* •••••••< 



14,091,904 
9,177,164 I 

3,144,316 



Eiporta from Qaebec f5, 623,988 

ExporU from Montreal 2,^3,916 

Exports from inland ports di- I 



16,413,684 i 



rect, not reported olsowhors . 

Total exports bj sea and inland 
naTtgation 



4,51S 



8,132,416 



which makes the gross value of the export and import trade of Mon* 
treal and Quebec for 1851 amount to 924,545,100. 

Ship^Uding. 

There are in Quebec about twenty-five ship-building establishmentSf 
and eight or ten floating docks, capable of receiving largest-claBS vea* 
•c*Id. The claAS of vessels built range from 500 to 1,500 tons and up- 
wards, and there has been lately established a resident ** Lloyd's sur- 
veyor/* to inspect and class the ships* 

The average cost is as follows : 

Hull and spars $22 to $30 per too. 

Complete for aea 32to 40 ** 

The number built were, in 



1848, 24 square-rigged, 18,687 tons, ' 
1849,28 " " 23,828 " 

1850,32 " " 29,184 " 

1851,40 " " 38,909 " J 



and smaller craft, 
making, in all 



Toul 
19,909 
24,396 
30,387 
40,567 



Trade and tannage* 
The tonnage cleared outward to the lower colonies was 



Tsar. 




1^1 
loSO 



10,001 
19,58d 



MontrsaJ. 



Total. 



8,594 
9,819 



18,545 
22,4U7 



The value of exports to the colonies by sea, and via the United 
States, and imports therefrom, has progressed as foUows : 



T«r. 



IM 

I8S0 



#116,581 
909,194 
941,791 



Eiportsdinbond, 
fia Um U. 8. 



139,359 

58,487 
119,353 



Total Tains of 
•xpoHs. 



1148,940 
360,681 
361,144 



Tout TshM of 
imports. 



|4<^,917 

96.404 

134,350 



368 



ANDREWS' BBPORT ON 



The following is a summary statement of the sea and inland trade 
of Canada, contracted for 1851 : 



IMPORTS. 


BXPOaTB. 


Total imports. 


Total exports. 


Sea. 


Inland. 


Sea. 


Inland. 




115,324,348 


$8,681,680 


18,081,840 


13,259,888 


t24,006,028 


$11,341,798 



Inland exports, $3,259,888 ; imports, $8,681,680. Total, $] 1,941 ,568 
Sea exports, $8,081,840 ; imports, $15,324,348. Total, $23,406,188 

The exports inland are taken from the imports at United States cus- 
tom houses. This makes the reported value of the sea nearly double 
that of the inland trade, and makes the gross trade of Canada, or the 
value of her exports and imports for 1851, amount to $35,347,756, of 
which $24,000,000 are imports, and only $11,000,000 exports. In the 
exports there should be mcluded the value of ships built for sale at 
Quebec, at least $1,000,000 more in 1851, and for undervaluation of 
exports inland a much larger sum ; so that a full estimate of the gross 
trade of Canada for 1851 will not fall short of a value of forty mil* 
lions of dollars. 

The pubUshed Canadian returns for 1850 contain no statement, 
either ot imports in transitu for the United States, or those which pass 
up under frontier bond. There are, therefore, no means of comparing 
the above statement with former years. It has been shown heretofore 
that, in the staple of wheat and flour, there has been a marked gain 
by the sea at the expense of the inland trade ; yet the importation 
inland has sensibly increased over that of 1850. 

The imports entered at inland ports, compared with those entered at 
Montreal and Quebec, were as follows : 



Ports. 



Montreal and Quebec 
Inland ports 

Totol 



1849. 



16,523,232 
5,491,336 



12,013,568 



1850. 



18,931,868 
8,050,200 



16,982,068 



1851. 



#12,552,780 
10,697,660 



23,250,440 



The value of imports from the colonies and "other foreign countries 
was as follows : 



»» 



Tear. 



1849 
1850 
1851 



Colonies. 



#195,668 
385,616 
497,400 



Other foreign 
countries. 



1167,296 
365,216 
939,976 



ToUl 



#362,964 

750,839 

1,437,376 



1851. 


47 vessels. 


35 


do. 


21 


do. 


8 


do. 


3 


do. 


2 


do. 


1 


do. 





do. 





do. 



OOU>mAL AND LAKB TRADB. 369 

Much of the imports reluriiod as *• from other foreign countrifs " is 
marlc through the Britisli North American colonies. The rapid increase 
of llie form(!r is, in a great measure, (hie to the trade with the latter. 
Su<i:Hrs, &c., the growth of the Spanish West Indies, purchased in 
Halifax, ore rep)rt«»d from "other foreign countries," in order to pass 
the lower invoice. 

The arrival of foreign vessels at Quebec in 1850 and 1851, the only 
two years in which they have been permitted to carry to England, has 
been as ibilows : 

1850. 

Norway 45 vessels. 

United States 24 do. 

Prufi^ia. 19 do. 

Russia 3 do. 

Sweden i do. 

Mecklenburg do. 

Hanover 2 do. 

Portugal 1 do. 

Holland 1 do. 

. 96 do., 117 do., 

(making 37,554 tons.) (making 50,716 tons.) 

The abundance of freight in the shape of luml)cr at Quebec, guar- 
anteeing a full cargo outward to every vessel entering the port, must 
produce its effect on inward freights. More than three-fourths of the 
•award tonnage are now empty; but in railroad iron, salt, and coal, the 
imports are rapidly increasing since the completion of the canals has 
Ik down lake vesst*!;? to carry th(*se articles inland. The present regu- 
lations prevent American vessels from descending below Montreal, and 
are injurious to this commerce. 

Ptn't of MtmtreaL 

Latitude 45^ 31' north, longitude 73^ 35' W(*st; population in 1851, 
57,715. 

This city, at the head of sea navigation proper, is the most popu- 
lous in British North America. Although not accessible (like Queln^c) 
tf* tbf larg«*?l class of shipping, its position for a varied and extensive 
f*i>max;rce is more commanding, inasmuch as it is th<* centre of a more 
i« nile area, more numerous approaches, and ]M>ssess(\s within itself 
nv«Ty requisite for the support of a largi* population. 

Mofilr(*al is piclures<|uely situ.it(*d at th<* icK»t of ihf •♦ Iloyal moun- 
L'lin,^ frrun which it takes its name, n|M)(] a hxr^v i>l.ind, at the conflu- 
rficf of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence, \>'liich, 1k)IIi in fcitility and cul- 
tivation, is justly considered the garden of Canada Kast. 

The main branch of the Uttawa, witith is the timber highway to 
Qoebec, pnss<^s north of Montreal island, and enters the St. LauTence 
abrnit eigfoteen miles below the city. About one-thirdof its waters are, 
bowever* discharged into Lake St. Louis, and joining, but not ming- 



370 ANDREWS' REPORT ON 

ling, at Caughnawaga, the two distinct bodies pass over the Sault St. 
Louis and the Norman rapids — ^the dark waters of the Ottawa washing 
the quays of Montreal, while the blue St. Lawrence occupies the other 
shore ; nor do they lose their distinctive character until they are several 
miles below Montreal. 

The quays of Montreal are unsurpassed by those of any city in 
America : built of solid limestone, and uniting with the locks and cut- 
stone wharves of the Lachine canal, they prespnt, for several miles, a 
display of continous masonry which has few parallels. Like the levees 
of the Ohio and Mississippi, no unsightly waiehouses disfigure the 
river-side. A broad terrace, faced with gray limestone, the parapets 
of which are surmounted with a substantial iron railing, divides the 
city from the river throughout its whole extent. 

This arrangement, as well as the substantial character of the quays, 
is a virtue of necessity, arising from remarkable local phenomena. 
Montreal bein^ the terminus of many miles of broken water, embracing 
the rapids of the St. Lawrence, an extraordinary quantity of "anchor" 
and " bondage" ice is brought down on the approach of winter, which 
is first arrested at the delta entering Lake St. Peter, forty miles below 
the city. The surface here, being covered by arrested ice, is quickly 
solidified, against which the ceaseless flood of coming ice is checked, 
drawn under, and finally arrested, until the whole river, for a distance 
of fifty miles, or more, is filled with ice, (as logs fill the boom in a mill- 
pond,) but packed, and jammed, and forced under, so as to occupy a 
considerable portion of the water-way of the river, which thereupon 
commences to rise in order to increase its area of discharge. The 
winter level of water in Montreal harbor remains permanently at 
a point some ten or fifteen feet above the summer one, covering the 
wharves, which are invisible until the departure of the ice. When the 
river has become suflSciently elevated to secure a passage for its waters, 
the floating masses on its surface are firmly bouna together, presenting 
the rugged aspect of a quarry ; and, after several convulsive throes, the 
surface attains a state of rest. The advent of spring again breaks the 
calm, when, after some magnificent displays of hydraulic pressure, 
the ice departs en masse, and in twenty-four hours the navigation is re- 
sumed. 

It is while settling to rest for the winter, and when " waking up" on 
the approach of spring, that the majestic phenomenon of an **ice-snove" 
is seen. During the elevation of the vast volume of the St. Lawrence 
some ten or fifteen feet and its return again to its bed, momentary ar- 
restations of both floating and submerged ice take place, when the river 
above instantly rises until a ** head" of water is accumulated which is 
fearfully irresistible. The solid crust of ice on the surface, two or 
three feet in thickness, is summarily and suddenly lilted and forced 
right and left; a field of ice, perhaps of several square miles in area, is 
set in motion, and, crushing against the unyielding quays, is forced up- 
ward, until it is piled " mountains high" on the terrace in front of the 
city. No warehouses can be erected on the water's edge without first 
placing an effectual barrier between them and the moving ice ; and no 
craft of any description can be laid up ibr the winter in this harbor. 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADB* 



371 



which present the unique spectacle of a thriving seaport, in which, for 
Dearly five months, not a spar is to be seen. 

Montreal occupies the centre of an extensive plain, cut in every di- 
rection by the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, with their tributaries, form- 
ing several lar^e and fertile islands contiguous to the main one occupied 
by the city. This plain, although nearly one thousand miles by the 
river fn)m the Alantic, is scarcely elevated one hundred feet above 
tide-water, and, in the words of the provincial geologist, •• constitutes 
the valley projier of the St. Lawrence, occupying a breadth of forty 
miles ; the nature of the materials of which it is composed (a deep and 
highly levigated deposite of argillaceous, arenaceous, and calcareous 
matter) rendering it impossible to conceive of a region more fitted for 
ihepurposes of agriculture." 

The sea tonnage of the port of Montreal was — 



i-^si. 



Number. 


nfWAED. 

Tons. 


Man. 


Number. 


OUTWARD. 

Tons. 


211 
231 


46,156 
55,660 


1,944 

2, mi 


207 
245 


45,954 

56,i>'JtJ 



Men. 



1,914 
2,254 



The aggregate tonnage at Montreal and Quebec is greater than the 
whole tonnage outward by sea, because vessels partly laden at Mon- 
treal are recleared at Quebec. The above return refers only to ves- 
Mrls fn>m and to sea. 

The tonnage of the port, registered under the imperial act, com- 
prik^es 185 vessels, makmg 20,000 tons. 

The progressive value of imports and duties collected is^- 



IM9 
1-50 
1-51 





Year. 


•- -" - 


Imports. 


Duties. 




95,925,672 
6,183,892 
7,172,792 
9,179,224 


1561,916 
767 404 






1,032,636 
1,256,760 











A new tariff came into operation on the 25th of April, 1849, in- 
creasing the dutiffs an average of about thirty per cent, on former 
rote^. 

The prui^n\<isive exports have been — 




#1,'>»<,244 
1,610,944 
1,76S,644 
2,231,500 



144,496 
90,016 
89,560 

272,416 



#1,333,740 
1,700,960 
l,h5H,au4 
2,5413,916 



372 



ANDREWS HEPORT ON 



The mode of keeping the provincial returns does not do justice either 
to the exports or imports of Montreal. Imports landed here for Toronto, 
Hamilton, and other inland ports, are not entered, but pass up under 
"frontier bond," and are scattered over the inland ports. No aggregate 
accounts of these are published, and their value can only be ascer- 
tained at inland ports. The nominal value passed up under these 
" frontier bonds," as given at Montreal for 1851, was $1,805,140. At 
Quebec, the value of transit goods, both for foreign and domestic ex- 
port, is not ascertained. 

The exports do not include produce lightered over the bar in Lake 
St. Peter, or the cargoes o{ foreign vessels which must clear outward 
from Quebec. Fifty-three thousand barrels of flour, shipped at Mon- 
treal, are therefore included in the exports from Quebec for 1851. The 
total value thus taken from Montreal for 1851 was $379,132. 

The following are the countries imported from : 

Great Britain $7,358,989 

United States 1,081,372 

British North American colonies 252,292 

Other foreign States, viz : West Indies, France, Portugal, 
Spain, Belgium, Holland, Sicily, Spanish West Indies, 
and China 484.512 

Total 9,177,164 



The trade between Montreal and the lower colonies is shown by 
the following statement of the value of imports and exports, and num- 
ber of barrels of flour sent in : 



ToUl valae of 
importB. 



Total value of 
exports. 



No. of bbls. of 
flour exported. 



Remarks. 



1849 

1850. . . . 
1851 



il29,748 
236,864 
258,200 



$177,448 
435,736 
480,728 



35,082 
77,461 
90,089 



2,621 in foreign vessels, and 
therefore cleared from Quebec. 



The exports for 1851, being all cleared outward, are much greater 
than in any former year ; but the imports of 1843 and 1844 were 
greater, because at that time all imports for Upper Canada were 
entered inward at Montreal, but, since the opening of the St. Lawrence 
canals, a great portion of tliese pass upwards, and are credited to the 
difierent inland ports. 

The trade between Montreal and the United States is divided with 
the frontier ports of Su John and Rouse's Point, on Lake Champlain, 
and cannot be separated. 

The imports enteied at Montreal and St. John from the United 
States were : 



OOU)NIAL AND LAKB TRADB* 



373 



1849 
1850 
1651 



Montred. 



I 



#533,393 
773,104 

1,061,372 



8t. John. 



ToUlcurrencj. 



11,213,640 
1,477, 7H4 
1,947,453 



^ 436,483 
563,473 
757,206 



ToUl dolUn 



1,745,939 
3,349,ffi8 
3,038,834 



The exports were : 



Tmt. 



1849 
1850 
1851 



MontrMl. 



190,016 

89,560 

973,416 



8t. John. 



1955,028 

1,314,836 

905,376 



ToUleumocj. 



/361,361 
336,349 
394,423 



Total doUan. 



1,045,044 
1,305,396 

i,n7,r- 



Tlie change here shown in the exports at St. John was caused 
chiefly by the movement of timber and lumber. Large quantities, in 
1850, went to the Hudson river market through Lake Champlain ; but, 
in 1851, the Quebec market was the most profitable, and thither all 
shipments tended. 

Inland ports. 

The trade of the inland ports is somewhat complicated by the man* 
ner of making the imports. These consist of four classes, viz : Im- 
ports purchased in the United States. 2. Imports imported in bond 
through t)ie United Slates. 3. Imports by sea, via Montreal and Que- 
bec, under frontier bond ; and lastly, imports, coastwise, of purchases 
in Montreal and Qubec, of which no account is kept. The value of 
imports, as shown by the custom-house, gives an indication of the 
direct trade only ; none of the importance of the consumption of the 
port. 

There are about sixty-eight inland ports, of which about tliirty are 
warehousing ones. Of these the trade of the greater number is ex- 
clusivelv with the United Slates, either iu domestic or bonded articles. 
But th(* more important lake ports are rapidly establishing a direct 
trade by sen with the gulf ports and the lower colonies, and very 
probably will soon engage in the fisheries, for which they can fit out 
and provision at the cheapest rales. 

As the trade between Canada and the United States is almost wholly 
c<^>nducted through the inland ports, a summary of that trade is here 
gi%Tn. Tlie imports, as shown by the custom-houses of each country, 
are taken as the true measures of the exports of the other. 

The following statemi'nt shows the imports from, and exports to, 
Canada for the year 1851 : 




374 



AITDREWS REPORT ON 



Imports. 


Amount! 


Exports. 


Amount. 


DntT'-iMvinir.. ■>■>■■■■•..■>•• 


$1,624,462 

1,593,324 

94,464 


Domestic ...■•....>••■.>•••• 


$5,495,87^ 


In bond ••••••••••••••••••••• 


Foreiim under bond.* •••■•••) 


Free 


Foreign not under bond. •••••) 
Total 


3,440,363 






Total 


3,312,250 


8,936,236 







The active intercourse between Canada and the United States may 
be seen from the following statement of the tonnage inward and out- 
ward in 1851 : 





Inward. 


Outward. 


ToUls. 




American. 


British. 


American. 


British. 


Inward. 


Outward. 


Steam 


1,224,523 
139,867 


845,589 
202,039 


753,318 
153,670 


564,089 
206,361 


2,070,112 
341,906 


1,317.407 


Sail 


360.031 






Total 


1,364,390 


1,047,628 


906,988 


770,450 


2,412,028 


1.677.438 











Inward siut ouheard, 

Staam, American •••• 1,977,841 

British - 1,409,678 

SaU, American 293,537 

British 408,400 



3,387,519 



701 ,937 



Total inward and outward, tons 4,089,456 



The comparative values of exports and imports have been — 



Tear. 



Imports from 
Canada. 



Exports to 
Cknada. 



1849. 
1850. 
1851. 



$3,582,059 
4,513,796 
3,312,250 



14,971,420 
6,594,860 
8,936,236 



The decrease in the imports from Canada has been explained by 
the increased quantity which has descended the St. Lawrence to 
Montreal. 

The principal articles of import from Canada are flour, wheat, lum- 
ber, cattle and horses, oats, barley and rye, wool, butter, and eggs. 

The principal exports to Canada are tea, tobacco, cotton and woollen 
manufactures, hardware, sugars, leather and its manufactures, coffee, 
salt. India-rubber goods, hides, machinery, fruits, and wooden ware. 

Of the imports from Canada, $1,593,324 worth were received in 



OOI/)NIAL AND LAKB TRABB. 



375 



bond* 90 that the value of Canada produce which paid duty was only 
about 91,600,000, while that of domestic export to Canada, on which 
duties were levied, was $5,495,873. The duty levied on imports from 
Canada for 1851 was $373,496, while that levied on exports to Canada 
(including bonded goods) amounted to $1, 190,956. 

The relative traue with the United States and other countries, at the 
leading inland ports, was as follows in 1851 : 



Port*. 



Population j Total ▼alue of 
in IdSl. I imports from 
all parta. 



30,775 
14,113 



Torooto 

Haipiltoo 

St. John ! 3,315 

KiBMton 11,585 

Bffoek^iiio ! ! ! 7.\V.y.V.\V/.\ V.y. ". ! " '3,346 

PfMcoU 3,146 

OakTille. ' 

Coboorg : 3,871 



13,601,933 

3,198,300 

1,948,460 

1,036,393 

393,636 

339,713 

133,453 

313,844 

143,376 



From the United Sutea. 



v«"»- i't^.s:'- 



11,535,630 


#335,780 


1,049,756 


165,134 


1,774,596 


344,499 


915,913 


63,584 


384,873 


47,333 


164,768 


38,036 


105,936 


11,316 


43,576 


5,384 


135,464 


13,940 



The progress of the inland ports is shown by the values on imports 
(or the K)Uowing years : 



I 

Porta. 1848. 


1849. 


1850. 


1851. 


Tonwto 1788,900 

f lamUton ' 94 1 , 380 

St.lobn ' 1.106 693 


(1,315,453 

1,133,034 

1,313,640 

384,044 

156,330 

160,404 

31,076 

68,434 


|3,538,h88 

1,583,133 

1,477,784 

499,040 

30H,453 

331,940 

41,564 

87,344 


13,601,933 

3,198,300 

1,94H,460 

1,0*25,493 

393,636 

339,713 

313.844 


KiimloB 303.788 


fluokr 151,608 

BroekviUe 106,338 

Oakville ' 37.660 


Coboorf 53,368 

1 


143,376 



The principal inland ports upon Lake Eric are Stanlev, Doven 
Dannville, Sarina, and Sandwich; on Ontario, Toronto, tlnmilton, 
Kingston, Belleville, Cobour^, Hope, Oakville, and Whitby ; on the 
81. Lawrence, Brockville, Prescott, and Gananoque ; and in Lower 
Canada, St. John, Phillipsburg, and Stanstead. 

The {N)pulation of Toronto has doubled in the last ten years, and is 
now 30,000. Hamilton, now contaming 14,000, has b<*en equally pro- 
gressive. The imports show their commercial progress to nave been 
equally rapid; ana there can be little doubt that in Upper Canaila the 
export of produce, and the import and consumption of all the sul>stim- 
tial and necessary products ot civilizntirm, are as high jht head ns in 
the best agricultural districts of the United States. 

There yet remains one route of importation to he noticed, viz : via 
Hudson's bay and Lake Superior* Nearly one-hnlf ()f the imiN>rts at 
Sault Ste. Marie are by this route. It is impossible to say wtiat may 
yet be done in tliis quarter. The distance from the shores of Superior 



376 



ANDREWS' REPORT ON 



to those of Hudson's bay is no greater than that between the Hudson 
river, at Albany, and Lake Erie, at Buffalo; and the sea-route to 
Britain is shorter this way than by the lakes and Montreal, New York, 
or Boston. All the supplies and exports of the Hudson's Bay Company 
are carried by sea; and although the season of navigation is very 
limited, yet it embraces an important part of the year. 

The two following tables are important as showing the imports and 
exports inland: 

Dutiable imports (principal articles) into Canada from the United States 

in 1851. 



Articles. 



Tea 

Tobacco .^ 

Cotton manufactares 

Woollen. .. .do... 

Hardware... do 

Wooden-ware •• 

Machinery ? • 

Boots ana shoes «. 

Leather manufactures • « • 

Hides < 

Leather (tanned) 

Oil (not palm) 

Paper 

Rice 

Suffar 

Molasses.. ••. 

Salt : 

Glass 

Coal 

Furs 

Silk manufactures 

India rubber, .do 

Dye-stuffs. 

Coffee 

Fruit 

Fish 

Unenumerated. 

Total value of dutiable imports from the United States in 1851 



Valae. 



(893 

403 

565 

446 

318 

53 

85 

42 

47 

89 

126 

47 

33 

19 

278 

19 

79 

18 

38 

44 

80 

53 

12 

116 

81 

7 

3,922 



,219 
,860 
,124 
,260 
,844 
,724 
,768 
,592 
,388 
,204 



,804 

OQiS 
,«RIO 

,920 
,460 
,296 
,816 
,628 
,652 
,264 
,768 
,960 
,680 
,988 
,144 
,544 
,044 



7,943,384 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRABX. 



377 



Exports (principal articles) from Canada to the United States in 1851. 



Articles. 



A«hw barrels. 

Lumber (h^i, 

Sbiofflei • 

Gittle, of all kiude and eiiee bead. 

Home .•• •••• • •••... .do . • 

Wool M poonds. 

Wheat • bttsheli. 

floor - • birrele. 

Barley and rje buaheli. 

Beene and peas,. •• do... 

OaU. •••• • do. . . 

BttUer cwt. 

Tfg» .«..• dozens. 

Loeoumeraied • • 



ToUl value of ezporU to the United SUtes. 



Quantity. 



S,551 

113,416 

13,374 

12,969 

3,747 

163,644 

708,400 

331,978 

146,553 

85,200 

517,405 

3,560 

474,481 



Value. 



165,993 

766,628 

20,733 

140,176 

185,848 

41 ,896 

491,760 

1,181,484 

75,596 

41,588 

135,708 

38,004 

38,008 

1,705,664 



4,929,084 



The above return is from Canadian customs, and exceeds, in the 
gross value, the amount of imports into the United States from Canada, 
as shown by the United States customs. 

In concluding the notice of the inland trade, the following tables — 
showing the nature and extent of the ** bonded" export and import be- 
tween Cimada and other countries, made inland via tlic United States, 
under the "drawback law" — ^are submitted: 



Slaiemtni showinfr Canadian produce^ ^t^., received in bond at New York 

and Boston in 1851. 



.• c • ^ 



Artielss. 



New York 



Boston. 



ToUl value. 



Quantity. | Value. • Quantity. 



I 

rioor barrels I 350,353 

Wb«at. . . .bushels I 712,403 



barreb. 



krgt 

Butler.. <tubs 

^ barrels. . . 
Wine. . . /.pipes .... 

For*. .• • I puncheons • .' 
casjis.* • • • • • 

barrels 

, bushels 

Uatnumerated . • • .. 



2,000 

6 

1,340 

23 

1 

151 

13 

3 

3 

2,521 

5,C41 



Value. 



I. 



$846,814 

481,213 

€2,562 I 




,\ 1,427,093 1 119,441 I $1,546,534 



The following statement shows the value of goods transported io 
bond to Canada from the same ports : 




378 



ANBREWS' BBPOET OX 



Articlw. 



DrygoodB......^... 

Railroad iron 

Sugars • . . 

fiooks 

Pretenred fruit 

Wine 

Hardware .. • • 

Jewelry 

Hides 

Leather manufactures 

Silks 

Cigars 

Unenumerated 

Total 



TALVB PKOM 



New York. 



#66,942 

108.534 

107; 049 

20,306 

27,776 

15,820 

19,516 

2,255 

16,029 

13,158 

16,206 

19,007 

115,544 



548,142 



Boston. 



|518,557 



9,075 
936 



16,709 

28,046 

3,162 

560 



338 

13,388 



590,771 



ToUl ralne. 



$585,499 

108,534 

107,049 

23,381 

28,712 

15,820 

36,225 

30,301 

19,191 

13,718 

16,206 

19,345 

128,932 



1,138,913 



The greater value of the imports is made through Boston ; but of 
the exports through New York. Wheat and flour form the principal 
articles of bonded export. The following shows Canadian wheat and 
flour received and exported at New York for the last three years : 





ReoelTed- 


Kzported. 


Tear. 


Wheat. 


Floor. 


Wbeat 


Floor. 




Qoantitjr. 


Yalue. 


Qosatltj. 


Ysloe. 


Quanti^. 


Yalue. 


Qoaatlty. 


YataM. 


1840 

1850 

1851 


BusheU. 
890,574 
728,568 
718,408 


$889,850 
504,715 
481,818 


Barrett. 
810,408 
888,280 
850,858 


$777,416 

1,066,818 

846,814 


BttshdM. 
897,780 
667,182 
618,848 


$816,869 
476,811 
849,884 


BarrOs. 
806,348 
958,037 
176,848 


$767,891 
966,51$ 
608,684 


Total.. 


1,758,580 


1,818,178 


748,084 


8,660,448 


1,478,704 


1,040,914 


688,789 


9,887,184 



Totals in three yean. 



Articles. 


Received. 


Exported. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Wheat, buflhelB 

Flour, barrels .•••••■•••••. 


1,756,536 
743,084 


#1,218,178 
3,660,448 


1,478,704 
633,722 


11,040,914 
2,337,124 




Value 




3,878,626 















The following returns, nntil 1849, include the export to Canada ; 
after which a separate account with Canada was kept, and the last 
three years refer only to the lower colonies. It will be observed that 
since 1849 the " domestic" export has decreased, while the " foreign" 
(that is, Canada flour in bonci) has increased. Thus it will be seen 



COLONIAL AND LAKB THADB. 



379 



that in 1849 the United States furnished for the consumption of the 
lower colonies more than three times the quantity of flour nimished by 
Canada, and that in two years thereafter Canadian pmr eained the as- 
cendency; but, taking wheat and flour collectively, tne supply of 
breadstufis is about equally divided between tlie two countries : 

Expert of flour and wheat /ram the United Statei to the British North 

American colonies. 



Ttftrtndiiif 


Dom 


artic. 


ForeifDi (fh>in Canada.) 


Total azporta. 


JomSO-? 


Floor, bblf. 


Whflftt, boa. 


Floor, bbla. 


Wbaatiboa. 


Floor, l>bb. 


Wheat, boa. 


ig4« 


310,091 
979,999 
974,906 
994,891 
914,934 
900,664 


545,068 
919,058 
309,789 
305,383 
198,319 
916,971 




310,091 
979,999 
981,660 
999,909 
954.657 


545,068 
919,058 
319,499 


1847 






1848 


7,054 

4,311 

39,793 

79,806 


9,703 


IgJO 


305,383 
293.251 


1850 


"*94,939' 


1851 


94^959 1 9fl0'470 i 241 [230 











Comparative export of Canadian and American flour to the lower colonies* 



Taar aodinf Jono 30— 



IM6. 
1847. 
1»4H. 

IH50. 
1851. 



AMSatCAM. 



Floor. 



Bmrrtlt, 

310,091 

979,999 

974,906 

994,891 

914,934 

900,664 



CANADIAJr. 



Floor by 



Bmrreli. 
35,159 
66,195 
65,834 
79,499 
140,879 
154,766 



Boonded Tia 
United Statea.j 



BmrrtU, 



TOTAL. 



Taken by lower 
ooloniea. 



7,454 

4,311 

39,723 

79,806 



Bmrreb, 

345,943 

338,494 

347,594 

378,694 

394,499 

435,236 



* Tear ending December 31, 



t Tear ending Jane 30. 



Having noticed the sea and inland trade separately, a summary and 
coroparative statement of the trade of Canada with all countries for 
the last three years is submitted. The value of exports to the United 
States fiir 1851 is here taken from Canadian returns, in order to com* 
pare with the like values of 1849 and 1850, which were taken from 
the same source. 



380 



ANDRBWS REPORT OIT 



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COU>NIAL AND LAKB TRADB. 381 

In none of the (brewing imports is the value of railroad iron, &c.' 
brought via Quebec, in transit for the United States, included. Neither 
do the exports include tlie value of ships built at Quebec and sold in 
England. 

The value of transit goods for the United States in 1851 was $750,000 
Tbe value of ships built for sale at Quebec, 3,900 tons, at 

X9, 1351,000 1,404,000 



2,154,000 
with which addition the gross trade of Ctonada for 1851 amounts to 
938,200,256. 

THE PUBLIC WORKS OP CANADA. 

There is no country which possesses canals of the magnitude and 
importance of those m Canada. The elevation from tide-water to 
Lbkc Ontario (exceeding two hundred feet) is overcome by seven 
caoak of %'arious lengths, from twelve miles to one mile, (but in the 
aggregate only forty-one miles of canal,) having locks two hundred 
Iccl in length between the gates, and forty-five leet in width, with an 
excavated trunk, from one hundred to one hundred and forty wide on 
the water-surface and a depth of ten feet water. 

From Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, an elevation of three hundred and 
thirty fe(»t is surmounted by a canal twenty-eight miles in length, with 
about thirty cut-stone locks one hundred and fifty fc»et long, by twenty- 
six and a half ieet wide, designed for propellers and sail cratt. These 
locka will pass a craft of about five huncired tons burd(*n, while those 
OD the St. Lawrence have a capacity double this amount. 

The total cost of this navigation may be set down at twelve millions 
of dollars. 

The Su Lawrence canal was designed for paddle-steamers, which 
are required as tugs, or to ascend against the current ; but from the 
magnitude of the rapids and their regular inclination, the aid of the 
locks is not required m descending the river. Large steamers, drawing 
seven Ieet w^ater, with passengers and the mails, U*ave the fool of Lake 
Ontario in the morning, and reach the wharves at Montreal by daylight, 
witlK)Ut passing through a single lock. At some of the rapids thert* are 
obatacles preventing the descent of deeply-laden craft, but the govern- 
ment are about to give the main channel in all the rapids n denth of 
ten fiiet water, when the whole descending trade by steam will kerp 
tbe river, leaving the canals to the ascending craft. 

The time required for the descent of a freight-steamer from the head 
of Lake Ontario to Montreal is iorty-eight hours; the rates of trrii;ht 
have ranged firom twelve and a half cents (the lowest) ikt barrel, li)r 
flour, to twenty-five cents, including tolls. The upward trip ri^fjuires 
abcnit sixty hours, and the freight per ton rang<\<( fn^m $1 5() to $3 
for bcavY gfNxls. The ruling freight on railroatl iron last year from 
Montreal to Cl(*veland was $2 50 p<*r gross ton, and for the return 

rgo of flour thirty cents per barrel, tolls included in both cases* 

Thrae rates arc yet fluctuating, as the long voyage is new, and are 



382 



ANDREWS RBPOBT ON 



V 



so much influenced by the amount of up-cargo obtained that thej 
cannot yet be considered settled. It is oelieved that the freight on 
flour from Lake Erie to Montreal (including tolls) will be brought down 
to twenty cents, and on iron up to $2. 

The construction of a ship-canal from the St. Lawrence to Lake 
Champlain, so as to bring the propellers of Chicago to Burlington and 
Whitehall, is now engaging the consideration of the Canadian govern- 
ment. This project originated with the Hon. John Young, chief 
commissioner of public works in Canada; and there is little doubt, 
from the favor it has received from the public, that it will be speedily 
accomplished. The cost would only be between 81»500,000 and 
$2,000,000, and its construction is indispensable to protect the rev- 
enues of the St. Lawrence canals from the competition of the Ogdens- 
burg railroad. The construction of such a work must produce a cor- 
responding enlargement of the Northern New York canal, whereupon 
there will be a connexion between Lake Erie and tide- water on the 
Hudson, via the St. Lawrence, which may be navigated, without 
transshipment, dmonward in four, and upward in five days. 

The returns of trade on the Canadian canals give indication of de- 
cided and satisfactory progress in the leading articles of up and down 
freight. The receipts for tolls upon the Welland canal in 1851 are 
thirty-three per cent, higher than in 1850. On the St. Lawrence, 
although tonnage has increased, the tolls have not — the revenue being 
here reduced by rebatement of toll on cargoes which have passed the 
Welland. 

The following shows the progress of leading articles of up and down 
freight on the Welland canal in 1850 and 1851 : 

Down Trade. 




Wheat bushelfl. . 

Com. .. .-. * do.... 

Flour .barrali. . 

Coal tons.. 

Hams, lard, and lard oil poanda. . 



3,233,986 

575,920 

396,420 

5,053 

3,982,720 



4,326,336 

1,553,800 

525,170 

6,463 

8,485,120 



The increase is greater than shown by these figures — ^the column for 
1850 being the whole down trade ; while that for 1851 shows the entries 
at Port Colborne only — ^the whole down trade not being attainable. 

Up trade. 



Articles. 



Railroad iron poands. . 

Cast and wrought iron nails and spikes do . . . . 

General merchandise • .do. . . . 

Su^r, molasses, and coffee do. . . . 

Pig and scrap iron do. . 







75,803,840 

16,486,400 

17,958,080 

7,781,760 

6,648,320 



156,764,330 
26,093,760 
24,064,330 
19,350,330 
14,519,680 



COLONIAL AND LAKB TRADE. 



383 



The gro«s tolls received from the Welland canal in 1850 were $151,703 
Do do do 1851 200,000 



ST. LAWRENCE CANALS* 



The comparative movement of leading articles on these canals for 
1850 and 1851 was as follows: 

Doum trade. 



Article!. 



1850. 



Floar b«iT»]i. . 

WbcaU •••..« bushels. . 

Com. .•••••.••••••• •..••••••••.••••• .do. • . . 



1851. 



643,359 

415,510 

75,4ti0 



731,412 
654,731 
122,310 



Up trade* 



Articles. 



Raiinwd iron pounds. . 

Pif tad scrsp iron .do. . . . 

Wroof bt iron nails and spikes .do. . . . 

8lpoe, f Uss, and earthenware. ...•••• .do. . . . 

Coai tons. . 

merchandise pounds.. 




39,179,840 
22,077,440 
20,742,400 
4,079,040 
l,2»2i 
No return* 



1851. 



61,900,160 
22,723,120 
25,527,040 
5,723,838 
2,468 
28,913,920 



Vessels which passed the several canals during the year 1851 : 

Bruuh. 



WoQaiid canal 

8c Lawrence canal. 

Chamblj canal 

Bvrlinfton B. canal 
ei. Anne's lock.... 





No. 


Tonnage. 


Tolls. 




3,357 
6,656 
1,517 
1,99H 
1,926 


363,221 

505,197 
81,594 

3*<i),649 
99,561 


^1.698 




1,447 
193 




230 




309 








15,454 


1,430,172 


3,809 



Welland ranal 

Hi. Lawrmne canal. 

Chambljr cenal 

Burlknfion II. canal 
Ik. Anna's tor k.... 



jiMcrtcaH* 




384 



ANDREWS* REPORT ON 



Total British and foreign— 18,874 vessels; 1,973,841 tons; toll, 
£6,407- 

The total movement on the canals for 1851 and three years previous 
is as follows: 

Welland canal. 



Tom , 

Tuaengen 

Tonnage of vesselB , 



1848. 



307,611 

2,487 

372,864 



1849. 



351,596 

1,640 

468,410 



1850. 



399,600 

1,930 

588,100 



St. Lawrence canal. 



Tons 

PaiseDgen 

Tonnage of venela. 



1848. 



164,627 
2,071 
5,648 



1849. 



213,153 

26,997 

5,448 



1850. 



288,103 

35,932 

6,169 



Chambly canal. 



1851. 



691,627 

4,758 

772,623 



1851. 



450,400 

33,407 

6,934 



Tom 

Pasaengen 

Tonnage of vessels. 



1848. 



17,835 
470 
659 



1849. 



77,216 
8,430 
1,264 



1850. 



109,040 

278 
2,878 



1851. 



110,726 
1,860 
1,727 



The receipts of 1851 were £76,216 ; expenses £12,286. Of the 
gross tolls the Welland produced £48,241, and the St. Lawrence 
£21,276. 

But a most decided proof of the success of the Canadian canals is to 
be found in the frequent and important reductions which have been 
made in the tolls of the Erie canal since 1845, the year in which the 
enlarged Welland canal first came into serious competition with the 
route through Buffalo. The policy of the State of New York has been 
not only to obtain the largest possible revenue from her canals, hut also 
to protect her own manufactures and products against competition from 
other quarters ; and this she has been enabled hitherto most effectually 
to accomplish, by levying discriminating tolls. Thus foreign salt was 
excluded from the western States by a rate of toll about twice its whole 
value. The toll upon this article in 1845 was three cents per 1,000 lbs. 
per mile, or S21 78 per ton of 2,000 lbs., (about three dollars per bar- 
rel ;) while the toll upon New York State salt was only one-thirteenth 
part of that upon the foreign article. In 1846, (the first year after the 



COLONtlL AND LAKB TBADB. 385 

openinff of the enlarged Welland canal,) the tolls on foreign salt were 
reducrtl one-half, ana a still greater amount on New York State salt. 
The next year a Further reduction of thiity-three per cent. UKik place; 
and in 1860 the toll was again reduced one-half, so that it is now onlj 
ome-sir/h the rate charged in 1845 ; but it is still subject to a tax iivo 
times as great as that paid by New York State salt. 

In like manner railroad iron, in 1845, paid a toll of nine mills ; in 
1846 this was reduced to five mills ; in 1850, to four mills ; in 1851» to 
two and a half mills; and in 1852, to one and a half mill. Almost 
every other article of heavy goods and merchandise for up-freight has 
likewise undergone frequent and heavy reductions in toll on the Erie 
canal, since the Welland and St. Lawrence came into competition 
with it. 

In the down trade, flour and wheat have been reduced thirty-threo 

Cr cent.; corn and oats, from four and a half mills to two mills ; pork, 
con, lard, and lard oil, from (bur and a half mills to one and a half 
mill ; beef, butter, cheese, tallow, beer, cider, vinegar, from four and a 
half to three mills. Almost every other article of down-freight has 
ondergone like reductions. Likewise the discrimination in favor of pot 
and pearl ashes and window glass manufactured in New York State has 
been abandoned ; the State retaining only a discriminating toll against 
salt and gypsum from other States or countries. 

There can be no question but that the whole western country would 
have been annually taxed, both upon their exports and imports, a much 
larger amount than is now paid by them, in order to swell the revenue 
of tlic Erie canal, had it not been (or the healthful competition of the 
Canadian works. As an example : tlie reduction in the tolls on railroad 
iron since 1845 amounts to $5 44 per ton of 2,000 lbs. The amount 
of this iron which reached Lake Erie in 1851 was — 

By Erie canal to BulTalo 46,876.427 

By Welland canal to Lake Erie 166,784,320 

203,660,747 

eqoal to 101,830 tons of 2,000 lbs.; and the reduced toll on this one ar- 
ticle would be $553,955 20. It has been estimated by the late Hon. 
Robert Itintoul, jr., M. C, that the northwest will require 100,(X)0 tons 
of railroad iron per annum (or the next five years, upon which they will 
oow pay more toan half a million of dollars less, m tolls alone, than 
tbey would have paid before the enlarged Welland canal was opened. 

Again : over 220,000 tons of wheat and flour, and 150,000 tons of 
com, from western States, were shipped eastward from Buflalo in 185L 
the reduction on the tolls of which amounts to $512,830 from the rates 
of 1845 ; besides some 185,000 tons of wheat and flour, and 40,000 tons 
of com which passed down tbrouffh the Welland, to the most of which 
the reduced toll should be appliecL 

Thus the eastern States, in their imports of three articles from the 
West, as well as the western ones, in their import of one article from 
the Easl« have each obtained a reduction of transit dues amounting to 
over half a million of dollars, which is mainly to be ascribed to the 
ooQttroctioo of the ship^canals of Canada. 

25 



386 ANDHBWS' BBPO&T OV 

Again : the tolls on the Erie canal upon tobacco are four times greater 
if "going yrom tide- water" than if "going towarJC^ it, by which policy 
it is hoped to draw this article from the lower Ohio, Missouri, flte., to 
the eastern States and the seaboard through this canal. This discrim* 
ination in direction has been abandoned in respect of other articles, 
and will follow with tobacco, because no similar distinctions are made 
on the Welland. 

The auditor of the canal department, in his report on the tolls, trade, 
and tonnage for 1850, bears the following evidence to the influence of 
the Welland canal : 

" The diversion of western trade from Buffalo to Oswego has also 
considerably affected the revenue. While there has been 36,475 tons 
lezs of this trade entered the canal at Buffalo in 1850 than in 1849, the 
western tonnage coming in at Oswego has increased by 41,664 tons." 

The State engineer of New York, in his report of February, 1851, 
urging the necessity of the enlargement df the Erie canal, says that itB 
full capacity will be reached in 1852, and, after remarking that the 
cost of transport is one and a half cent per ton per mile, says, "There 
are lines of communication now built, and in progress of construction, 
which can take freight at a cheaper ratef^ and, after alluding to the Og- 
densburg railroad, he says, "But there is another, and I apprehend a 
still cheaper route, by water to Lake Champlain, soon to come into 
competition at the North, which will produce as cheap or cheaper rates 
to Boston than the above. The freight by that route afloat on Lake 
Champlain may find cheaper transport to New York than to Boston. 
It will not pass through the Erie canal, and will be diverted from Al- 
bany by cheaper routes." Lastly, he says, "Canada and Boston have 
not yet perfected all their works. All will soon have their whole ma- 
chinery in motion. Their plans are not the product of blindness or 
folly — ^they are the results of good judgment and a just appreciation of 
the great boon sought and the best means of attainment." 

The efiect of the Canadian navigation on the imports of western 
States is ascertained by the 5C,000 tons of iron (American property) 
imported last year via Quebec. The large amount of tonnage entering 
Quebec in ballast in ouest of timber will bring in coal, iron, slate, salt, 
and other heavy articles at about half the rates now charged on these 
articles to New York. While, therefore, ocean freights inward are so 
much less than at New York, the abundance of timber enhances all 
other freights outward to more than double that from New York. The 
position of the two ports is reversed : it its the outward voyage which 
pays at Quebec, while at New York flour has been carried, out for six 
pence sterling per barrel to Liverpool. 

When the effect of the repeal of the navigation laws brings more 
vessels into Quebec than are required for timber, outward freights from 
the lakes may pour down the St. Lawrence, and the rates of freight 
come down to a standard which will make the whole cost of shipment 
from the lakes to Europe via the St. Lawrence as favorable as via 
New York. 



coumixL MMm mbs nuu>B. 9B9 



This ffoap of khoids oco ap iei « promineat ^Mtion, ahiiDA in ih% 
of die Oair of 8c. Lawrence, and directly io the track of veaaela 
bound up the eulf for Quebec, lodadina the Bird and Brion islandst 
which evidently form part of the group, the whole length of the range 
ii about fifty*8ix miles in an east-northeast direction. 

Amherst island, the most southern of the chain, is nearly oval, nearly 
six miles in length, and three and a half in extreme width. Its harbor 
is the best in the chain, with a narrow but straight entrance, over a 
soft ooae bar, for vessels drawing eleven to twelve feet water. This 
island is eighteen leagues northwest of Cape Breton; the same north- 
ward of Pnnce Edward island. It is thirty-six leagues from the nearest 
point of Newfoundland, seventy-five leagues from the French settle* 
ments at St. Pierre and Miquelon, and one hundred and eighty leagues 
eastward of Quebec. 

The central portions of the Magdalen islands rise into hills, varying 
from two hundred to five hundred and eighty feet above the sea , their 
tops are rounded. On the sides of these hills are found stratified de- 
posites of sandstones and ochreous clays, with gypsum in the hollows 
and basins, and also occasionally in veins. 

The water of many springs and rivulets is so salt as to be unfit for 
use ; and although rock salt has not yet been found, yet it is believed 
to exist in these islands. 

The gypsum forms an article of export. On one of the group it is 
found of exceeding fine quality, and very white, approaching to ala- 
baster in purity. 

The principal dependence of the inhabitant^ is upon the cod fishery, 
ahhougn they also prosecute the herring and seal fisheries to some 
extent* 

There are at present upon these islands about two thousand inhabit* 
ants, the majority of whom are French Acadians. 

The fisheries around the Magdalen islands are very excellent, and 
aflbrd a profitable return to the industry of those who prosecute them. 
If arrangements were entered into by which our citizens could have 
the right of setting up fishing stations on these islands, and of prose- 
cuting the various prolific fisheries in the surrounding seas, it would be 
of very great advantage to them, and open a wide field for their energy 
and enterprise. They would also gain the early and late fisheries, 
from which they are now debarred, whose advantages have been 
already mentioned. 

Tb^ islands were formerly attached to the government of New- 
foundland, but at present they are under the jurisdiction of the Cana- 
dian government. The whole group was granted by the British gov- 
ernment to Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, R. N., for distinguished services ; 
by him they were be<]ueathed in strict entail to his nephew. Captain 
John Townsend Coffin, R. N., the present proprietor, and to his heirs 
male fiirever. 

The value of the various products of ihe fisheries exported from the 
Magdalen i>lands in 1848 was $224.000 ; but it is Ulicwd that this 
did not include large quantities of such products carried oil* in fishing 



388 ▲NDKBWS* BBVOBT OK 

vessels not cleared at the custom-house. But even the amount men- 
tioned is quite large as compared with the population, and furnishes 
S roof of the bountiful abundance of the fisheries in the vicinity of the 
[agdalens, which need only the preserving industry, energyi and skill 
of our fishermen to be rendered a mine of wealth. 



OaUmtJtMt AMD I.AKB TSADB. 



389 



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392 



ANDREWS' REPORT OK 



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COLONIAL AMD LAXB TRASS. 



393 



No» 4.^ 



Statement ihmoinft the value of exportt from Canada^ at each ports 
M 1851, ipuh the conntries to which exported* 



Ports. 



Amhenlbam 
BftUi 

BwvlJ 

Chathaip .••• 
Chippewa . • • 
Cobottff . ... 
Colborne ..,• 

Orodit 

Dathonwe • . . 
Dftrlingtoo . • 



Duoovilla 

fort Erie 

Godench ..•••• . 

Ofmfton 

HamtlUMi 

H«po 

KiBf rtoo *•••••• 

HMfarm 

OUviHa 

Ov«ii^ Soaad.. 
I^ift a nyuiahena 



• ••••• 



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SMdwidi 



Sfw*'^ ..-. 

Toronto 

Woliinfton 

BtoekTillo 

iUitluid 

Bjtown M 

Cbrawoll 



Gotooo 4u Lac. 
Dick 



Monotown ■••••••••••• 

ProoeoCt 

Rivifero Aiu lUiatiw 



w ivivmoQiif 

Honfofv • • • « 



HoMonlnMofd 
HoatJofaoo . . 

LmoIIo 

Mootjool 

PhUipiterf .. • 
PoUon , 



TotolTEloo. 



#79 

31 

147 

133 

31 

7 

71 

30] 

356 

39 

151 

85 

31 

3 

3 

365 

100 

431 

3 

133 

3 

17 

38 

31 

53 

39 

45 

371 

337 

83 

301 

70 

3 



10 
8 
4 

13 
6 

34 

33 



6 

16 

15 

11 

4 

37 
3,503 



408 
438 
368 
360 
196 
538 
613 
944 
853 
073 
960 
404 
164 
376 
264 
993 
352 
408 
016 
(»88 
HHO 
776 
736 
808 
444 
368 
480 
836 
844 
116 
368 
884 
164 
648 
593 



336 
824 
133 
944 
330 
008 
960 



393 

488 



453 
180 
308 
500 

916 



Cftlt«r60 



BZPOKTSO n 



Gt. Britain. 



130,584 



1,470,773 



B. N. Ameri- 
can coloniM 



#11,160 



13,004 



185,408 



480,728 



U. SUtoo. 



#79,480 

31,428 

147,368 

133,360 

31,196 

7,538 

71,613 

944 

181,368 

317,396 

39,960 

151,404 

76,416 

31,376 

3,364 

3,993 

353,248 

100,408 

421,016 

3,088 

133,8H0 

776 

3,736 

17,808 

38,444 

31,368 

53,480 

39,836 

45,844 L 

85,304 

337,368 

32,884 

301 , 164 

70,648 

3,593 



10,336 

8,824 

4,133 

13,944 

6,330 

34,008 
33,960 



6,393 

48H 

16,896 

15,453 

11,180 

4,308 

87,500 

873,416 

tM Qtiti 
00,9vO 



Other 
oountriet. 



#37,616 

"8*, 748 



404 



380,000 



8t. John. 
Botioo.. 



40,139 
905,376 ; 



40,128 
905,376 



t 



5,633,NHM I 4,8H8,084 



43,196 



353,056 



19,453 I 363,396 
43,196 



• ••••• 



• •« 



a94 



ANDREWS* REPORT ON 



STATEMENT— Continued. 





Total Taltte. 


BZrORTBO TO — 


Porti. 

/ 


6t. Britain. 


B. N. Ameri- 
can coloniet. 


U. SUtes. 


Other 
countriei. 


Be&Qcss ...>■••■.••• 


•6,416 
4,784 
61,564 
67,644 
141,740 
80,100 
10,220 
12^516 






t6,4l6 

4,784 

61,564 

67,644 

724 

10,230 
12,516 




Elirin ....• .•••• 








\vaUicebiirir. .• ••••■.•.. 








Bnic4 Mines. ..•■•..•■•■ 








Ga«D€ - 


128,436 
27,968 


il0,596 
7,592 


1101,964 
44.540 


^"■"r* • •••••••••••••••• 

New Curlisle ••••••■ 


Sault ate. Marie 




New Castle 








Stamford ...■>••... 








Milford 


10,480 






10,480 




Bond Head 








KtlflMllllAWII ■•■■•■•■■■«• 


5,992 






5,992 














13,262,376 


6,435,844 


1,060,544 


9,039,300 


826,688 





The retumt of exporta fVom inlandporta to other countriea than the United Statei are Terj 
doubtful. None are reported from Toronto, the largest inland port. With respect to tha 
route of such exports, it is presumed they were made via the St. Lawrence ; in which case 
they should be included in those of Montreal or Quebec. But as these exports were obtained 
from the head office, it is to be inferred that they are direct exports from inland ports not 
Included elsewhere. It is possible a portion of them may haye been exported inland, in 
bond, through the United States, although all such exports are said to be reported as '* to 
the United States." 

THOS. C. KEEFER. 

MoMTREia, .tf«y 1, 1858. 



OOUNTIAXi MXD hAMM VBADB* 



aM 



No. 5l— -Cmpomliw ttaUwtaU of imporU inland^ nia United Staies^ with 
importi In/ $ea^ ma St. Lawrence^ 1851, dUtinguithing the principal 
articUe. 



GoCton nasu&ctimt... 

^VOMMI* • • .do. ••••••• 

IwMVBJS • •do* ••••••• 



HicliyMfT 



HklM.. 

Oib, aot pda 




••••••••••••• 



8dt. 
Ohm 

^xfti •••••••«•••••••■ • 

Fon 

fiilk BttaoAetttrw 
ladift rabb«r do . . 
D}r«rtttA 



Pniit 
ridi 



Ooodi in trmiMil for the 
UwledSUtM 



NomlnAl 
ftndQiMlwc. 



1159,556 

18,934 

3,318,364 

1,719,879 

1,837,340 

11,619 

6,764 

6,519 

96,196 

1,164 

46,319 

135,440 

53,180 

19,396 

586,604 

60,968 

93,799 

77,194 

101,176 

89,116 

401,904 

156 

38,916 

13,639 

53,559 

71,960 

4,159,580 



11,317,419 

755,588 



19,073,000 



Direct at in- 
Und port* 
iW»maea. 



115,598 



799,968 
581,944 
389,868 



• ••••••••••a 



88 
356 



• •••••••••a 

198 

968 

19,048 



195,804 



9,188 
1,136 



7,916 

5,5H8 

933,168 



• ••••••••••• 



759 
940,608 



• •••••••••• 



3,144,316 



3,144,316 



ToUl mm. 
imports. 



#168,084 

18,994 

3,018,339 

9,301,816 

1,697,906 

11,619 

6,859 

6,868 

53,156 

1,164 

46,440 

135,708 

65,998 

19,396 

719,408 

60,968 

95,980 

78,960 

101,176 

90,039 

407,499 

933,394 

38,916 

13,639 

54,304 

71,960 

5,100,188 



14,461,798 

755,588 



15,917,316 



Inlaad im- 
ports Tia 
U. SUtas 



1893,916 

403,860 

565,194 

439,960 

318,844 

53,794 

85,768 

49,599 

47,388 

89,904 

196,939 

47,804 

39,996 

19,600 

978,468 

19,996 

79,H16 

18,8-28 

38,659 

44.964 

80,768 

53,960 

19,6H0 

]16,9t<8 

81,144 

17,544 

4,780,379 



8,788,719 



Total imports 
by sea and 

inland. 



8,788,719 



11,061,: 

499,784 
3,583,456 
9,741,076 
1,946,059 

65,336 

99,690 

49,466 
100,544 

90,368 
172,679 
183,519 

98,994 

39,316 
990,876 

80,964 
105,796 

97,068 
139,828 
134,996 
488,260 
9»7,984 

51,596 
130,690 
135,448 

88,804 
9,880,560 



93,250,440 
755,588 



94,006,098 



Tbe kff* amount of '* onenamerated** Talaes rendert this statement but approximate, be- 
the eoumeration of sea imports is much fuller than those inland, where, at some ports, 
e SBomeratioB of articles is made. 

THOMAS C. KEEPER. 
Jf ovTAXAL, JITsy 1, 1859. 




396 



ANDREWS' REPORT ON 



No. 6. — Value of direct imp&rts from sea ai 



Arttd«a. 


1 


• 


1 


^_ 


i 


! 


1 


1 


1 


S 


i 


1 


Tfea. 














$7^ 










Tobacfio J . . . t 4 * . . 






























4,804 
1,172 








$804 


888,960 
869 J88 
177,866 






$768 

8,716 

44 




Woollen RuuiiifactDre.. 




$880 








$9,068 
6,600 




Hartlirare 




$io,fie6 








Wooden ware 












Machinery 


























Boots and ahoet 










































18,960 










Hides 
























Leather, tanned 


























Olla. not nalm 


























Paner 
















6,680 


488 








Rice 






















gagar 


$640 




800 


1,660 








68,076 


' 8,888 iib.rifi 


608 




Mf^aiiiM 












fUR. 
















680 
686 










^BM 
























Ooal. ../ 
























^llfS , , 
















8,866 










8ilk manufketnre 






1,406 








18 






1,164 




Ind'a rubber do . . . . 












118,168 






DTeatufb 
























Ooffee , .... 


























■rait 




















468 






























Dncnumerated ........ 


1S8 




6,618 


4,n8 


•88,784 


$860 


118 


160,464 


1,880 


96,404 


8,6M$i7b>M| 


Total TaliMhrM*... 


T«8 


880 


14,016 


16,918 


88,784 


880 


088 


1,178^ 


18,604 


106/M8 


8^88 


170,$64J 



Th« alboTe itaiement It 4eglgBad to ibow ttie prfndpal artldM whlflh an Inporttd direot from Ma, at inland 
MOVTBBALf JVflf 1, 1853. 



OOUMIXAL AND LAMM TRAim* 



397 



mjand porU^ via the Si. Lawrence^ in 1851^ 



I 



I 






18,000 



9 

I 



'I 



I 



i 
I 

i 



I 



I 



fl». 



40a.000 |M0 
S»A10| 188 
188.000 



•^8T8 
1,0M 
6,710 






14,000 



in 



IM 

M8 
»,0I8 



08.000, 



180, 808 



800: 



8TU8 



•,18S 
1. 



l,1frl 






8,104 



7,818 
0,n8 

8as,i88 



U80 Mt^8f $7,784 808,048. 



I 



4,904 811,108814,068 



•jU tljM 7,781 



1^ 



H 



1,848 



-J-d 

19JM 11,10d 



r_. 

14,886 l/m 



6«86 $01 ,47a 808,880 



$183.«* 



6MTH 88M 



io,8n 



ho^ioB 



8,144,n8 



•lapwtti Tla BadMo*» 






lalkto 



P^i^n^rp'i!f«'l 



J u_j 



i i 1 ; i : 



Esr-^ 



« 



ilil. 

I 

ii 




I 

I 
i 



OOLONIAI. AKS LAKB TRJU>B. 



399 



No* S.'^Comparatitx Hatement showing the total value of imports and exports f 
at each portf in Canada^ in the years 1850 and 185J. 




IT.tOi) 
95, MO 
19,f04 

1M,9(IU 

87, tU 

4. 944 

ftT,ftW 
16,«VI 
M.»4« 

M.t7« 

T.Krt 

5,164 

1,589. IftS 

5H,!tM 

4W,M4 

W, Wv 

41. M4 

1,119 

am 

81, Mo 

88,9i»4 

8,4hS 

18,»<Vi 

65,734; 

fil.»N) 

im.4M 

S,5«(?).i^ 

5,4.VJ 

«8,9H4 

«1,M0 

S,tf*8 

5,488 

18,t78 

89» 

11,4«'« 

«»,8A< 

s7,8ao 

]S,64>4 

57, IM 

7H4 

1S,5M 

6.07i 

18,152 

70U 

lO.OiS 

7,W6 

IH.ftW) 

8,8<iA.4<in 

88,8HO 

15,644 

57,544 

1.4n,7H4 

8,»4il 

1,878.668 



Total Tfthie 

of oxporto 

and ImporU. 

851. »M) 

5»,87i 

887. 5HU 

111,790 

78.144 

180, «58 

141,828 

8,2M 

940,700 

875.889 

fi9,814 

170, (>>^ 

74,6»<f 

89, MS 

90.9M* 

8,888 

l,888,(r94 

IS7,8X4 

649,299 

74,194 

990,184 

8,876 

618 

85,880 

88.8H8 

8,h98 

54,994 

91,879 

99,188 

848, h69 

tftmd.lM 

58, His 

186.596 

804,886 

8,579 

5,466 

90,549 

19,689 

15,998 

85.176 

19,999 

99,259 

81.i>96 

764 

17, H^^ 

11, t^ 

81. 64^ 

44,978 

99.199 

n,H44 

18, 5«) 

8,6!VMT9 

814.878 

15.644 

lm.1l6 

9,889i.A30 

8, 941 

T, 186, 6 9 



1S51. 



4,189 

6UH 

18,*<I9 

7.0H4 

48,919 



9H.8m 
8.040 



ll.«*i'«i 
9.74M 
8.Hli 

4m,8>m) 
186,740 



88,4«J 
46,444 



9sS 
9,479 > 



5.416 

48,9:« 
9,479 I 



879, 4S0 

91,49*4 

147,866 

189,860 

ai,196 

7,596 

71,619 

944 

981,659 

856,ti79 

98,880 

151,404 

65,164 

81,976 

8,964 

8,999 

885,959 

ltiu,4t8 

491,016 

9,0W* 

199, 6n0 

776 

8,786 

17,»i»8 

98,444 

91,966 

5JJ.4SI) 

89, ^'A 

45.H44 

971,116 

897,866 

99,664 

901,164 

7i«,646 

8,689 



Imports. 

815,884 

9,864 

•8,594 

65,716 

51,886 

816, 159 

149,876 

7,516 

6,556 

88,100 

15,856 

81,760 

llo,H40 
86,589 
10,560 



10,986 
6,H94 
4,189 

19,944 
6,690 

94,«ia6 

89,980 



6,999 

466 

16.906 

15,459 

II.IHO 

4,*H 

97. NW 

9,5*8,916 

86,966 



40, !••* 
•05,976 

4.1, 196 

8,418 

4,764 

81.564 

87,644 

141.740 

8iM o 

1«».«» 

19. M« 



9,I86,8itO 

79.(116 

1,096,999 

88,160 

919,640 

840 

959 

44,9S6 

Tu,176 

19,986 

»*.996 

176.79a 

19.666 

999.686 

l,8vl,9»i 

9,69S 

81,586 

938,719 

1,100 



10.4140 



98,194 
9,564 
•,740 

15,m>4 

6,444 

15, 9M 
199,446 

9VJ 

17,946 

7,(MH 

95.>«») 

8..VW 
18,6rM 

7,664 
17,9M 
9,177.164 
46,4(18 
11.<U6 
•7,.i9'i 
l,»4H,'l*'» 

4,676 

8,865.616 

89,130 

5,9r>6 

1.919 
18.919 

56, .iM 

19. U4 

7.T44 
1,676 



5.9t9 



Total ▼atof 

of exports. 

aad imports* 

894,864 

80,619 

945,899 

1M,076 

69,69l 

ri5,880 

918, 98B 

6,488 

910,406 

454, 17« 

45, Via 

988, lai 

196,006 

67,668 

18,846 

8, 998 

•,668. AW 

179, 496 

1,447,806 

41,988 

885, T88 

1,618 

8,968 

89, («6 

•6, 880 

88,606 

h4,4T8 

918,566 

65,519 

566, 751 

•,•99.888 

95, 519 

969,788 

810, r 
4,' 



88,888 
11.886 
18,67V 
96,746 
19,676 



165,466 



•8,540 
7.499 

49.116 
16.966 

94,666 

ll,67t 

45,494 

11,861,088 

165,878 

11,686 

1.17.590 

•,<»a.788 

4.676 

8, •TV. 606 

65,616 

19..<7« 

5.986 

74,776 

74.006 

1W.«8^ 

1.M.76Q 

9i.644 

16.446 

97.746 

919,886 



5. 



16,9*19,061 94,948.779 , 18,669,676 Jl.9.'ii.440 ■ M.»11,H|6 



I' i t ri)«jiUil, c&c«.p4 



I 

•■p r«i •! .i»U»4 port* erimprl** only th» thIh*" rfp«yrt«tl I'lUnrf to the I' 

p«Wt«<)<-r. i. hi Lriw.vtirr. whttlur to Mtintrr aJ aii'l Qu()>v4-. ur lo •« • Ji 

• tW M.«po • «. M . .:•!■ >l aii.l <4 » »► <■ 1 .n ri i»\* !■»'. I v, i:i • '. • s'».f m . • I 

latiM-*>>> "'I »'. t»i4-.» « •»!• Import. I in u»'i.u '*'r !».<• I' I >;..♦» . -i l.iwrrnre (r.\lu<<1 M 
ITS4/a*' to • .« r l.(. J 1, ri • I r l.ir r^l'i. of •' t» > I'l UQ> •» •• '».i ► .' -i » - .i .1. » .'u • .i ,»h»o4 
^>>1, "111 i..j. ••i.rK it. ..« « il g.v an .^iM M.in to till tr^U* uf Uji.o<.c «r 8^,iA.J^^ f r lv*l, auJ of coorts 
ada.>..oti lu Mm v..vU li*M %tt C^aaOa to/ tl:ai /oat. 

Mug 1, UU. TU06l C. 



400 



ANBRBWS* RBPORT OS 



No. 9. — Comparatioe statement of exports inland and by sea from Canada 

in 1851, showing (he principal articles. 



Articlw. 



Aflhefl, pot and pearl. . • 

Ash timber 

Birch 

Deal ends 

Elm 

Oak 

Pine, white. • 

Pine, red • • . 

Staves, standard 

Staves, other • . • < 

Plank and boards 

Span, masts, and handspiken. 

Lath and firewood 

Shingles 

Cows and other cattle ....... 

Horses 

Wheat 

Flour 

Indian com 

Barley and rye 

Beans and peas 

OaU 

Butter 

EfiTffs 

Wool 

Copper, fine and pig 

Copper ore • «, 

Unenumer&ted 



From inland ports direct 

From 6asp€ and New Carlisle . 



By sea firom 
Montreal and 
Quebec. 



1765,934 

14,896 

18,464 

18,684 

196,420 

189,876 

1,518,528 

416,232 

64,488 

358,844 

937,480 

50,216 

32,076 

260 

40 

200 

144,184 

1,450,148 

26,056 

440 

40,208 

2,272 

195,728 



35,000 
1,359,372 



From inland 
ports. 



! 



165,992 



14,620 

160,884 

16,524 

1,372 

774,116 

6,116 

39,800 

20,732 

140,176 

185,848 

491,760 

1,181,484 



75,596 
41,588 
135,708 
38,004 
38,008 
41,896 
42,752 
17,620 
1,806,704 



Total. 



7,836,036 
265,924 
221,116 



8,323,076 



5,339,300 



5,339,300 



1831,916 

14,896 

18,464 

18,684 

196,420 

204,496 

2,095,644 

81,012 

360,216 

1,711,596 

56,932 

71,876 

20,992 

140,216 

186,048 

635,944 

2,631,632 

26,056 

76,036 

81,796 

137,980 

233,732 

38,008 

41,896 

42,752 

52,620 

3,168,076 



13,175,336 
265,924 
221,116 



13,262,376 



The returns of exports inland are very imperfect, and will not correspond with the United 
States imports from Canada. 

It will be seen at the bottom that there is a " direct export" from inland ports, which wag 
neither to the United States nor from Montreal and Quebec. It is to bo presumed that this 
was a cargo sent to sea from inland ports and not reported at Montreal or Quebec, although 
•ach report is compulsory on all inland craft proceeding to sea. 

THOS. C. KEEFER. 

MoNTRBAL, Jtfoy 1, 1852. 



OOIiOinAL AND IJUUt TRAOB. 



40i 



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407 



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412 



ANDREWS REPORT ON 



No. 12. — Statement showing the value of the leading dutiable arHcUs 



Porta. 


• 

8 


• 

J 


• 

a 

a 


Woollen inanufae- 
tares. 


* 

S 


1 

a 
» 

1 


• 

a 
1 


1 
1 

1 


• 

1 


■ 

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$2,286 
182 
148 
264 


i 

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■to 

5 


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B 


n 

s 


• 


Amherstbniv 

Bath 


♦1,412 
1,640 
5,74 J 

17^20 


$260 

648 

1,844 

7,888 


$92 

1,216 
4,560 

8,908 


$460 

1,572 

1,982 

10,182 


•2,068 


*714 




462 

6. 86 1,060 
8,484 744 


4,472 


1140 


ftiio 






$11« 

72 


Burwell 


2,664' '8<>4 
2,928! 140 


$186 
1352 


$94H 


Belleyllle 


Bondhead 








. . 


Obatham 




■ 






















Chippewa 




I 




. .. 
















Cobourg 


12,828 

2,i)20 

8,860 
2,0H0 


4,148 
140 
720 
8482 
1,140 
8,472 


6.584 

1,116 

• 840 

15,528 

840 

8,864 


12,976 

856 

4 

4,012 

41 

6,608 


7,596 1,712 
1,144 448 

288 

9,486 

8,6U8 88 
6316 1,452 


6,872 

■"86 
1388 


1,724 
988 
646 

2,496 
412 


868 

"68 
168 

• ■ • • • 

8,976 


1,820 


1,769 
164 


' m 

124 

1,443 

* • • • 4 

600 


1,000 
24 

"m 

180 
232 


OoltK*urne 


Credir 


Dalhousie 


156 
2318 


'"768 
686 


Darlington 


Dover 


Durnville 


Fort Erie 


1,096 
1,410 


70 1 
524 


2,860 
1,404 


2,892 
86 


4369 1,6S0 
464 872 


816 


576 
844 


188 

• « « • • 


80 
124 


2394 
84t8 


134j 168 

112; 52 

1 


Qoderich 


Oraflon 


Hainilton 


154,612 
14,164 


71,288 

5.612 

2,172 

828 

1,984 

4 


1*71,428 


112,792 
8,728 


118,120 
9,482 


■ " • ■ " 




» 




10,806 


27,440 
8,9% 


6,676 

624 864 


Hope 


1.244 




1388 


164 


Kingston 









Niagara 


8,<*68 

6,0hO 

16 


2,260 
8,428 

4 


4,0R8 

b76 

12 


2,468 
1,:J20 


















Oalcville 


"88 




1,416 
4 




14,044 




1521 28$ 
4 


Owen's Bound 






PenetanKuiflhene. . . 














Pictou 

Queenston 

Ronleau 

Itowan 


1,982 
1,860 
2,1U0 


7.'6 

500 

444 




6,828 

4,086 

572 


■ 4,932 
4,096 
1,6^2 


1.828 

2 7(18 980 
1,672 


• • ■ • • 

1,296 


456 

• • • • • 

628 


4,886 

80 


8,872 
904 


616 
"'640 


i04 
256 


54S 

472 

26 


Sandwich 


8,156 

2,128 

55,296 

152,820 

172 

4,056 

81,568 

20 

1,180 

882 

488 

782 

796 

1,820 


1,472 

996 

22352 

56,472 

' 2,608 
9,752 

'"824 

40 

844 

212 

888 
772 


' 2,876 
15,280 


740 

686 

18,980 


6,820 8,824 
1.4418 864 

29,004 . ... 

1 


4,692 1,6.0 

• ■•••1 ••••• 

1239212,876 


72 
1,1 84» 


96 


1,8U 

482 

4,120 


2Ji4 
110 


712 
68 


flarnla 


Stanley 


2,586 6.960 


Toronto 




24,676 

144 

4.612 


Wellington 

Whitby 


164 

892 

17,600 

48 

412 

500 


260 

968 
15,S8S 


82: 56 
1,636 82) 
8,512 8.752 


"244 ' 96 

1300 

4368 8,786 

1 8 

256 


• • • • » 

976 


""26 
8,096 


"60 


26 
760 


Brockville 


2.868 4.852 


948 2,980 


MaiUand 




12 
660 






Cornwall 


1,528 
424 


652 


840 




64 
882 


92 


Coteau da Lac 








68 


Dickenson's Land'g. 
Dundee 












1,016 
882 


6,168 
2.:4 


624 
76 


1,248 
708 


!!'".*! 
"448 "864 
1 


528 
84 


• * ■ « ■ 

868 


820 

6 




46 

4 


Gananoqne 

Mariatown 


Prescoti 










1 












Riviere anx Raisins. 














1 . ... 












St Regis 


20 
886 


82 
60 


24 
124 




8,448 
444 


686 
872 


"884 "482 


T2 
86 


• • ■ • 


"68 

408 




"26 


Clarenceville 

Preliffhsburff 


Hereford 


186 

2,820 

840 


84 
812 
140 


1S4 




1,464 




152 612 
1 


• • • • 




84> 




Hemmingford 


Huntingdon 

LwcoUe 


548 


164 


880 


840 


112 


180 


1.960 


"44 


64 

1 


8 


Montreal 


l'l'4,i68 

1,500 

1,464 

10,480 

286,588 

440 

18,852 

2^H 

8 

84 
1,584 


100,182 

964 

620 

5,880 

62,788 

816 

26,784 

816 

8 

28 

628 


58,880 


22,704 


51,644 


7368 

• 


85,480 


684 


4,892 


568 
9364. 

"680 

« • • • • 

460 


12,292 


28348 


696 


Phllipsburg 

Potton 


608 

18,108 

205,184 

472 

1,988 

8>92 

56 

52 

2,060 

100 


72 

4.896 

194,986 

60 
l,8d2 
2,244 

" "66 
T76 


l,fi72 
9,292 

"884 

4,876 

1,192 

24 


144 
948 

15,908 
8 

4,964 
696 


"566 




276 

646 

16,208 

48 

148 

1,264 

88 

88 


4396 

67,572 

60 

1,416 

604 


16 
604 


« « • • • 

438 


S'anstead 


1382 6,260 

1 

856 2« 

82 

382 

86 


St. John 


1331911.1681 


Sutton 


« • « • « 

1,8 4 
576 


1.060 


Quebec 


Napanee 


La Beauce 


Bgln 














WsUaceburg 

Bruce Mines 


1,644 
648 


116 


• • • • • 

1,676 


780